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t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, PH.D.. LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST. L^.D, E. H. WARillNGTON, m.a., f^.hist.soc. 
















FirHprinted 3924 
Jteprinied 1955, 1961 

Printed in Oreat Britain 





Introduction viii 

The Text xviii 

Bibliography xx 

Sigla 1 

Text 2 


Introduction ' . . 332 

The Text 338 

The Historical Notes 340 

Bibhography 341 

Text 344 

Inoex 406 



*♦ Dicere enim solebat nullum esse librum tam raalum ut 
non aliqua parte prodesset." — Pliny, Ep. iii. 5. 10, quoting a 
saying of his uncle. 

Velleius Paterculus does not rank among the great 
Olympians of classical literature either as styUst or 
as historian. But, as Phny the elder says, no book 
is so poor that one cannot get some good out of it, 
and there is much in this comparatively neglected 
author that is worth reading once, at least in transla- 
tion. In its aim to include all that is of value and 
interest in Greek and Latin Uterature from the days 
of Homer to the Fall of Constantinople the Loeb 
Library is performing what is perhaps its most 
valuable service in making more generally available 
the content of those comparatively unknown authors 
who, for styhstic or other reasons, are not to be 
reckoned among the great classics or do not deserve 
a careful study in the original. 

A compendium of Roman history, hastily compiled 
by an army officer as a memorial volume to com- 
memorate the elevation to the consulship for the year 
A.D. 30 of his friend and fellow-Campanian, Marcus 
Vinicius, could hardly be expected to rise to the level 
either of great history or great hterature. And yet, 
taken for what it is, a rapid sketch of some ten 


centuries of history, it is, in spite of its many defects, 
which Avill duly be pointed out, the most successful 
and most readable of all the abridgements of Roman 
history which have come down to us. Abridgements 
are usually Uttle more than skeletons ; but Velleius has 
succeeded, in spite of the brief compass of his work, 
in clothing the bones ^^ith real flesh, and in endo^Wng 
his compendium A^ith more than a mere shadow of 
vitality, thanks to his own enthusiastic interest in the 
human side of the great characters of history. The 
work, after the large lacuna in the first book, covers 
uninterruptedly the period from the battle of Pydna 
to A.D. 30, a period which practically coincides with 
that covered by the final 97 books of Livy for which 
no manuscript has come dowTi to us, and one which 
is but partially treated in the extant portions of the 
works of other Roman historians of first rank. It is 
therefore valuable, if for nothing else, in that it 
furnishes us with a connected account of this period 
which is at any rate much more readable than the 
bare epitomes of Li^^y. Besides, it has certain 
excellences of its own in the treatment of special 
subjects, especially the chapters on hterar)'^ history, 
in which the author has a genuine if not very critical 
interest, the chapters on the Roman colonies, and 
those on the liistory of the organization of the 
Roman provinces, and in some of the character 
portraits of the great figures of Roman history . Even 
in the treatment of Tiberius, in spite of its tone of 
adulation which historians have so generally con- 
demned, we have a document which must be con- 
sidered along A\-ith the famous dehneation by Tacitus, 
as representing the psychological attitude toward 
the new empire of the group of administrative officers 


of the equestrian order who ardently supported it 
without any of the yearnings felt by the senatorial 
class for the old regime as it existed in the days 
before the empire had shorn them of their former 
governmental powers. 

As has already been said, the work is a com- 
memorative volume as well as an historical abridge- 
ment, and under this pardonable pretext the author 
feels free to depart from historical objectivity and 
give his work a personal note. Thus he honours 
Vinicius not merely by the dedication, but by 
addressing him frequently in the vocative case, by 
bringing the more important dates into chronological 
relation with his consulship, and by bringing into 
prominence the ancestors of Vinicius who had played 
any historical role worthy of consideration. Vinicius, 
who hke the author himself was an official of the 
administration, would also lend sympathetic ears to 
his rhapsodic eulogy of his old commander, now the 
emperor Tiberius, and of his prime minister Sejanus, 
then in the heyday of his power and the virtual 
head of the government. In doing the honours, in 
this commemorative volume, he also takes occasion 
to mention, as something in which his friend would 
be interested, the participation of the author's own 
ancestors in the events which he is narrating, and, 
when he reaches his own times, hke the painters of 
the Renaissance he sees no harm in introducing him- 
self into the canvas as one of the minor participants 
in the historical pageant. 

To this naive and innocent egotism we owe all our 
information in regard to the author and his family, 
since the sparse references in later Uterature con- 
tribute nothing to our knowledge of eithcr. We 


thiis leam that he reckoned among his ancestors on 
his mother's side Decius Magius, a distinguished 
citizen of Capua who remained loyal to the Romans 
when Capua went over to Hannibal, and Minatius 
Magius, who raised a legion and fought on the 
Roman side in the Social War, for which service he 
received Roman citizenship ; that his father served 
in Germany as prefect of horse ; that his father's 
brother Capito supported Agrippa in his indictmentv^ 
of Cassius for the murder of Caesar ; that his patemal 
grandfather C. Velleius Paterculus served as praefectus 
fahrum under Pompey, Marcus Brutus, and Tiberius 
Nero, the father of the emperor ; that he was chosen 
as one of the judges by Pompey in 55 b.c, and that 
in 41 B.c. he Idlled himself because he was physically 
unable to follow Nero in his flight from Naples. The 
historian himself, C^ \'elleius Paterculus, also played 
the role of loyal officer, seeing service as military 
tribune in Thrace and Macedonia, and accompanying i/ 
Caius Caesar in a.d. 1 on his \\s\t to the eastem 
pro\"inces. While there he was an eye^vitness of the 
conference between Caius and the son of the Parthian 
king on an island in the Euphrates. Later he served 
under Tiberius for eight consecutive years, first as 
prefect of horse and then as legatus, participating in 
his German and Pannonian campaigns. In a.d. 6 
he was elected quaestor, and while still quaestor 
designate he led a body of troops to reinforce 
Tiberius in Pannonia on the occasion of the great 

^ His praenomen is uncertain. Priscian calls him Marcus. 
Publius is the praenamen on the title-page of the ed. princeps, 
probably through an error ' of Rhenanus in identifying him 
with P. Velleius of Tac. Ann. iii. 39. At the beginning and 
end of Book I. his praenomen is given as C. 


mutiny. As quaestor, in a.d. 7, he gave up the 
privilege of a provincial appointment to become a 
legatus under Tiberius in Pannonia. In the wnter 
of A.D. 7-8 he was one of the legati in charge 
of winter quarters. His brother, Magius Celer 
Velleianus, was also a legatus of Tiberius and dis- 
tinguished himself in the Dalmatian campaign. 
Both were decorated with miUtary honours at the 
triumph of Tiberius in a.d. 13. Both were praetors 
for the year a.d. 15 and were proud of the distinction 
of having been the last to be nominated to the 
praetorship by Augustus and the first to be named 
by Tiberius. Here the chapter of his miUtary career 
apparently closes. He does not seem to have risen 
higher than the praetorship in the fifteen years 
which intervened between the holding of that office 
and the consulship of Vinicius, though he may have 
held provincial appointments. He must have 
enjoyed some leisure in these years, since he hints 
at having in preparation a more comprehensive 
historical work, and his genuine enthusiasm for 
Uterature, and his famiUarity with the rhetorical 
studies then so much in vogue, must postulate 
some time for their development, even though his 
literary work still shows many marks of the 

His compendium ^ is divided into two chrono- 
logicaUy unequal parts. The first book, preserved 

^ The title of his work as it appears in the heading of 
Book I. in the ed. princeps is : C. Vellei Paterculi historiae 
Romanae ad M. Vi^iinurn Cos. priiis volumen mutilum. But, 
as the first part of this book was missing from the Murbach 
5JS., this title may simply be the work of a scribe. Most 
modern editors have adopted the title .: Vellei Paterculi ad 
M. Vinicium liWi duo. 



in a fragmentary condition/ began with the times 
immediately preceding the fall of Troy, dealt rapidly 
with the early history of Greece in the first seven 
chapters, reached the founding of Rome in chapter 
viii., and ended ^\ith the fall of Carthage in 146 b.c. 
The second book covers the period from the time of 
the Gracchi to the consulship of Mnicius in a.d. 30, 
and is on a much fuller and more comprehensive 
scale, especially from the consulship of Caesar to the 
end. This greater fulness as he approaches his csra 
times is to be explained partly as a traditional 
proceeding, and partly because, as he himself says, 
he had in preparation a more comprehensive work 
covering the period from the beginning of the Civil 
War between Caesar and Pompey down to his own 
day, and in consequence he had a larger amount of 
material to assimilate. Here and there he checks 
the rapidity of his narrative to dwell at greater 
length upon topics in which he has a personal interest, 
as for example the references to Uterary history, the 
two digressions upon the colonies and provinces of 
Rome, the participation of members of his family in 
historical events, and his oato share in tlie events of 
the last fifteen years of the reign of Augustus. 

Both the virtues and defects of ^elleius as an 
historical writer can be best explained on the 
supposition that until the year a.d. 15, when he was 
about thirty-five years of age, all his time had been 
absorbed in his mihtary duties, and that it was only 
in the period of comparative leisure which foUowed 

^ The beginning, containing the title, the dedication to 
Vinicius, and a page or two of text, is missing. There is 
also a large lacuna extending from the reign of Romuius to 
the battle of Pydna. 


that he discovered a new hobby in Uterary and 
biographical studies. These he approached with all 
the fresh interest and naive enthusiasm of the 
amateur. His outlook is still the uncritical attitude 
of the dilettante. Nil admirari had not become his 
motto. He is still, at the time of writing what is 
apparently his maiden book, in the stage of apprecia- 
tion and admiration, and, while his critical faculties 
are still untrained he has at any rate not become 
cynical or blase. He can still flnd romance in the 
phenomena of history about which more mature 
writers had ceased to wonder. In the new rhetorical 
tendencies of Silver Latin he found a medium well 
adapted to give expression to his enthusiasm and 
admiration. As an historian he has not learned to 
weigh evidence ; he has made no close study of the 
sources ; ^ in giving his chronological references he 
unwittingly mixes up the dates of the Catonian and 
the Varronian eras ; - in his haste he overlooks events 
and is obUged to insert them out of their proper 
order. In fact his attitude is rather that of the 

^ Apart frora Cato and Hortensius Velleius does not 
specifically mention any of his sources. The others are 
purely a matter of conjecture. For his purpose he needed 
a chronological table and a collection of biographies. It is 
likely that he raade use of the abridgement of Atticus and 
the chronological data of Cornelius Nepos. For the Civil 
Wars he may have used tlie work of Messala Corvinus. For 
the reign of Augustus he probably used the autobiography 
of that emperor. For the reign of Tiberius he of course 
drew largely on liis own experience. If he used Livy, he at 
any rate frequently disagrees with him. 

* The dates, however, in so far as they are given in 
Roraan numerals are often hopelessly corrupt. Consequently 
the dates which I have given in the notes are those 
established by students of chronology. 


journalist than of the historian. There is little 
evidence, however, of dehberate falsification, Even 
his extravagant eulogy of Tiberius for which he has 
been so severely censured may be explained at least 
in part as an example of the soldier's uncritical, but 
loyal and enthusiastic devotion to his old commander, 
which reflects the attitude toward the emperor of 
the mihtary and official, as opposed to that of the 
senatorial class and of the sympathisers with the old 
repubHc. At the worst it is an interesting example 
of court history. His interest in history is biographical 
rather than strictly historical. He is particularly 
fond of making portraits of the personages of history, 
which he does with a considerable degree of success. 
The second book, in particular, is one long gallery 
of such portraits which are brought into relation to 
each other by a slender band of historical data. In 
fact the book is a sort of illustrated Who's Wko of 
Roman history. Nor does he confine himself to the 
great figures such as the Gracchi, Marius, SuUa, 
Cicero, Pompey, and Caesar ; he is equally fond of 
portraying the characters of deuteragonists like 
Clodius, Curio, Lepidus, and Plancus. Some of 
these portraits are among his best. While these 
characterizations tend to destroy historical pro- 
portion they add greatly to the human interest. 

We have said that Velleius gives the impression of 
having been an amateur who took to historical 
writing as a new hobby somewhat late in life. Signs 
of this are not wanting in his style. It has all the 
pretentiousness of the novice. He desires to soar 
before he has completely leamed to fly. Writing 
in an age when rhetoric was the vogue, and con- 
taminated poetical as well as prose writing, he cannot 


refrain from bringing in all the rhetorical figures 
and produeing all the rhetorical efFects. All the 
colours of the poet and the rhetorician are applied 
with lavish hand where he aspires to fine writing : 
rhetorical questions, exclamations, and even 
apostrophe ; rhetorical rhythm, laboured antitheses, 
gUttering epigrams, sometimes far-fetched, and 
excessive hyperbole. For this reason his use of 
superlatives in his praise of Tiberius has perhaps 
been taken too seriously. The superlative is used 
with almost as much frequency in eulogizing other 
historical personages including Pompey, in spite of 
the author's ardent imperialism. In fact the superla- 
tive had already suffered so much rhetorical abuse ^ 
that it had come to have Uttle more value than a 
positive. Furthermore his style is lacking in the 
clarity, the ease, and the poise of the experienced 
writer. This is especially the case in the interminable 
periods which crowd his work. Some of them are 
veritable labyrinths. The periods' of Cicero, no 
matter what their length, are architectural units ; 
in Velleius the nucleus of the period is often so 
overloaded with phrases, clauses, and incidental 
parentheses that the period bears much more 
resemblance to a stone almost completely hidden by 
parasitic barnacles than to a structure developed on 
a logical and artistic plan. This is partly due to the 
attempt to condense into a single sentence the 
content of whole chapters which he finds in his 
sources. In consequence these periods are the 
despair of the translator, and there is frequently 

^ e.g. in Cicero's De imperio Pompei the choice between 
positive and superlative is frequently a mere matter of 
sonorousness and rhythm. 


nothing for it but to break them up into smaller 
units which can be more readily handled in an 
uninflected language. And yet, with all his stylistic 
faults, Velleius is an author whom, as Norden has 
said in his Antike Kunst-Prosa, one reads with 
interest from beginning to end ; and if readabiUty 
is the real test this quahty carries with it its own 
apology. Were it not for the difficulty of his intricate 
periods, his work, by reason of its content, its 
biographical trend, and its human interest, would 
be the ideal first reading-book for beginners of Latin. 
Macaulay, who does not admire his style and 
condemns his flattery, says : " Velleius seems to 
me a remarkably good epitomist. I hardly know of 
any work of which the scale is so small and the 
subject so extensive," ^ a historian's testimony to 
the measure of success which he has achieved in the 
task which he undertook, namely, that of writing a 
multum in parvo of historical condensation. 

' The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay, by George Otto 
Trevelyan. Longmans, Green & Co., 1913, vol. i. p. 475. 



The text of Velleius depends upon a single manuscript 
found by Beatus Rhenanus in the Benedictine monastery 
of Murbach, in Alsace, in the year 1515. This manuscript 
has long since disappeared. Rhenanus iu describing it 
testifies to the almost hopeless state of corruption of the 
text : *'so monstrously corrupt that no human ingenuity 
could restore all of it" ; "I am ready to swear that tlie 
scribe who copied it did not understand a word " ; "there 
is no portion of it that is not corrupt." Not satisfied with 
a copy hastily made by a friend, he resolved to delay 
publication until he should have a chance to consult a 
better manuscript said to have been found in Milan by 
Georgius Merula. Disappointed in this hope, he brouglit 
out the ed. princeps at Basle in 1520. The edition while 
still in proof was compared with the Murbach manuscript 
by Burer, one of the secretaries of Rhenanus, who also 
noted many of its variant readings in an appendix to the 
edition. The editio princeps, with Burers readings 
appended, was the sole source of our knowledge of the 
text until 1834 when Orelli brought tolight in the library 
of the Academy at Basle an independent copy of the 
Murbach ms. made in 151fi by Bonifacius Amberbach. 
From this copy is missing the first fragment of Bk. I. 
beginning at tempestate distractus ch. 1 and ending with 
raptus virginum Sahinarum ch. 8. The absence of this 
fragment would seem to indicate either that in 1516 it 
had not yet been found or at any rate that it had not yet 
been recognized as part of the text of Velleius. Amber- 
bach's copy is of great importance, in conjunction with 
the readings of Burer, in enabling the critic to restore 


the original readings of the Murbach ms. But while 
modern scholarship has made progress in solving its 
enigmas, the text of Velleius, unless some long-hidden 
manuscript shall unexpectedly come to light, will always 
continue to be one of the most corrupt among the surviv- 
ing texts of classical authors. 

The text of the present volume is a composite. While 
chiefly indebted to the editions of Halm and Ellis, I have 
frequently followed older editors, particularly in the 
most corrupt passages, where the interpretations of these 
scholars seem to be nearer to the tradition of the Murbach 
manuscript or to the sense demanded by the context. 
Tlie critical nomenclature given in the sigla is that of 
Ellis. I have occasionally altered the punctuation, and^ 
for the convenience of the reader^ have made more 
frequent use of the paragraph. 



Among the older editious after the ed. princeps (see chapter 
on text) the following are most frequently mentioned in 
the notes on the text : .1. N. SchegkiuSj Frankfort^ 1589 ; 
Acidalius, Padua, 1590; J. Lipsius, Leyden, 1591, 
Antwerp, 1627 ; Gruter, Frankfort, 1607 (first systematic 
division into chapters) ; Rigue/, Paris, 1675 (Delphin ed. 
with word index) ; N^. Heinsius, Amsterdam, 1678 ; P. 
Burman, Leyden, 1719 and 1744. More modern editions 
are : D. Rulinken, 2 vols., Leyden, 1779; reprinted by 
Frotscher, Leipzig, 1830-9 ; J. C. H. Krause, Leipzig, 
1800 ; N. E. Lemaire, Paris, 1822 ; J. C. Orelii, Leipzig, 
1835 ; F. Kritz, Leipzig, 1840. Text editions : Haase, 
Leipzig, 1840 ; Halm, Leipzig, 1863 and 1875 ; Ellis, 
Oxford, 1898. An annotated edition in English by Frank 
E. Rockwood, Boston, 1893, will be found useful for the 
period of Julius Caesar, Augustus, and Tiberius. lliere 
is an English translation by J. S. Watson in Bohn's 
Ciassical Library. For a complete bibliography, especially 
of monographs and periodical literature concerning the 
numerous special problems which arise in Velleius, see 
lists in Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Litteratur. 



^ = Amberbach's copy of tbe lost Codex Murlwicbensis 
completed in Au^ust 1516, uow iu the library of 
tbe Academy at Basle, A.N. ii. 8. 

P=Editio Priuceps, printed iu 1520. 

i^ = Burer's reading-s from the Murbach Codex, which 
are printed at the end of the Ed. Princeps. Halm 
indicates these readinofs bv tbe letter M. 




1 I. Epbus^ tempestate distractus a duce suo Nestore 
Metapontum condidit. Teucer, non receptus a 
patre Telamone ob segnitiam non vindicatae fratris 
iniuriae, Cyprum adpulsus cognominem patriae suae 
Salamina constituit. Pyrrhus, Achillis filius, Epirum 

2 occupavit, Phidippus Ephyram in Thesprotia. At 
rex regum Agamemnon tempestate in Cretam 
insulam reiectus tres ibi urbes statuit, duas a patriae 
nomine, unam a victoriae memoria, Mycenas, Tegeam, 

* There is an initial lacuna in the text of considerahle extent. 
Tke text, as we have it, hegins with tempestate. The name of 
Epeus was supplied hy Lipsius. 

" The subject of the sentence has been lost in the lacuna. 
He was relating the return of the heroes from Troy. From 
Justin XX. 2. 1 it is clear that he is here speaking of Epeus, 
the builder of the Trojan horse. Justin's statement is as 
follows: " Metapontini quoque in templo Minervae ferra- 






I. Epeus," separated by a storm from Nestor, his 
chief, founded Metapontum. Teucer, disowmed by 
his father Telamon because of his laxity in not 
avenging the ^\Tong done to his brother,^ was driven 
to Cyprus and founded Salamis, named after the 
place of his birth. Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, 
estabUshed himself in Epirus ; Phidippus ' in 
Eph}Ta in Thesprotia. Agamemnon, king of kings, 
cast by a tempest upon the island of Crete, founded 
there three cities, two of which, Mycenae and Tegea, 
were named after towns in his owti country, and the 
other was called Pergamum in commemoration of his 

menta, qnibus Epeus, a quo conditi sunt, equum Troianum 
fabricavit, ostendunt." 

* Ajax. 

* Phidippus was one of the minor leaders in the Trojan 
war. According to Homer. II. ii. 678, he came from the 
islands of Calydnae off the coast of Caria. 



Idem mox scelere patruelis fratris Aegisthi, here- 
ditarium exercentis in eum odium, et facinore uxoris 

3 oppressus occiditur. Regni potitur Aegisthus per 
annos septem. Hunc Orestes matremque socia con- 
siliorum omnium sorore Electra, viriHs animi femina; 
obtruncat. Factum eius a diis comprobatum spatio 
vitae et feUcitate imperii apparuit ; quippe vixit 
annis nonaginta, regnavit septuaginta. Quin ^ se 
etiam a Pyrrho Achillis fiUo virtute vindicavit ; nam 
quod pactae eius Menelai atque Helenae fihae Her- 
miones nuptias occupaverat, Delphis eum inter- 

4 Per haec tempora Lydus et Tyrrlienus frates cum 
regnarent in Lydia, sterihtate frugum compulsi 
sortiti sunt, uter cum parte multitudinis patria de- 
cederet. Sors Tyrrhenum contigit. Pervectus in 
ItaHam et loco et incolis et mari nobile ac perpetuum 
a se nomen dedit. 

Post Orestis interitum fiUi eius Penthilus et Tisa- 
menus regnavere triennio. 
l II. Tum fere anno octogesimo post Troiam captam, 
centesimo et vicesimo quam Hercules ad deos exces- 
serat, Pelopis progenies, quae omni hoc tempore 
pulsis HeracHdis Peloponnesi imperium obtinuerat, 
ab HercuHs progenie expeUitur. Duces recuperandi 

^ quin Wopkens ; qui P. 

" That is : Tyrrhenia, Tyrrhenians, and Tyrrhenian 

* The traditional date for the fall of Troy was 1183 b.c. 
according to the chronology of Eratosthenes ; according to 
that of Callimachus it was 1127 b.c. But many other dates 
are given. See H. Fynes Clinton, Epitoms qf the Chronology 
of Greece, Oxford, 1851, 



HISTORY OF ROME, I. i. 2— ii. l 

Agamemnon was soon afterwards struck do^vn 
and slain by the infamous crime of Aegisthus, his 
cousin, who still kept up against him the feud of 
his house, and by the wicked act of his wife. 
Aegisthus maintained possession of the kingdom for 
seven years. Orestes slew Aegisthus and his own 
mother, seconded in all his plans by his sister 
Electra, a woman wiih the courage of a man, That 
his deed had the approval of the gods was made 
clear by the length of his Ufe and the fehcity 
of his reign, since he lived ninety years and 
reigned seventy. Furthermore, he also took revenge 
upon Pyrrhus the son of Achilles in fair fight, 
for he slew him at Delphi because he had fore- 
stalled him in marrying Hermione, the daughter 
of Menelaus and Helen who had been pledged to 

About this time two brothers, Lydus andTyrrhenus, 
were joint kings in Lydia. Hard pressed by the 
unproductiveness of their crops, they drew lots to 
see which should leave his country with part of the 
population. The lot fell upon Tyrrhenus. He sailed 
to Italy, and from him the place wherein he settled, 
its inhabitants, and the sea received their famous 
and their lasting names." 

After the death of Orestes his sons Penthilus and 
Tisamenus reigned for three years. 

II. About eighty years after the capture of Troy,* 
and a hundred and twenty after Hercules had 
departed to the gods, the descendants of Pelops, 
who, during all this time had held sway in the 
Peloponnesus after they had driven out the 
descendants of Hercules, were again in tum driven 
out by them. The leaders in the recovery of the 



imperii fuere Temenus, Cresphontes, Aristodemus, 
quorum abavus fuerat. 

Eodem fere tempore Athenae sub regibus esse 
desierunt, quarum ultimus rex fuit Codrus, Melanthi 
filius, vir non praetereundus. Quippe cum Lace- 
daemonii gravi bello Atticos premerent respondis- 
setque Pythius, quorum dux ab hoste esset occisus, 
eos futuros superiores, deposita veste regia pasto- 
ralem cultum induit, immixtusque castris hostium, 
de industria rixam ciens, imprudenter interemptus 

2 est. Codrum cum morte aeterna gloria,*Atheniensis 
secuta victoria est. Quis eum non miretur, qui iis 
artibus mortem quaesierit, quibus ab ignavis vita 
quaeri solet ? Huius filius Medon primus archon 
Athenis fuit. Ab hoc posteri apud Atticos dicti 
Medontidae, sed hic insequentesque archontes usque 
ad Charopem, dum viverent, eum honorem usurpa- 
bant. Peloponnesii digredientes finibus Atticis 
Megara, mediam Corintho Athenisque urbem, condi- 

3 Ea tempestate et Tyria classis, plurimum pollens 
mari, in ultimo Hispaniae tractu, in extremo^ nostri 
orbis termino, in insula circumfusa Oceano, perexiguo 
a continenti divisa freto, Gadis condidit. Ab iisdem 
post paucos annos in Africa Utica condita est. 

Exclusi ab Herachdis Orestis hberi iactatique cum 

^ in extremo P ; in hracketed hy Ruhnken. 

" The death of Codrus, according to the chronology of 
Eusebius, is placed in 1068 b.c. 

" Not all his successors but only his immediate followers, 
thirteen in number. 

« According to Eusebius the period of the life archons 
was 1068-753 u.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. ii. 1-3 

sovereignty were Temenus, Cresphontes, and Aristo- 
demus, the great-great-grandsons of Hercules. 

It was about this time " that Athens ceased to be 
governed by kings. The last king of Athens was 
Codrus the son of Melanthus, a man whose story 
cannot be passed over. Athens was hard pressed in 
war by the Lacedaemonians, and the Pythian oracle 
had given the response that the side whose general 
should be killed by the enemy would be victorious. 
Codrus, therefore, laying aside his kingly robes and 
donning the garb of a shepherd, made his way into 
the camp of the enemy, dehberately provoked a 
quarrel, and was slain without being recognized. By 
his death Codrus gained immortal fame, and the 
Athenians the victory. Who could A\-ithhold admira- 
tion from the man who sought death by the selfsame 
artifice by which cowards seek Ufe ? His son Medon 
was the first archon at Athens. It was after him 
that the archons who followed him ^ were called 
Medontidae among the people of Attica. Medon 
and all the succeeding archons until Charops con- 
tinued to hold that office for Hfe.'' The Pelopon- 
nesians, when they withdrew from Attic territory, 
founded Megara, a city midway between Corinth and 

About this time, also, the fleet of Tyre, which 
controUed the sea, founded in the farthest district 
of Spain, on the remotest confines of our world, the 
city of Cadiz, on an island in the ocean separated 
from the mainland by a very narrow strait. The 
Tyrians a few years later also founded Utica in 

The sons of Orestes, expelled by the Herachdae, 
were driven about by many vicissitudes and by 



variis casibus tum saevitia maris quinto decimo amio 
sedem cepere circa Lesbum insulam. 

1 IIL Tum Graecia maximis concussa est motibus. 
Achaei ex Laconica pulsi eas occupavere sedes, quas 
nunc obtinent ; Pelasgi Athenas commigravere, 
acerque belli iuvenis nomine Thessalus, natione 
Thesprotius, cum magna civium manu eam regionem 
armis occupavit, quae nunc ab eius nomine Thessalia 
appellatur, ante Myrmidonum vocitata civitas. 

2 Quo nomine mirari convenit eos, qui Iliaca com- 
ponentes tempora de ea regione ut Thessaha com- 
memorant. Quod cum ahi faciant, tragici frequentis- 
sime faciunt, quibus minime id concedendum est ; 
nihil enim ex persona poetae, sed omnia sub eorum, 
qui illo tempore vixerunt, disserunt.^ Quod si quis 
a Thessalo HercuUs fiUo eos appellatos Thessalos 
dicet, reddenda erit ei ratio, cur numquam ante 
hunc insequentem Thessalum ea gens id nominis 

3 Paulo ante Aletes, sextus ab Hercule, Hippotis 
fiHus, Corinthum, quae antea fuerat Ephyre, claustra 
Peloponnesi continentem, in Isthmo condidit. Neque 
est quod miremur ab Homero nominari Corinthum ; 
nam ex persona poetae et hanc urbem et quasdam 
lonum colonias iis nominibus appellat, quibus voca- 
bantur aetate eius, multo post lUum captum conditae. 

^ disserunt Orelli ; dixerunt P. 
• Iliad ii. 570, xiii. 664. 

HISTORY OF ROME, I. ii. 3— iii. 3 

raging storms at sea, and, in the fifteenth year, 
finally settled on and about the island of Lesbos. 

III. Greece was then shaken by mighty dis- 
turbances. The Achaeans, driven from Laconia, 
established themselves in those locahties which they 
occupy to-day. The Pelasgians migrated to Athens, 
and a warhke youth named Thessalus, of the race 
of the Thesprotians, \\-ith a great force of his fellow- 
countrymen took armed possession of that region, 
which, after his name, is now called Thessaly. 
Hitherto it had been called the state of the Myrmi- 

On this account, one has a right to be surprised 
that \\Titers -svho deal with the times of the Trojan 
war speak of this region as Thessaly. This is a 
common practice, but especially among the tragic 
poets, for whom less allowance should be made ; 
for the poets do not speak in person, but entirely 
through the mouths of characters who hved in the 
time referred to. But if anyone insists that the 
people were named Thessahans from Thessalus the 
son of Hercules, he will have to explain why this 
people never adopted the name until the time of 
this second Thessalus. 

Shortly before these events Aletes, the son of 
Hippotes,descended fromHerculesinthesixth genera- 
tion, founded upon the isthmus the city of Corinth, 
the key to the Peloponnesus, on the site of the former 
Ephyre. There is no need for surprise that Corinth 
is mentioned by Homer," for it is in his ovm person 
as poet that Homer calls this city and some of the 
lonian colonies by the names which they bore in his 
day, although they were founded long after the 
capture of Troy. 



1 IV. Athenienses in Euboea Chalcida et^ Eretriam 
colonis occupavere, Lacedaemonii in Asia Mag- 
nesiam. Nec multo post Chalcidenses orti, ut prae- 
diximus, Atticis Hippocle et Megasthene ducibus 
Cumas in Italia condiderunt. Huius classis corsum 
esse directum alii columbae antecedentis volatu 
ferunt, alii nocturno aeris sono, quahs Cerealibus 

2 sacris cieri solet. Pars horum civium magno- post 
intervallo Neapohm condidit. Utriusque urbis eximia 
semper in Romanos fides facit eas nobilitate atque 
amoenitate sua dignissimas. Sed illis dihgentior 
ritus patrii mansit custodia, Cumanos Osca mutavit 
vicinia. Vires autem veteres earum urbium hodieque 
magnitudo ostentat moenium. 

3 Subsequenti tempore magna vis Graecae iuven- 
tutis abundantia virium sedes quaeritans in Asiam 
se effudit. Nam et lones duce lone profecti Athenis 
nobihssimam partem regionis maritimae occupavere, 
quae hodieque appellatur lonia, urbesque constituere 
Ephesum, Miletum, Colophona, Prienen, Lebedum, 
Myuntem, Erythram, Clazomenas, Phocaeam, mul- 
tasque in Aegaeo atque Icario occupavere insulas, 
Samum, Chium, Andrum, Tenum, Parum, Delum 

4 ahasque ignobiles. Et mox Aeohi eadem profecti 
Graecia longissimisque acti erroribus non minus 

^ et added hy Gehnius. 
* magno P ; non magno Scriner. 

" Lubker, Reallexikon, places the date in the sixth 

HISTORY OF ROME, I. iv. 1-4 

IV. The Athenians estabhshed colonies at Chalcis 
and Eretria in Euboea, and the Lacedaemonians the 
colony of Magnesia in Asia. Not long afterwards, 
the Chalcidians, who, as I have already said, were 
of Attic origin, founded Cumae in Italy under the 
leadership of Hippocles and Megasthenes. According 
to some accounts the voyage of this fleet was guided 
by the flight of a dove which flew before it ; according 
to others by the sound at night of a bronze instru- 
ment Hke that which is beaten at the rites of Ceres. 
At a considerably later period, a portion of the 
citizens of Cumae founded Naples." The remarkable 
and unbroken loyalty to the Romans of both these 
cities makes them well worthy of their repute and 
of their charming situation. The Neapolitans, 
however, continued the careful observance of their 
ancestral customs ; the Cumans, on the other hand, 
were changed in character by the proximity of their 
Oscan neighbours. The extent of their walls at the 
present day serves to reveal the greatness of these 
cities in the past. 

At a shghtly later date a great number of young 
Greeks, seeking new abodes because of an excess of 
population at home, poured into Asia. The lonians, 
setting out from Athens under the leadership of lon, 
occupied the best known portion of the sea-coast, 
which is now called lonia, and estabhshed the cities 
of Ephesus, Miletus, Colophon, Priene, Lebedus, 
Myus, Erythra, Clazomenae, and Phocaea, and 
occupied many islands in the Aegaean and Icarian 
seas, namely, Samos, Chios, Andros, Tenos, Paros, 
Delos, and other islands of lesser note. Not long 
afterwards the Aeohans also set out from Greece, 
and after long wanderings took possession of places 



inlustres obtinuerunt locos clarasque urbes condi- 
derunt, Smyrnam, Cymen, Larissam, Myrinam 
Mytilenenque et alias urbes, quae sunt in Lesbo 

1 V. Clarissimum deinde Homeri inluxit ingenium, 
sine exemplo maximum, qui magnitudine operis et 

2 fulgore carminum solus appellari poeta meruit ; in 
quo hoc maximum est, quod neque ante illum, quem 
ipse^ imitaretur, neque post illum, qui eum imitari 
posset, inventus est. Neque quemquam alium, cuius 
operis primus auctor fuerit, in eo perfectissimum 

3 praeter Homerum et Archilochum reperiemus. Hic 
longius a temporibus beUi, quod composuit, Troici, 
quam quidam rentur, abfuit ; nam ferme ante annos 
nongentos quinquaginta floruit, intra mille natus est. 
Quo nomine non est mirandum, quod saepe illud usur- 
pat oLoi vrv jSpoToi €to-u'2 ; hoc enim ut hominum, 
ita saeculorum notatur diiferentia. Quem si quis 
caecum genitum putat, omnibus sensibus orbus est. 

1 VL Insequenti tempore imperium Asiaticum ab 
Assyriis, qui id obtinuerant annis mille septuaginta, 
translatum est ad Medos, abhinc annos ferme 

2 octingentos septuaginta.^ Quippe Sardanapalum 
eorum regem molhtiis fluentem et nimium fehcem 
malo suo, tertio et tricensimo* loco ab Nino et Semira- 

^ quem ille F. 

^ oloi . . . elffiv om. P ; supplied by Urbinus. 

^ DccLxx P ; DCCCLXX Lipsius. 

* trecentesimo P ; tricensimo B. 

" Clinton, op. cit. p. 146, estiraates the period at which 
Homer flourished as 962-927 b.c. 

* " Such as men are nowadays " {II. v. 304, xii. 383, 449). 

• Barbarus and Castor, corroborated by Ctesias, place 
the revolt of the Medes in 843 b.c, which corresponds fairly 
well with the date here given. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. iv. 4— vi. 2 

no less illustrious and founded the famous cities of 
Smyrna, Cyme, Larissa, Myrina, Mytilene, and other 

cities on the island of Lesbos. 

V. Then the brilhant genius of Homer burst upon 
the world, the greatest beyond compare, who bv 
virtue of the magnitude of his work and the brilhance 
of his poetr}' alone deserves the name of poet. His 
highest claim to greatness is that, before his day, 
no one was found for him to imitate, nor after tids 
day has one been found to imitate him. Nor shall 
we find any other poet who achieved perfection in 
the field in which he was also the pioneer, with the 
exception of Homer and Archilochus. Homer hved 
at a period more remote than some people think 
from the Trojan war of which he wrote ; for he 
flourished only about nine hundred and fifty years 
ago, and it is less than a thousand since his birth." 
It is therefore not surprising that he often uses 
the expression 0^01 vvv (SpoToi etcriv,* for by it is 
denoted the difFerence, not merely in men, but in ages 
as well. If any man holds to the view that Homer 
was bom bhnd, he is himself lacking in all his senses. 

VI. In the foUowing age — about eight hundred 
and seventy years ago '" — the sovereignty of Asia 
passed to the Medes from the Assyrians, who had 
held it for ten hundred and seventy years. Indeed, 
it was their king Sardanapalus, a man enervated by 
luxurious hving, whose excess of fortune was his 
undoing. Thirty-third,^ in direct succession of father 

* Diodorus ii. 21. ^25 gives the number of Assyrian kings 
as thirty, and the length of their dynasty as 1360 years. 
This figure is considerably greater than the 1070 years given 
by Velleius, and would place the beginning of the dynasty 
in 2203-2204. b.c. 



mide, qui Babylona coRcliderant, natum, ita ut 
semper successor regni paterni foret filius, Arbaces 
Medus imperio vitaque privavit. 

3 Ea aetate clarissimus Grai nominis Lycurgus 
Lacedaemonius, vir generis regii, fuit severissimarum 
iustissimarumque legum auctor et disciplinae con- 
venientissimae viris,^ cuius quam diu Sparta diligens 
fuit, excelsissime floruit. 

4 Hoc tractu tem.porum ante annos quinque et 
sexaginta quam urbs Romana conderetur, ab Elissa 
Tyria, quam quidam Dido autumant, Carthago con- 

6 ditur. Circa quod tempus Caranus, vir generis regii, 
undecimus^ ab Hercule, profectus Argis regnum 
Macedoniae occupavit ; a quo Magnus Alexander 
cum fuerit septimus decimus, iure materni generis 

6 Achille auctore, paterni Hercule gloriatus est. [Aemi- 
lius Sura de annis populi Romani : Assyrii principes 
omnium gentium rerum potiti sunt, deinde Medi, 
postea Persae, deinde Macedones ; exinde duobus 
regibus Philippo et Antiocho, qui a Macedonibus 
oriundi erant, haud multo post Carthaginem sub- 
actam devictis summa imperii ad populum Romanum 
pervenit. Inter hoc tempus et initium regis Nini 
Assyriorum, qui princeps rerum potitus est,^ intersunt 
anni mdccccxcv.] * 

1 VII. Huius temporis aequalis Hesiodus fuit, circa 

^ viris Lipsius ; vir P. 
^ undeciraus Wesseling ; sextus decimus P. 
' potitus est 1 potitus P. 

*■ Aemilius Sura . . . intersunt anni mdccccxcv] Del- 
heniusjirst recognized that this passage was a gloss. 

" Tlie date, according to Timaeus, was 813-814 b.c. 
* The overthrow of Carthage took place in 146 b.c. The 
date of the founding of the Assyrian kingdom, based on 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. \-i. 2— vii. 1 

and son, from Ninus and Semiramis, who had founded 
Babylon, he was deprived ahke of his empire and of 
his iife by Arbaces the Mede. 

At this time lived Lycurgus the Lacedaemonian, 
one of the most illustrious personages of Greece, a 
man of royal descent, the author of legislation 
most severe and most just, and of a discipHne 
excellently adapted for the making of men. As 
long as Sparta foUowed it, she flourished in the 
highest degree. 

In this period, sixty-five years before the founding 
of Rome, Carthage was estabHshed <* by the Tyrian 
Elissa, by some authors called Dido. About this 
time also Caranus, a man of royal race, eleventh in 
descent from Hercules, set out from Argos and 
seized the kingship of Macedonia. From him 
Alexander the Great was descended in the seven- 
teenth generation, and could boast that, on his 
mother's side, he was descended from Achilles, and, 
on his father's side, from Hercules. [AemiUus Sura 
says in his book on the chronology of Rome : " The 
Assyrians were the first of all races to hold world 
power, then the Medes, and after them the Persians, 
and then the Macedonians. Then through the 
defeat of Kings PhiUp and Antiochus, of Macedonian 
origin, foUowing closely upon the overthrow of 
Carthage, the world power passed to the Roman 
people. Between this time and the beginning of the 
reign of Ninus king of the Assyrians, who was the 
first to hold world power, lies an interval of nineteen 
hundred and ninety-five years." ^] 

VII. To this period belonged Hesiod, separated 

Diodorus, is 2-203— 2204. b.c. The interval, according to this 
calculation, is 2058 years. 



centum et viginti annos distinctus ab Homeri aetate, 
vir perelegantis ingenii et mollissima dulcedine car- 
minum memorabilis, otii quietisque cupidissimus, ut 
tempore tanto viro, ita operis auctoritate proximus. 
Qui vitavit, ne in id quod Homerus incideret, pa- 
triamque et parentes testatus est, sed patriam, 
quia multatus ab ea erat, contumeliosissime. 

2 Dum in externis moror, incidi in rem domesticam 
maximique ^ erroris et multum discrepantem aucto- 
rum opinionibus : nam quidam huius temporis tractu 
aiunt a Tuscis Capuam Nolamque conditam ante 
annos fere octingentos et triginta. Quibus equidem 

3 adsenserim : sed M. Cato quantum difFert ! Qui 
dicat Capuam ab eisdem Tuscis conditam ac subinde 
Nolam ; stetisse autem Capuam, antequam a Romanis 

4 caperetur, annis circiter ducentis et sexaginta. Quod 
si ita est, cum sint a Capua capta anni ducenti et 
quadraginta, ut condita est, anni sunt fere quingenti. 
Ego, pace diligentiae Catonis dixerim, vix crediderim 
tam mature tantam urbem crevisse, floruisse, con- 
cidisse, resurrexisse. 

1 Vin. Clarissimum deinde omnium ludicrum cer- 

tamen et ad excitandam corporis animique virtutem 

efficacissimum Olympiorum initium habuit, auctorem 

Iphitum Elium. Is eos ludos mercatumque instituit 

^ raaximique Rhenanus ; maximeque P. 

' Clinton, op. cit. p. 146, gives the period at which Hesiod 
flourished as 839-824 b.c. Porphyry gives the interval be- 
tween him and Homer as one hundred years. 

* The fact that Capua was a city of the plain shows that 
its Etruscan foundation dates from the time when the 
Etruscan power was supreme in Campania, i.e. circa 600 b.c, 
and supports Cato's statement. It is not unhkely, however, 
that the foundation was on the site of a previous Oscan 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. vii. 1— viii. 1 

from the age of Homer by about one hundred and 
twenty years.** A man of an exquisite taste, famous 
for the soft charm of his poems, and an ardent lover 
of peace and quiet, he ranks next to Homer, not only 
in point of time, but also in the reverence in which 
his work is held. Avoiding the mistake which Homer 
made, he has indeed told us of his country and 
parents, but of his country, at whose hands he had 
sufFered punishment, he speaks in the most dis- 
paraging terms. 

While dweUing on the history of foreign countries, 
I now come to an event pertaining to our own, one 
in which there has been much error, and in which 
the views of the authorities show great discrepancy. 
For some maintain that about this time, eight 
hundred and thirty years ago, Capua and Nola were 
founded by the Etruscans. With these I myself am 
inclined to agree, but the opinion of Marcus Cato is 
vastly different. He admits that Capua, and after- 
wards Nola, were founded by the Etruscans, but 
maintains that Capua had been in existence for only 
about two hundred and sixty years before its capture 
by the Romans. If this is so, as it is but two hundred 
and forty years since Capua was taken, it is but five 
hundred years since it was founded. For my o^vn 
part, with all due regard for Cato's accuracy, I can 
scarcely beUeve that the city could have had such 
growth, such prosperity, or could have faUen and 
risen again, in so short a space of time.** 

VIII. Soon afterward the Olympic games, the 
most celebrated of aU contests in sports, and one 
which was most effective in developing the quaUties 
both of body and mind, had their beginning under 
the auspices of Iphitus, king of EUs. He instituted 



ante annos, quam tu, M. Vinici, consulatum inires, 

2 Dcccxxiii. Hoc sacrum eodem loco instituisse fertur 
abhinc annos ferme mille ducentos quinquaginta 
Atreus, cum Pelopi patri funebres ludos faceret, quo 
quidem in ludicro omnisque^ generis certaminum 
Hercules victor extitit. 

3 Tum Athenis perpetui archontes esse desierunt, 
cum fuisset ultimus Alcmaeon, coeperuntque in 
denos annos creari, Quae consuetudo in annos 
septuaginta mansit ac deinde annuis commissa est 
magistratibus res publica. Ex iis, qui denis annis 
praefuerunt, primus fuit Charops, ultimus Eryxias, 
ex annuis primus Creon. 

4 Sexta olympiade post duo et viginti annos quam 
prima constituta fuerat, Romulus, Martis fihus, ultus 
iniurias avi Romam urbem Parihbus in Palatio con- 
didit. A quo tempore ad vos consules anni sunt 
septingenti octoginta unus^ ; id actum post Troiam 

6 captam annis quadringentis triginta septem. Id 

gessit Romulus adiutus legionibus Latini^ avi sui ; 

hbenter enim iis, qui ita prodiderunt, accesserim, 

cum ahter firmare urbem novam tam vicinis Veienti- 

bus ahisque Etruscis ac Sabinis cum imbelh et 

* omnisque P ; omnis Gelenius ; cuiusque Gurlitt. 

^ D.ccc.Lxxx.L P ; corrected hy Laurentius. 

3 Latini Orelli ; Latinis Lipsius ; his P. 

« Later chronology reckoned the Olympiads from 776 b.c, 
but the games were in existence long before that date. 

* The legendary connexion of the games with Pelops 
indicates that they were of pre-Dorian origin. The cult of 
Hercules was a later Dorian iraportation. 

« The administration of Athens by decennial archons 
began in 752-751 b.c. The annual archons begin in 683-682 
B.c, with Creon as the first. 

* 753B.c.,accordingtothe Varronian era ; 751, according 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. viii. 1-5 

the games and the concourse eight hundred and 
twenty-three years " before your consulship, Marcus 
Vinicius. There is a tradition that Atreus began 
this sacred observance in the same place about 
twelve hundred and fifty years ago, when he held 
the funeral games in honour of his father Pelops ^ 
and that at this celebration Hercules was the ^ictor 
in every class of contest. 

It was about this time " that the archons at Athens 
ceased to hold their office for Ufe. Alcmaeon was 
the last of the hfe archons. The archons now began 
to be elected for terms of ten years. This custom 
continued for seventy years, then the govemment 
was entrusted to magistrates elected annually. 
Charops was the first and Eryxias the last of those 
who held the office for ten years, and Creon was the 
first of the annual archons. 

In the sixth Olympiad,'* two and twenty years after 
the first estabUshment of the Olympic games, 
Romulus the son of Mars, after avenging the wTongs 
of his grandfather, founded the city of Rome on the 
Palatine on the day of the festival of the Parilia. 
From this time to your consulship seven hundred 
and eighty-one years have elapsed. This event took 
place four hundred and thirty-seven years after the 
capture of Troy. In the founding of Rome Romulus 
was assisted by the troops of his grandfather Latinus. 
I am glad to range myself with those who have 
expressed this view, since with the Veientines and 
other Etruscans, as well as the Sabines, in such close 
proximity, he could scarcely have established his 

to the Catonian. Velleius sometimes follows the Catonian, 
but in this case the Catonian date would fall in the Seventh 



pastorali manu vix potuerit, quamquam eam^ asylo 
6 facto inter duos lueos auxit. Hic centum homines 
electos appellatosque patres instar habuit consilii 
publici. Hanc originem nomen patriciorum habet. 
Raptus virginum Sabinarum * * *2 

Nec minus clarus ea tempestate fuit Miltiadis 
filius Cimon. 

1 IX. * * *3 quam timuerat hostis, expetit. Nam 
biennio adeo varia fortuna cum consulibus conflixerat, 
ut plerumque superior fuerit* magnamque partem 

2 Graeciae in societatem suam perduceret. Quin 
Rhodii quoque, fidelissimi antea Romanis, tum dubia 
fide speculati fortunam proniores regis partibus 
fuisse visi sunt ; et rex Eumenes in eo bello medius 
fuit animo, neque fratris initiis neque suae respondit 

3 consuetudini. Tum senatus populusque Romanus 
L. Aemilium Paukim, qui et praetor et consul 
triumphaverat, virum in tantum laudandum, in 
quantum intellegi virtus potest, consulem creavit,^ 

^ eani Ileinsius ; iam P. 

* Here hegins a great Jacuna in the text. The missing 
chapters covered 582 years of Roman HiMory from the found- 
ing ofthe city to the warwith Perses. Thefragment Nec . . . 
Cimon appended to the present chapter is preserved in 
Priscian vi. 63. 

* Haase has completed the sentence as follows: quorum 
iniuriarum populus Romanus poenam tardius quam timuerat 
hostls expetit (expetiit). But this is notking more than an 
interesting conjecture, and the subject of expetit mv^t revfmin 
in douht. 

* fuerit P ; fuit AB. ' consulem creavit om. A. 

" See note on text. 

* The subject of expetit is lacking. It is not certain 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. viii. 5— ix 3 

new city \^ith an unwarlike band of shepherds, even 
though he increased their numbers by opening an 
asylum between the two hills. As a councii to assist 
him in administering affairs of state he had one 
hundred chosen men called patres. This is the origin 
of the name patricians. The rape of the Sabine 
maidens . . ." 

Nor at this time was Cimon, the son of Miltiades, 
less famous. 

IX. . . . than the enemy had feared.* For two 
years Perses " had kept up the struggle with the 
consuls with such varying fortune that he generally 
had the advantage in these conflicts, and succeeded 
in ^\-inning over a large part of Greece to ally itself 
with his cause. Even the Rhodians, who in the past 
had been most loyal to the Romans, were now 
wavering in their fidehty, and, watching his success, 
seemed incUned to join the king's side. In this war 
King Eumenes ■* maintained a neutral attitude, 
neither following the initiative of his brother nor 
his own established custom. Then the senate and 
the Roman people chose as consul Lucius Aemihus 
Paulus, who had previously triumphed, both in his 
praetorship and in his consulship, a man worthy of 
the highest praise that can be associated with valour. 

whether ejypetit is the correct reading, and, if it is, the tense 
is uncertain. In view of these uncertainties 1 have refralned 
frora translating it. 

* In 171 B.c. the Roraans had declared war on Perses, 
King of Macedonia. The Roraan commanders thus far had 
been P. Licinius Crassus, consul for 171 ; A. Hostilius 
Mancinus, consul for 170 ; and Q. Marcius Philippus, consul 
for 169. 

■* Eumenes II., King of Pergamum, 197-159 B.C., the 
eldest son of Attalus I. 



filium eius Pauli, qui ad Cannas quam tergiversanter 
perniciosam rei publicae pugnam inierat, tam fortiter 

4 in ea mortem obierat. Is Persam ingenti proelio 
apud urbem nomine Pydnam in Macedonia fusum 
fugatumque castris exuit deletisque eius copiis 
destitutum omni spe coegit e Macedonia profugere, 
quam ille Hnquens in insulam Samothraciam perfugit'^ 

5 templique se religioni supplicem credidit. Ad eum 
Cn. Octavius praetor, qui classi praeerat, pervenit 
et ratione magis quam vi persuasit, ut se Romanorum 
fidei committeret. Ita Paulus maximum nobilissi- 
mumque regem in triumpho duxit. 

Quo anno et Octavii praetoris navalis et Anicii 
regem Illyriorum Gentium ante currum agentis^ 

6 triumphi fuere celebres. Quam sit adsidua eminentis 
fortunae comes invidia altissimisque adhaereat, etiam 
hoc colligi potest, quod cum Anicii Octaviique 
triumphum nemo interpellaret, fuere, qui PauH 
impedire obniterentur. Cuius tantum priores exces- 
sit vel magnitudine regis Persei vel specie simula- 
crorum vel modo pecuniae, ut bis miliens centiens 
sestertium aerario intulerit is, et^ omnium ante acto- 
rum comparationem ampUtudine vicerit. 

^ perfugit Cruslus ; profugit AP. 

2 agentis Gelenius ; agentiura AP. 

^ ut b. m. centies sh {sic) aerario contulerit his et AP, 
corrected hy Schoepfer who was foUowed by Thomas ; cum 
bis m. . . . aerario intulisset Halm. 

" Lucius Aemilius Paulus, consul in 216 with Gaius 
Terentius Varro. His policy had been that of wearing 
Hannibal out by avoiding battle. His more hot-headed 
coUeague, in command for the day, joined battle with 
Hannibal at Cannae, and the Romans suffered the most 
disastrous defeat of the war. 

» 168 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, I. ix. 3-6 

He was a son of the Paulus " who had met death at 
Cannae with a fortitude only equalled by his 
reluctance to begin a battle so disastrous to the 
republic. Paulus defeated Perses in a great battle 
at a city in Macedonia named Pydna,'' put him to 
rout, despoiled his camp, destroyed his forces, and 
compelled him in his desperate plight to flee from 
Macedonia. Abandoning his country, Perses took 
refuge in the island of Samothrace, as a suppUant 
entrusting himself to the inviolabihty of the temple. 
There Gnaeus Octavius, the praetor in command of 
the fleet, reached him and persuaded him by argument 
rather than force to give himself up to the good 
faith of the Romans. Thus Paulus led in triumph 
the greatest and the most illustrious of kings." 

In this year two other triumphs were celebrated : 
that of Octa\ius, the praetor in charge of the fleet, 
and that of Anicius, who drove before his triumphal 
chariot Gentius, King of the Illyrians. How insepar- 
able a companion of great success is jealousy, and 
how she attaches herself to the most eminent, 
may be gathered from this fact : although no one 
raised objections to the triumphs of Octavius and 
Anicius, there were those who tried to place 
obstacles in the way of that of Paulus. His 
triumph so far exceeded all former ones, whether 
in the greatness of King Perses himself, or in the 
display of statues and the amount of money bome 
in the procession, that Paulus contributed to the 
treasury two hundred million sesterces, and by 
reason of this vast sxma ecHpsed all previous triumphs 
by comparison. 

• The triumph of Paulus took place in 167. Perses was 
kept a prisoner al Alba Fucensis where he subsequently died. 



1 X. Per idem tempus, cum Antiochus Epiphanes, 
qui Athenis Olympieum inchoavit, tum rex^ Syriae, 
Ptolemaeum puerum Alexandriae obsideret, missus 
est ad eum legatus M, PopiHus Laenas, qui iuberet 

2 incepto desistere. Mandataque exposuit et^ regem 
deliberaturum se dicentem circumscripsit virgula 
iussitque prius responsum reddere, quam egrederetur 
finito harenae circulo. Sic cogitationem-* regiam 
Romana disiecit constantia oboeditumque imperio. 

3 Lucio autem Paulo Macedonicae^ victoriae com- 
poti quattuor fihi fuere ; ex iis duos natu maiores, 
unum P. Scipioni P, Africani fiho, nihil ex paterna 
maiestate praeter speciem nominis vigoremque elo- 
quentiae retinenti, in adoptionem dederat, alterum 
Fabio Maximo. Duos minores natu praetextatos, 

4 quo tempore victoriam adeptus est, habuit. Is cum 
in contione extra urbem more maiorum ante triumphi 
diem ordinem actorum suorum commemoraret, deos 
immortahs precatus est, ut, si quis eorum invideret 
operibus ac fortunae suae, in ipsum potius saevirent^ 

5 quam in rem pubhcam. Quae vox veluti oraculo 
emissa magna parte eum spoliavit sanguinis sui ; nam 
alterum ex suis, quos in famiha retinuerat, hberis 
ante paucos triumphi, alterum post pauciores amisit 

6 Aspera circa haec tempora censura Fulvii Flacci 
et Postumii Albini fuit : quippe Fulvii censoris frater, 

^ tum (cum A) regem AP. 

2 etP; ut^. 

• cogitationem] cunctationem Acidalius. 

* Macedonicae litihnken ; magnae AP. 

' saevirent P ; saeviret^. 

' Ptolemy VI. Philometor. 


X. About this time Antiochus Epiphanes, king of 
Syria — the Antiochus who began the Olympiemn 
at Athens — was besicging Ptolemaeus, the boy 
king," at Alexandi*ia. Marcus PopiHus Laenas was 
dispatched on an embassy to order him to desist. 
He dehvered his message, and when the king rephed 
that he would think the matter over, Popihus drew a 
circle around the king -v^ith his staff and told him that 
he must give his answer before he stepped out of the 
circle in the sand. In this way the tirmness of the 
Roman cut short the king's dehberations, and the 
order was obeyed. 

Now Lucius Paulus, who won the victory in 
Macedonia, had four sons. The two oldest he had 
given by adoption, the one to Pubhus Scipio, the son 
of Africanus, who resembled his great father in 
nothing except in name and in his \dgorous eloquence; 
the other to Fabius Maximus. The two younger at 
the time of his victory had not yet assumed the toga 
of manhood. On the day before his triumph, when, 
in accordance with ancient custom, he was rendering 
an account of his acts before an assembly of the 
people outside the city walls,* he prayed to the gods 
that if any of them emied liis achievements or his 
fortune they should vent their wTath upon himself 
rather than upon the state. This utterance, as 
though prophetic, deprived him of a great part of 
his family, for a few days before his triumph he lost 
one of the two sons whom he had kept in his house- 
hold, and the other a still shorter time after it. 

About this time occurred the censorship"" of Fulvius 
Flaccus and Postumius Albinus famed for its severity. 

* A triumphant general was obliged to wait outside the 
walis imtil the day of his triumph. '174 b.c. 



et quidem consors, Cn. Fulvius senatu motus est ab 
iis censoribus. 

1 XL Post victum captumque Persen, qui quadrien- 
nio post in libera custodia Albae decessit, Pseudo- 
philippus a mendacio simulatae originis appellatus, 
qui se Philippum regiaeque stirpis ferebat, cum 
esset ultimae, armis occupata Macedonia, adsumptis'^ 
regni insignibus brevi temeritatis poenas dedit ; 

2 quippe Q. Metellus praetor, cui ex virtute Mace- 
donici nomen inditum erat,- praeclara victoria ipsum 
gentemque superavit, et immani etiam Achaeos re- 
bellare incipientis fudit acie. 

3 Hic est Metellus Macedonicus, qui porticus, quae 
fuerunt circumdatae duabus aedibus sine inscriptione 
positis, quae nunc Octaviae porticibus ambiuntur, 
fecerat, quique hanc turmam statuarum equestrium, 
quae frontem aedium spectant, hodieque maximum 

4 ornamentum eius loci, ex Macedonia detulit. Cuius 
turmae hanc causam referunt, Magnum Alexandrum 
impetrasse a Lysippo, singulari talium auctore 
operum, ut eorum equitum, qui ex ipsius turma 
apud Granicum flumen ceciderant, expressa simili- 
tudine figurarum faceret statuas et ipsius quoque iis 

6 Hic idem primus omnium Romae aedem ex mar- 
more in iis ipsis monumentis molitus huius^ vel 
magnificentiae vel luxuriae princeps fuit. Vix ullius 

^ adsumptis is Burer''^ conjeciure; adsumpti AP. 

' inditum erat AP ; erat was bracketed hy Gelenius. 

^ huius added by Ruhnken. 

» 148 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, I. x. 6— xi. 6 

Even Gnaeus Fulvius, who was the brother of the 
censor and co-heir mth him in his estate, was 
expelled from the senate by these censors. 

XI. After the defeat and capture of Perses, who 
four years later died at Alba as a prisoner on parole, 
a pseudo-Phihppus, so called by reason of his false 
claim that he was a Phihp and of royal race, though 
he was actually of the lowest birth, took armed 
possession of Macedonia, assumed the insignia of 
royalty, but soon paid the penalty for his temerity. 
For Quintus Metellus the praetor, who received the 
cognomen of Macedonicus by \-irtue of his valour 
in this war, defeated him and the Macedonians in a 
celebrated victory." He also defeated in a great 
battle the Achaeans who had begun an uprising 
against Rome. 

This is the Metellus Macedonicus who had 
preWously built the portico about the two temples 
without inscriptions which are now surrounded by 
the portico of Octavia, and who brought from 
Macedonia the group of equestrian statues which 
stand facing the temples, and, even at the present 
time, are the chief ornament of the place. Tradition 
hands down the following story of the origin of the 
group : that Alexander the Great prevailed upon 
Lysippus, a sculptor unexcelled in works of this sort, 
to make portrait-statues of the horsemen in his o^vn 
squadron who had fallen at the river Granicus, and 
to place his own statue among them. 

This same Metellus was the first of all to build 
a temple of marble, which he erected in the midst 
of these very monuments, thereby becoming the 
pioneer in this form of munificence, or shall we call 
it luxury ? One will scarcely find a man of any race, 



gentis aetatis ordinis hominem inveneris, cuius feli- 

6 citatem fortunae Metelli compares. Nam praeter 
excellentis triumphos honoresque amplissimos et 
principale in re pubHca fastigium extentumque vitae 
spatium et acris innocentisque pro re publica cum 
inimicis contentiones quattuor filios sustulit, omnis 
adultae aetatis vidit, omnis reliquit superstites et 

7 honoratissimos. Mortui eius lectum pro rostris sus- 
tulerunt quattuor filii. unus consularis et censorius, 
alter consularis, tertius consul, quartus candidatus 
consulatus, quem honorem adeptus est. Hoc est 
nimirum magis fehciter de vita migrare quam mori. 

1 XII. Universa deinde instincta^ in bellum Achaia, 
cuius pars magna, ut praediximus, eiusdem Metelli 
Macedonici virtute armisque fracta^ erat, maxime 
Corinthiis in arma cum gravibus etiam in Romanos 
contumeUis instigantibus, destinatus ei bello gerendo 
consul L. Mummius. 

2 Et sub idem tempus, magis quia volebant Romani, 
quidquid de Carthaginiensibus diceretur^ credere 
quam quia credenda adferebantur, statuit senatus 

3 Carthaginem exscindere.* Ita eodem tempore P. 
Scipio AemiUanus, vir avitis P. Africani paternisque 

^ deinde ut praediximus instincta -4Py Madvig placed ut 
praed. after magna. 

■^ cuius pars . . . fractayi/rZits; cum pars . . . tracta ^7^. 

* diceretiir AB ; dicebatur P. Burer states that ba was 
addfid iti the j\[nrbach MS. in a later hand. 

* excidere AP. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xi. 5— xii. 3 

or any age, or any rank, whose happy fortune is 
comparable with that of Metellus. For, not to 
mention his surpassing triumphs, the great honours 
which he held, his supreme position in the state, the 
length of his life, and the bitter struggles on behalf 
of the state which he waged -vvith his enemies 
without damage to his reputation, he reared four 
sons, saw them all reach man's estate, left them 
all sur^-i^-ing him and held in the highest honour. 
These four sons bore the bier of their dead father 
to its place in front of the rostra ; one was an 
ex-consul and ex-censor, the second an ex-consul, 
the third was actually consul, and the fourth was 
then a candidate for the consulship, an office which 
he duly held. This is assuredly not to die, but 
rather to pass happily out of hfe. 

XII. Thereafter all Achaia was aroused to war 
though the greater part of it had been crushed, 
as I have already said, by the valour and arms of 
this same Metellus Macedonicus. The Corinthians, 
in particular, were the instigators of it, going so far 
as to heap grave insults upon the Romans, and 
Mummius, the consul, was appointed to take charge 
of the war there. 

About the same time the senate resolved to 
destroy Carthage, rather because the Romans were 
ready to believe any rumour conceming the 
Carthaginians, than because the reports were 
credible. Accordingly at this same time Scipio 
AemiUanus was elected consul, though but a 
candidate for the aedileship. He was a man 
whose \irtues resembled those of his grandfather, 
Pubhus Africanus, and of his father Lucius Paulus 
(he was, as has been ah-eady said, the son 



L. Pauli virtutibus simillimus, omnibus belli ac togae 
dotibus ingeniique ac studiorum eminentissimus 
saeculi sui, qui nihil in vita nisi laudandum aut fecit 
aut dixit ac sensit, quem Paulo genitum, adoptatum 
a Scipione Africani filio diximus, aedilitatem petens 

4 consul creatus est. Bellum Carthagini iam ante 
biennium a prioribus consuHbus inlatum maiore vi 
intuUt (cum ante in Hispania murali corona, in Africa 
obsidionali donatus esset, in Hispania vero etiam ex 
provocatione, ipse modicus virium, inmanis magni- 

5 tudinis hostem interemisset) eamque urbem magis 
invidia imperii quam ullius eius temporis noxiae 
invisam Romano nomini funditus sustulit fecitque 
suae virtutis monimentum, quod fuerat avi eius 
clementiae. Carthago diruta est, cum stetisset annis 
sexcentis septuaginta duobus,^ abhinc annos centum 
septuaginta tris^ Cn. Cornelio Lentulo L. Mummio 

6 consuhbus. Hunc finem habuit Romani imperii 
Carthago aemula, cum qua bellare maiores nostri 
coepere Claudio et Fulvio consuhbus ante annos 
ducentos nonaginta duos,^ quam tu, M. Vinici, con- 
sulatum inires. Ita per annos centum et viginti* 
aut bellum inter eos populos aut belU praeparatio 

7 aut infida pax fuit. Neque se Roma iam terrarum 
orbi superato securam speravit fore, si nomen usquam 
stantis maneret Carthaginis ; adeo odium certamini- 
bus ortum ultra metum durat et ne in victis quidem 

1 DCLXxii lani ; dclxvii P ; dclxvi A. 
2 CLxxiii Kritz; clxxvii J5 ; cclxxvii AP. 

* ccxcir Laurent. ; ccxcvi AP. * cxx lani ; cxv AP. 

" The corojui muralis, given for the storraing of a wall, 
was of gold with embattled ornaments. 

* A crown or garland preseiited to a general by the army 
which he had saved from a siege, or from a disgraceful 
surrender. It was woven of grasses collected on the spot. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xii. 3-7 

of Paulus, and had been adopted by the son 
of Publius Scipio) — endowed with all the qualities 
essential to a good soldier and a good eitizen, the 
most eminent man of his day both in native abihty 
and acquired knowledge, who in his whole life was 
guilty of no act, word, or thought that was not 
praiseworthy. He had already received in Spain the 
mural croAra," and in Africa the corona obsidionalis'' 
for his braver}-, and while in Spain he had challenged 
and slain an enemy of great stature though himself 
a man of but ordinary physical strength. The war 
against Carthage begun by the consuls two years 
pre\^ously he now waged with greater vigour, and 
destroyed to its foundations the city which was 
hateful to the Roman name more because of jealousy 
of its power than because of any ofFence at that 
time. He made Carthage a monument to his valour 
— a city which had been a monument to his grand- 
father's clemency." Carthage, after standing for six 
hundred and seventy-two years, was destroyed in the 
consulship of Gnaeus Cornehus Lentulus and Lucius 
Mummius,<*one hundred and seventy-three years from 
the present date. This was the end of Carthage, the 
rival of the power of Rome, with whom our ancestors 
began the conflict in the consulship of Claudius and 
Fulvius ' two hundred and ninety-two years before 
you entered upon your consulship, Marcus Vinicius. 
Thus for one hundred and twenty years there existed 
between these two people either war, or preparations 
for war or a treacherous peace. Even after Rome 
had conquered the world she could not hope for 
security so long as the name of Carthage remained 

• Scipio the elder had spared it after the battle of Zama. 

* 146 B.c. • 264 B.C. 



deponitur neque ante invisum esse desinit quam esse 

1 XIIL Ante triennium quam Carthago deleretur, 
M. Cato, perpetuus diruendae eius auctor, L. Cen- 
sorino M'. Manilio consulibus mortem obiit. Eodem 
anno, quo Carthago concidit, L.^ Mummius Corin- 
thum post annos nongentos quinquaginta duos, 
quam ab Alete Hippotis fiHo erat condita, funditus 

2 eruit. Uterque imperator devictae a se gentis 
nomine honoratus, alter Africanus, alter appellatus 
est Achaicus ; nec quisquam ex novis hominibus 
prior Mummio cognomen virtute partum vindicavit. 

3 Diversi imperatoribus mores, diversa fuere studia : 
quippe Scipio tam elegans UberaHum studiorum 
omnisque doctrinae et auctor et admirator fuit, ut 
Polybium Panaetiumque, praecellentes ingenio viros, 
domi militiaeque secum habuerit. Neque enim quis- 
quam hoc Scipione elegantius intervalla negotiorum 
otio dispunxit semperque aut belU aut pacis serviit 
artibus : semper inter arma ac studia versatus aut 
corpus pericuhs aut animum disciphnis exercuit. 

4 Mummius tam rudis fuit, ut capta Corintho cum 
maximorum artificum perfectas manibus tabulas ac 
statuas in Itaham portandas locaret, iuberet praedici 
conducentibus, si eas perdidissent, novas eos red- 

^ L. Rhenanus', a B ; A AP. 

• 146 B.c. 

* A man who was the first of his family to hold a curule 
office was callcd a novus homo or " new man." 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xii. 7— xiii. 4 

as of a city still standing : to such an extent does 
hatred begotten of conflict outlast the fear which 
caused it ; it is not laid aside even when the foe is 
vanquished nor does the object of it cease to be 
hated until it has ceased to be. 

XIII. Cato, the constant advocate of her destrue- 
tion, died three years before the fall of Carthage, in 
the consulship of Lucius Censorinus and Manius 
Manihus. In the same year in wliich Carthage fell 
Lucius Mummius destroyed Corinth " to her very 
foundations, nine hundred and fifty-two years after 
her founding by Aletes, son of Hippos. The two 
conquerors were honoured by the names of the 
conquered races. The one was surnamed Africanus, 
the other Achaicus. Before Mummius no new man * 
earned for himself a cognomen won by miUtary 

The two commanders differed in their characters 
as in their tastes. Scipio was a cultivated patron 
and admirer of hberal studies and of every form of 
learning, and kept constantly with him, at home and 
in the field, two men of eminent genius, Polybius 
and Panaetius. No one ever relieved the duties of 
active Ufe by a more refined use of his intervals 
of leisure than Scipio, or was more constant in 
his devotion to the arts either of war or peace. 
Ever engaged in the pursuit of arms or his studies, 
he was either training his body by exposing it to 
dangers or his mind by learning. Mummius was 
so uncultivated that when, after the capture of 
Corinth, he was contracting for the transportation 
to Italy of pictures and statues by the hands of the 
greatest artists, he gave instructions that the 
contractors should be warned that if they lost them, 



5 dituros. Non tamenputo dubites, Vinici, quin magis 
pro re publica fuerit manere adhuc rudem Corin- 
thiorum intellectum quam in tantum ea intellegi, et 
quin hac prudentia illa imprudentia decori publico 
fuerit convenientior. 

1 XIV. Cum facilius cuiusque rei in unam contracta 
species quam divisa temporibus oculis animisque 
inhaereat, statui priorem huius voluminis posterio- 
remque partem non inutili rerum notitia in artum 
contracta distinguere atque huic loco inserere, quae 
quoque tempore post Romam a Gallis captam deducta 
sit colonia iussu senatus ; nam miHtarium et causae 
et auctores ex ipsarum praefulgent nomine. Huic 
rei per idem tempus civitates propagatas auctumque 
Romanum nomen communione iuris haud intem- 
pestive subtexturi videmur. 

2 Post septem annos quam Galli urbem ceperant,^ 
Sutrium deducta colonia est et post annum Setia 
novemque interiectis annis Nepe, deinde interpositis 
duobus et triginta Aricini^ in civitatem recepti. 

3 Abhinc annos autem trecentos et sexaginta^ Sp. Pos- 

tumio Veturio Calvino consuHbus Campanis data est 

civitas partique Samnitium sine suffragio, et eodem 

1 ceperant Madvig ; ceperunt AP. 

^ Aricini et A ; Orelli supposes that om or more names 
have dropped out. 
^ ccci-x Laurent. ; cccl AP. 

« I am inclined to think that Velleius had in mind the fad 
for collecting Corinthian bronze referred to in Petronius, 
ch. 50. It is possible that he even means this in Corinthiorum, 
in which case he is in error. For the sentiment cf. Plutarch, 
Marcelhis, ch. 27. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xiii. 5— xiv. 3 

thev would have to replace them by new ones. Yet 
I do not think, Vinicius, that you would hesitate to 
concede that it would have been more useful to the 
state for the appreciation of Corinthian works of art 
to have remained uncultivated to the present day, 
than that they should be appreciated to the extent 
to which they now are, and that the ignorance of 
those days was more conducive to the pubhc weal 
than our present artistic knowledge." 

XIV. Inasmuch as related facts make more 
impression upon the mind and eye when grouped 
together than when they are given separately in 
their chronological sequence, I have decided to 
separate the first part of this work from the second 
by a useful summary, and to insert in this place an 
account, with the date, of each colony founded bv 
order of the senate since the capture of Rome by 
the Gauls ; for, in the case of the mihtary colonies, 
their very names reveal their origins and their 
founders. And it will perhaps not seem out of place, 
if, in this connexion, we weave into our historv 
the various extensions of the citizenship and the 
growth of the Roman name through granting to 
others a share in its priWleges. 

Seven years after the capture of the city by the 
Gauk a colony was founded at Sutrium, another a 
year later at Setia, and another after an interval of 
nine years at Nepe. Thirty-two years later the 
Aricians were admitted to the citizenship. Three 
hundred and sixty years from the present date, in 
the consulship of Spurius Postumius and Veturius 
Calvinus, the citizenship ^\-ithout the right of voting 
was given to the Campanians and a portion of the 
Samnites, and in the same year a colony was 



anno Cales deducta colonia. Interiecto deinde 
triennio Fundani et Formiani in civitatem recepti, 

4 eo ipso anno, quo Alexandria condita est. In- 
sequentibusque consulibus a Sp. Postumio Philone 
Publilio censoribus Acerranis data civitas. Et post 
triennium Tarracina^ deducta colonia interpositoque 
quadriennio Luceria ac deinde interiecto triennio 
Suessa Aurunca et Saticula, Interamnaque post bien- 

5 nium. Decem deinde hoc munere anni vacaverunt : 
tunc Sora atque Alba deductae coloniae et Carseoli 

6 post biennium. At Q. I'abio quintum- Decio Mure 
quartum consuHbus, quo anno Pyrrhus regnare 
coepit, Sinuessam Minturnasque missi coloni, post 
quadriennium Venusiam : interiectoque biennio M'. 
Curio et Rufino Cornelio consuHbus Sabinis sine 
suffragio data civitas : id actum ante annos ferme tre- 

7 centos etviginti. At Cosam^ et Paestum abhinc annos 
ferme trecentos Fabio Dorsone et Claudio Canina 
consuhbus, interiectoque^ quinquennio Sempronio 
Sopho et Appio Caeci fiho consulibus Ariminum et^ 
Beneventum coloni missi et suffragii ferendi ius 

8 Sabinis datum. At initio primi belH Punici Firmum 
et Castrum colonis occupata, et post annum Aesernia 
postque septem et decem^ annos Aefulum et Alsium 
Fregenaeque post' biennium proximoque anno Tor- 

^ Tarracina Lipsius ; Tarracinam AP. 

^ ad quintum fabioque AP. 

' Cosa BA ; Cossa P. 

* interiectoque Madvig ; interiecto AP. 

^ et omilted in P. 

" XVII Aldws ; XXII AP. 

' post Gelenius ; anno post AP. 

" 334 B.c. " 332 B.c. « 295 n.c. 

<« 290 B.c. • 270 B.C. ' 266 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xiv. 3-8 

established at Cales." Then, after an interval of 
three years, the people of Fundi and of Formiae 
were adniitted to the citizenship, in the very year 
of the founding of Alexandria. In the follo\nng 
year the citizenship was granted to the inhabitants 
of Acerra by the censors Spurius Postumius and Philo 
Publilius.* Three years later a colony was estabhshed 
at Tarracina, four years afterwards another at 
Luceria ; others three years later at Suessa Aurunca 
and Saticula, and another two years after these 
at Interamna. After that the work of colonization 
was suspended for ten years. Then the colonies of 
Sora and Alba were founded, and two years later 
that of Carseoli. But in the fifth consulship of 
Quintus Fabius, and the fourth of Decius Mus," the 
year in which King Pyrrhus began his reign, colonists 
were sent to Minturnae and Sinuessa, and four years 
afterwards to Venusia. After an interval of two 
years the citizenship without the right of suffrage 
was given to the Sabines in the consulship of Manius 
Curius and Rufinus Cornelius.'' This event took 
place three hundred and twenty years ago. In the 
consulship of Fabius Dorso and Claudius Canina, 
three hundred years before the present date, 
colonies were established* at Cosa and Paestum. 
After an interval of five years, in the consulship of 
Sempronius Sophus-' and Appius, the son of Appius 
the Blind, colonists were sent to Ariminiun and 
Beneventum and the right of sufFrage was granted 
to the Sabines. At the outbreak of the First Punic 
War Firmum and Castrum were occupied by colonies, 
a year later Aesemia, Aefulum and Alsium seventeen 
years later, and Fregenae two years afterward. 
Brundisium was established in the next year in the 



quato Sempronioque consulibus Brundisium et post 
triennium Spoletium, quo anno Floralium ludorum 
factum est initium. Postque biennium deducta^ 
Valentia et sub adventum in Italiam Hannibalis 
Cremona atque Placentia. 

1 XV. Deinde neque dum Hannibal in Italia moratur, 
neque proximis post excessum eius annis vacavit 
Romanis colonias condere, cum esset in bello con- 
quirendus potius miles quam dimittendus et post 
bellum vires refovendae magis quam spargendae. 

2 Cn. autem Manlio Volsone et Fulvio Nobiliore con- 
sulibus Bononia deducta colonia abhinc annos ferme 
ducentos septendecim, et post quadriennium Pisau- 
rum ac Potentia interiectoque triennio Aquileia et 

3 Gravisca et post quadriennium Luca. Eodem tem- 
porum tractu, quamquam apud quosdam ambigitur. 
Puteolos Salemumque et Buxentum missi coloni, 
Auximum autem in Picenum abhinc annos ferme 
centum octoginta quinque,'^ ante triennium quam 
Cassius censor a Lupercah in Palatium versus thea- 
trum facere instituit, cui in eo moliendo^ eximia 
civitatis severitas et consul Scipio restitere, quod 
ego inter clarissima pubhcae voluntatis argumenta 

4 numeraverim. Cassio autem Longino et Sextio 
Calvino, qui Sallues apud aquas, quae ab eo Sextiae 
appellantur, devicit, consuhbus Fabrateria deducta 
est abhinc annos ferme centum quinquaginta tris.* 

^ ducta AP, * CLxxxv Burman ; clxxxvii AP. 

• iii eo moliendo SalmasUis ; in demoliendo AP. 
* CLiii Krause ; clvii AP ; cui Lips. 

• 245 B.C. * 244 B.c. • 124 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xiv. 8— xv. 4 

consukhip of Torquatus and Sempronius," Spoletium 
three years afterwards in the year in whieh the 
Floralia were instituted. Two years afterwards a 
colony was estabhshed at Valentia, and Cremona 
and Placentia were estabhshed just before Hannibars 
arrival in Italy. 

XV. Thereafter, during Hannibars stay in Italy, 
and in the next few years subsequent to his departure, 
the Romans had no leisure for the founding of 
colonies, since, while the war lasted, they had to find 
soldiers, rather than muster them out, and, after it 
was over, the strength of the city needed to be 
revived and concentrated rather than to be dispersed. 
But, about two hundred and seventeen years ago, 
in the consulship of ManUus Volso and Fulvius 
NobiHor,* a colony was estabhshed at Bononia, others 
four years later at Pisaurum and Potentia, others 
three years later still at Aquileia and Gravisca, and 
another four years afterwards at Luca. About the 
same time, although the date is questioned by some, 
colonists were sent to Puteoh, Salemum, and 
Buxentum, and to Auximum in Picenum, one 
hundred and eighty-five years ago, three years 
before Cassius the censor began the building of a 
theatre beginning at the Lupercal and facing the 
Palatine. But the remarkable austerity of the state 
and Scipio the consul successfuUy opposed Him 
in its building, an incident which I regard as one 
of the clearest indications of the attitude of the 
people of that time. In the consulship of Cassius 
Longinus and Sextius Calvinus^ — the Sextius who 
defeated the Sallues at the waters which are called 
Aquae Sextiae from his name — Fabrateria was 
founded about one hundred and fifty-three years 



Et post annum Scolacium Minervium, Tarentum 
Neptunia, Carthagoque in Africa, prima, ut prae- 
5 diximus, extra Italiam colonia condita est. De 
Dertona ambigitur, Narbo autem Martius in Gallia 
Porcio Marcioque consulibus abhinc annos circiter 
centum quadi-aginta sex^ deducta colonia est. Post 
duodeviginti- annos in Bagiennis Eporedia Mario 
sextum^ Valerioque Flacco consulibus. Neque facile 
memoriae mandaverim quae, nisi militaris, post hoc 
tempus deducta sit. 

1 XVI. Cum haec particula operis velut formam pro- 
positi excesserit, quamquam intellego mihi in hac 
tam praecipiti festinatione, quae me rotae pronive 
gurgitis ac verticis modo nusquam patitur consistere, 
paene magis necessaria praetereunda quam super- 
vacua* amplectenda, nequeo tamen temperare mihi, 
quin rem saepe agitatam animo meo neque ad 

2 liquidum ratione perductam signem stilo. Quis enim 
abunde mirari potest, quod eminentissima cuiusque 
professionis ingenia in eandem^ formam et in idem 
artati temporis congruere* spatium, et quemad- 
modum clausa capso'' aliove^ saepto diversi generis 
animalia nihilo minus separata ahenis in unum 
quodque^ corpus congregantur, ita cuiusque clari 
operis capacia ingenia in simihtudine et temporum 
et profectuum semet ipsa ab aUis separaverunt. 

^ cxLvi Lipsius', CLiii AP. ^ xviii Aldus; xxiii AP. 

" sextum Cludius ; sexiens (-es) BAP. 

* supervacua P ; supervania A ; supervacanea OreUi. 

* in eam AP. 

• congruere Heinsius ; congruens AP. 

' capso BA ; capsa P. 

* aWone Lipsius ; alioque ^P. 

* quodque Heinsius ; quoque AP. 

« 118 B.c. " 100 B.C. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xv. 4— xvi. 2 

before the present date, and in the next year 
Scolacium Minervium, Tarentum Neptunia, and 
Carthage in Africa — the first colony founded outside 
of Italy, as already stated. In regard to Dertona 
the date is in question. A colony was estabhshed at 
Narbo Martius in Gaul about one hundred and 
forty-six years ago in the consulship of Porcius 
and Marcius." Eighteen years later Eporedia was 
founded in the country of the Bagienni in the consul- 
ship of Marius, then consul for the sixth time,* and 
Valerius Flaccus. 

It would be difficult to mention any colony founded 
after this date, except the mihtary colonies. 

XVI. Although this portion of my work has already, 
as it were, outgrown my p!an, and although I am 
aware that in my headlong haste — which, just hke a 
revolving wheel or a down - rushing and eddying 
stream, never suffers me to stop — I am almost 
obhged to omit matters of essential importance 
rather than to include unessential details, yet I 
cannot refrain from noting a subject which has often 
occupied my thoughts but has never been clearly 
reasoned out. For who can marvel sufficiently 
that the most distinguished minds in each branch 
of human achievement have happened to adopt 
the same form of effort, and to have fallen within 
the same narrow space of time ? Just as animals 
of different species when shut in the same pen 
or other enclosure still segregate themselves from 
those which are not of their kind, and gather 
together each in its own group, so the minds that 
have had the capacity for distinguished achievement 
of each kind have set themselves apart from the 
rest by doing hke things in the same period of 



3 Una neque multorum annorum spatio divisa aetas 
per divini spiritus viros, Aeschylum Sophoclen 
Euripiden, inlustravit tragoediam^ ; una priscam 
illam et veterem sub Cratino Aristophaneque et Eu- 
polide comoediam ; ac novam comicam^ Menander^ 
aequalesque eius* aetatis magis quam operis Philemo 
ac Diphilus et invenere intra paucissimos annos 

4 neque imitandam rehquere. Philosophorum quoque 
ingenia Socratico ore defluentia omnium, quos paulo 
ante enumeravimus, quanto post Platonis AristoteUs- 

5 que mortem floruere spatio ? Quid ante Isocratem, 
quid post eius auditores eorumque discipulos clarum 
in oratoribus fuit ? Adeo quidem^ artatum angustiis 
temporum, ut nemo memoria dignus alter ab altero 
videri nequiverint. 

1 XVII. Neque hoc in Graecis quam in Romanis 
evenit magis. Nam nisi aspera ac rudia repetas et 
inventi laudanda nomine, in Accio circaque eum^ 
Romana tragoedia est ; dulcesque Latini leporis 
facetiae per Caecihum Terentiumque et Afranium 

2 subpari aetate nituerunt. Historicos etiam,' ut 
Livium quoque priorum aetati adstruas, praeter 
Catonem et quosdam veteres et obscuros minus 

' tragoediam Burman ; tragoedias AP. 
2 novam comicam AP, defended hy Thomasi novam 
comoediam Gruner. 

■ Menander A ; Menandrus P. 

* Madvig inserts non after eius. 

•* adeo quidem AP ; adeo id quidem Haase. 
' eum is Burer^s conjecture ; eorum AP. 
"^ etiam Vossiu^; et AP. 

« As they do not occur in the extant portion of the work 
we must assume that they were mentioned in the portion 
which has been lost. 

* He is here referring to comedy. One wonders why the 
name of Plautus is omitted from the list. Has the name of 

HISTORY OF ROME, I. xvi. 3— xvii. 2 

time. A single epoch, and that only of a few years' 
duration, gave lustre to tragedy through three men 
of di\-ine inspiration, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides. So, with Comedy, a single age brought to 
perfection that early form, the Old Comedy, through 
the agency of Cratinus, Aristophanes, and EupoUs ; 
while Menander, and Philemon and Diphilus, his 
equals in age rather than in performance, mthin the 
space of a very few years invented the New Comedy 
and left it to defy imitation. The great philosophers, 
too, who received their inspiration from the hps of 
Socrates — their names we gave a moment ago''— 
how long did they flourish after the death of Plato 
and of Aristotle ? What distinction was there in 
oratory before Isocrates, or after the time of his 
disciples and in turn of their pupils ? So crowded 
were they into a brief epoch that there were no two 
worthy of mention who could not have seen each 

XVII. This phenomenon occurred among the 

Romans as well as among the Greeks. For, unless 

] one goes back to the rough and crude beginnings, 

i and to men whose sole claim to praise is that they 

I were the pioneers, Roman tragedy centres in and 

about Accius ; and the sweet pleasantry of Latin 

humour* reached its zenith in practically the same 

age under CaeciUus, Terentius, and Afranius. In 

the case of the historians also, if one adds Livy to 

the period of the older writers, a single epoch, 

comprised within the hmits of eighty years, produced 

them all, with the exception of Cato and some of the 

Plautus dropped out of the text or is Velleius following the 
Augustan tradition expressed by Horace in the Ars Poetica 



octoginta annis circumdatum aevum tulit, ut nec 
poetarum in antiquius citeriusve processit ubertas. 

3 At oratio ac vis forensis perfectumque prosae elo- 
quentiae decus, ut idem separetur Cato (pace P. 
Crassi Scipionisque et Laelii et Gracchorum et Fannii 
et Servii Galbae dixerim) ita universa sub principc 
operis sui erupit Tullio, ut delectari ante eum paucis- 
simis, mirari vero neminem possis nisi aut ab illo 

4 visum aut qui illum viderit. Hoc idem evenisse 
grammaticis, plastis, pictoribus, scalptoribus quisquis 
temporum institerit notis, reperiet, eminentiam^ 
cuiusque operis artissimis temporum claustris circum- 

5 Huius ergo recedentis in suum quodque saeculum^ 
ingeniorum similitudinis congregantisque se et in 
studium par et in emolumentum causas cum saepe^ 
requiro, numquam reperio, quas esse veras confidam, 
sed fortasse veri similes, inter quas has maxime. 

6 AHt aemulatio ingenia,et nuncinvidia,nunc admiratio 
imitationem accendit, naturaque quod summo studio 
petitum est, ascendit in summum difficihsque in 
perfecto mora est, naturaHterque quod procedere 

7 non potest, recedit, Et ut primo ad consequendos 
quos priores ducimus* accendimur, ita ubi aut prae- 
teriri aut aequari eos posse desperavimus, studium 
cum spe senescit, et quod adsequi non potest, sequi 

1 reperiet et eminentiam P ; reperiet eminentia AB. 

^ recedentis in suum quodque saeculum] / have here 
adopted the reading of Madvii/ for this tortured passage. 
For the readiiigs of ABF and the various conjectiires see 

• saepe Madvig; semper AP. * quo priores ducimur A. 


HISTORY OF ROME, I. xvii. 2-7 

old and obscure authors. Like^^ise the period which 
was productive of poets does not go back to an 
earlier date or continue to a later. Take oratory and 
the forensic art at its best, the perfected splendour of 
eloquence in prose, if we again except Cato — and 
this I say with due respect to Pubhus Crassus, Scipio, 
Laehus, the Gracchi, Fannius, and Ser\ius Galba — 
eloquence, I say, in all its branches burst into flower 
under Cicero, its chief exponent, so that there are 
few before his day whom one can read A\-ith pleasure, 
and none whom one can admire, except men who 
had either seen Cicero or had been seen by him. 
One Nvill also find, if he follows up the dates closely, 
that the same thing holds true of the grammarians, 
the workers in clay, the painters, the sculptors, and 
that pre-eminence in each phase of art is confined 
within the narrowest Umits of time. 

Though I frequently search for the reasons why 
men of similar talents occur exclusively in certain 
epochs and not only flock to one pursuit but also 
attain hke success, I can never find any of whose 
truth I am certain, though I do find some which 
perhaps seem hkely, and particularly the follow^ng 
Genius is fostered by emulation, and it is now envy, 
now admiration, which enkindles imitation, and, in 
the nature of things, that which is cultivated with 
the highest zeal advances to the highest perfection ; 
but it is difficult to continue at the point of per- 
fection, and naturally that which cannot advance 
must recede. And as in the beginning we are fired 
with the ambition to overtake those whom we regard 
as leaders, so when we have despaired of being able 
either to surpass or even to equal them, our zeal 
wanes with our hope ; it ceases to follow what it 



desinit et velut occupatam relinquens materiam 
quaerit novam, praeteritoque eo, in quo eminere 
non possumus, aliquid, in quo nitamur, conquirimus, 
sequiturque ut frequens ac mobilis transitus maximiun 
perfecti operis impedimentum sit. 

1 XVIIL Transit admiratio ab condicione^ temporum 
et ad urbium. Una urbs Attica pluribus omnis'^ 
eloquentiae quam universa Graecia operibus usque^ 
floruit adeo ut corpora gentis illius separata sint in 
alias civitates, ingenia vero solis Atheniensium 

2 muris clausa existimes. Neque hoc ego magis 
miratus sim quam neminem Argivum Thebanum 
Lacedaemonium oratorem aut dum vixit auctori- 
tate aut post mortem memoria dignum existimatum. 

3 Quae urbes eximiae alias* talium studiorum fuere 
steriles, nisi Thebas unum os Pindari inluminaret : 
nam Alcmana Lacones falso sibi vindicant. 


l I. Potentiae Romanorum prior Scipio viam aperue- 

rat, luxuriae posterior aperuit : quippe remoto Car- 

thaginis metu sublataque imperii aemula non gradu, 

sed praecipiti cursu a virtute descitum, ad vitia 

^ ab condicione Schegk ; ad conditionem AP. 

* pluribus oranis Froelich ; pluribus annis AP ; pluribus 
auctoribus Ilalm. 

* operibus usque Ellis after AcidaUus', operibusque AP, 
For other conjectures see Ellis, p. 19. 

* exiraiae alias Faehse and Haupt ; et initalia AB, om. P ; 
et in alia Ilalm. 

" Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus the elder had 
brought the Second Punic War to a close by defeating the 
Carthaginians at Zaraa in 202 B.c. The younger Scipio had 
destroyed Carthage in 146. 

HISTORY OF ROME, I. xvii. 7— II. i. 1 

cannot overtake, and abandoning the old field as 
though pre-empted, it seeks a new one. Passing 
over that in which we cannot be pre-eminent, we 
seek for some new object of our efFort. It foUows 
that the greatest obstacle in the way of perfection 
in any work is our fickle way of passing on at 
fi-equent intervals to something else. 

XVIII. From the part played by epochs our 
wonder and admiration next passes to that played bv 
indi\idual cities. A single city of Attica blossomed 
with more masterpieces of every kind of eloquence 
than all the rest of Greece together — to such a 
degree, in fact, that one would think that although 
the bodies of the Greek race were distributed among 
the other states, their intellects were confined within 
the waUs of Athens alone. Nor have I more reason 
for wonder at this than that not a single Argive or 
Theban or Lacedaemonian was esteemed worthy, 
as an orator, of commanding influence while he hved, 
or of being remembered after his death. These cities, 
otherwise distinguished, were barren of such literary 
pursuits with the single exception of the lustre which 
the voice of Pindar gave to Thebes ; for, in the case 
of Alcman, the claim which the Laconians lay to him 
is spurious. 


I. The frrst of the Scipios opened the way for the 
world power of the Romans ; the second opened the 
way for luxur}"." For, when Rome was freed of 
the fear of Carthage, and her rival in empire was 
out of her way, the path of virtue was abandoned 
for that of corruption, not gradually, but in headlong 



transcursum ; vetus disciplina deserta, nova inducta ; 
in somnum a vigiliis, ab armis ad voluptates, a negotiis 

2 in otium conversa civitas. Tum Scipio Nasica in 
Capitolio porticus, tum, quas praediximus, Metellus, 
tum in circo Cn. Octavius multo amoenissimam moliti 
sunt, publicamque magnificentiam secuta privata 
luxuria est. 

3 Triste deinde et contumeliosum bellum in Hispania 
duce latronum Viriatho secutum est : quod ita varia 
fortuna gestum est, ut saepius Romanorum gereretur 
adversa. Sed interempto Viriatho fraude magis 
quam virtute Servilii Caepionis Numantinum gravius 

4 exarsit. Haec urbs numquam plura quam decem 
milia'^ propriae iuventutis armavit, sed vel ferocia 
ingenii vel inscitia nostrorum ducum vel fortunae 
indulgentia cum aUos duces, tum Pompeium magni 
nominis virum ad turpissima deduxit foedera (hic 
primus e Pompeis consul fuit), nec minus turpia 

6 ac detestabiUa Mancinum HostiUum consulem. Sed 
Pompeium gratia impunitum habuit, Mancinum 
verecundia poenam^ non recusando perduxit huc, ut 
per fetiahs nudus ac post tergum rehgatis manibus 
dederetur hostibus. Quem ilh recipere se negaverunt, 

^ nunquam x. plura quam propriae AP, corrected hy Aldut>. 
^ poenam Halm ; quippe AP. 

» The war with Viriathus had already begun in 148 b.c. 
It ended in 140 by the treacherous murder of Viriathus. 

' Quintus Pompeius was consul in 141 b.c. In the next 
year he was forced to raake the treaty with the enemy whic^h 
the senate refused to ratify. 

« Caius Hostilius Mancinus was consul in 137 b.c. The 
treaty with the Numantines was made in 136. 

^ These priests were charged with the duty of maintaining 
the forms of international relationship and oflBciated at the 
making of treaties. 



course. The older discipline was discarded to give 
place to the new. The state passed from vigilance 
to slumber. from the pursuit of arms to the pursuit 
of pleasure, from activity to idleness. It was at this 
time that there were built, on the Capitol, the 
porticoes of Scipio Nasica, the porticoes of Metellus 
already mentioned, and, in the Circus, the portico 
of Gnaeus Octavius, the most splendid of them all ; 
and private luxury soon followed public extrav- 

Then followed a war that was disastrous and 
disgraceful to the Romans, the war in Spain with 
Viriathus," a guerilla chief. The fortunes of this war 
during its progress shifted constantly and were, more 
frequently than not, adverse to the Romans. On the 
death of Viriathus through the perfidy rather than 
the valour of ServiUus Caepio, there broke out 
in Numantia a war that was more serious still. 
Numantia city was never able to arm more than ten 
thousand men of its o^\ti ; but, whether it was owing 
to her native valour, or to the inexperience of our 
soldiers, or to the mere kindness of fortune, she 
compelled first other generals, and then Pompey, 
a man of great name (he was the first of his 
family to hold the consulship^) to sign disgraceful 
treaties, and forced Mancinus Hostilius"" to terms 
no less base and hateful. Pompey, however, escaped 
punishment through his influence. As for Mancinus 
his sense of shame, in that he did not try to evade 
the consequences, caused him to be delivered to 
the enemy by the fetial priests,'' naked, and with 
his hands bound behind his back. The Numantines, 
however.. refused to receive him, following the 
example of the Samnites at an earher day at 



sicut quondam Caudini fecerant,^ dicentes publicam 
violationem fidei non debere unius lui sanguine. 

1 n. Inmanem deditio Mancini civitatis movit dis- 
sensionem. Quippe Tiberius Gracchus, Tiberii Grac- 
chi clarissimi atque eminentissimi viri filius, P. 
Africani ex filia nepos, quo quaestore et auctore id 
foedus ictum erat, nunc graviter ferens aliquid a 
se pactum^ infirmari, nunc similis vel iudicii vel 
poenae metuens discrimen, tribunus pl. creatus, vir 
ahoqui vita innocentissimus, ingenio florentissimus, 

2 proposito sanctissimus, tantis denique adornatus 
virtutibus, quantas perfecta et natura et industria 
mortalis condicio recipit, P. Mucio Scaevola L. Cal- 
purnio consuHbus abhinc annos centum sexaginta 
duos descivit a bonis, pollicitusque toti Italiae civita- 

3 tem,simul etiam promulgatis agrariis legibus,omnibus 
statim^ concupiscentibus, summa imis miscuit et in 
praeruptum atque anceps periculum adduxit rem 
publicam. Octavioque collegae pro bono publico 
stanti imperium abrogavit, triumviros agris divi- 
dendis colonisque deducendis creavit se socerumque 
suum, consularem Appium, et Gaium fratrem admo- 
dum iuvenem. 

1 III. Tum P. Scipio Nasica, eius qui optimus vir a 
senatu iudicatus erat, nepos, eius qui censor porticus 

1 fecerant Ileinslus ; fecerunt AP. 
* pactum Kreyssig ; factum AP. 

• statum P ; statim Gelenius ; factum A ; ista tum Haupt. 

" In the year 321 b.c. the consuls Titus Veturius Calvinus 
and Spurius Postumius were trapped by the Samnites in the 
Caudine pass and were forced to agree to terms which were 
subsequently repudiated by the senate. ' 133 b.c. 

* Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, consul in 191 b.c. 
Livy states that in 204 b.c, although he was not yet of 
suflBcient age to obtain the quaestorship, he was nevertheless 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. i. 5— iii. 1 

Caudium," saying that a national breach of faith 
should not be atoned for by the blood of one man. 

II. The surrender of Mancinus aroused in the state 
& quarrel of vast proportions. Tiberius Gracchus, 
the son of Tiberius Gracchus, an illustrious and an 
eminent citizen, and the grandson, on his mother's 
side, of Scipio Africanus, had been quaestor in the 
army of Mancinus and had negotiated the treaty. 
Indignant, on the one hand, tliat any of his acts 
should be disavowed, and fearing the danger of a 
hke trial or a hke punishment, he had himself elected 
tribune of the people. He was a man of otherwise 
blameless hfe, of brilhant intellect, of upright 
intentions, and, in a word, endowed with the highest 
virtues of which a man is capable when favoured by 
nature and by training. In the consulship of PubUus 
Mucius Scaevola and Lucius Calpurnius ' (one 
hundred and sixty-two years ago), he spht with the 
party of the nobles, promised the citizenship to all 
Italy, and at the same time, by proposing agrarian 
laws which all immediately desired to see in opera- 
tion, turned the state topsyturvy, and brought it into a 
position of critical and extreme danger. He abrogated 
the power of his colleague Octa\ius, who defended 
the interests of the state, and appointed a com- 
mission of three to assign lands and to found colonies, 
consisting of himself, his father-in-law the ex-consul 
Appius, and his brother Gaius, then a very young man. 

III. At this crisis Pubhus Scipio Nasica appeared. 
He was the grandson of the Scipio'' who had 
been adjudged by the senate the best citizen of 

adjudged by the senate to be the best citizen in the state 
and, as such, was designated to receive the statue of the 
Great Mother when it was brought to Rome. 



in Capitolio fecerat, filius, pronepos autem Cn. 
Scipionis, celeberrimi viri P. Africani patrui, privatus- 
que et togatus, cum esset consobrinus Ti. Gracchi, 
patriam cognationi praeferens et quidquid publice 
salutare non esset, privatim alienum existimans (ob 
eas virtutes primus omnium absens pontifex maximus 
factus est), circumdata laevo brachio togae lacinia 
ex superiore parte Capitolii summis gradibus insistens 
hortatus est, qui salvam vellent rem pubUcam, se 

2 sequerentur. Tum optimates, senatus atque eques- 
tris ordinis pars meUor et maior, et intacta perniciosis 
consiHis plebs inruere in Gracchum stantem in area 
cum catervis suis et concientem paene totius Italiae 
frequentiam. Is fugiens decurrensque clivo Capi- 
tolino, fragmine subselhi ictus vitam, quam gloriosis- 

3 sime degere potuerat, immatura morte finivit. Hoc 
initium in urbe Roma civiUs sanguinis gladiorumque 
impunitatis fuit. Inde ius vi obrutum potentiorque 
habitus prior, discordiaeque civium antea condi- 
cionibus sanari soUtae ferro diiudicatae beUaque non 
causis inita, sed prout eorum merces fuit. Quod 

4 haut mirum est : non enim ibi consistunt exempla, 


the state, the son of the Scipio who, as censor, 
had built the porticoes on the Capitol, and great- 
grandson of Gnaeus Scipio, that illustrious man 
who was the paternal uncle of PubUus Scipio 
Africanus. Although he was a cousin of Tiberius 
Gracchus, he set his country before all ties of 
blood, choosing to regard as contrary to his private 
interests everything that was not for the pubUc 
weal, a quaUty which eamed for him the distinction 
of being the first man to be elected pontifex maximus 
in absentia. He held no pubUc office at this time 
and was clad in the toga. Wrapping the fold of his 
toga about his left forearm he stationed himself on 
the topmost steps of the Capitol and simimoned all 
those who -v^-ished for the safety of the state to foUow 
him. Then the optimates, the senate, the larger 
and better part of the equestrian order, and those 
of the plebs who were not yet infected by pernicious 
theories rushed upon Gracchus as he stood ^\"ith his 
bands in the area of the Capitol and was haranguing 
a throng assembled from aknost every part of Italy. 
As Gracchus fled, and was running down the steps 
which led from the Capitol, he was struck by the 
fragment of a bench, and ended by an untimely 
death the Ufe which he might have made a glorious 
one. This was the beginning in Rome of ci\il blood- 
shed, and of the Ucence of the sword. From this time 
on right was crushed by might, the most powerful 
now took precedence in the state, the disputes of 
the citizens which were once healed by amicable 
agreements were now settled by arms, and wars 
were now begun not for good cause but for what 
profit there was in them. Nor is this to be 
wondered at ; for precedents do not stop where 



unde coeperunt, sed quamlibet in tenuem recepta 
tramitem latissime evagandi sibi viam faciunt, et 
ubi semel recto deerratum est, in praeceps pervenitur, 
nec quisquam sibi putat turpe, quod alii fuit fruc- 

1 IV. Interim, dum haec in Italia geruntur, Aris- 
tonicus, qui^ mortuo rege Attalo, a quo Asia populo 
Romano hereditate rehcta erat, sicut relicta postea 
est a Nicomede Bithynia, mentitus regiae stirpis 
originem armis eam occupaverat, is victus a M. 
Perpenna ductusque in triumpho, set a M'. Aquilio, 
capite poenas dedit, cum initio belH Crassum Mu- 
cianum, virum iuris scientissimum, decedentem ex 
Asia proconsulem interemisset. 

2 Af- P. Scipio Africanus Aemilianus, qui Cartha- 
ginem deleverat, post tot acceptas circa Numantiam 
clades creatus iterum consul missusque in Hispaniam 
fortunae virtutique expertae in Africa respondit in 
Hispania, et intra annum ac tris menses, quam eo 
venerat, circumdatam operibus Numantiam excisam- 

3 que aequavit solo. Nec quisquam ulhus gentis 
hominum ante eum clariore urbium excidio nomen 
suum perpetuae commendavit memoriae : quippe 
excisa Carthagine ac Numantia ab alterius nos metu, 

4 alterius vindicavit contumehis. Hic, eum interro- 
gante tribuno Carbone, quid de Ti. Gracchi caede 

^ qui is hracketed by Gelenius, hut may he the result of care- 
less writing. ^ At Vossiiis ; et P. 

<• 133 B.c. » 134 B.c. « 133 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. iii. 4— iv. 4 

they begin, but, however narrow the path upon 
which they enter, they create for themselves a 
highway whereon they may wander with the 
utmost latitude ; and when once the path of right 
is abandoned, men are hurried into wrong in headlong 
haste, nor does anyone think a course is base for 
himself which has proven profitable to others. 

IV. While these events were taking place in Italy 
King Attalus had died," bequeathing Asia in his 
will to the Roman people, as Bithynia was later 
bequeathed to them by Nicomedes, and Aristonicus, 
falsely claiming to be a scion of the royal house, 
had forcibly seized the pro\ince. Aristonicus was 
subdued by Marcus Perpenna and was later led in 
triumphjbut by Manius Aquilius. He paid \nih his Ufe 
the penalty for haWng put to death at the very out- 
set of the war the celebrated jurist Crassus Mucianus, 
proconsul of Asia, as he was leaving liis province. 

After all the defeats experienced at Numantia, 
Publius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus, the destrover 
of Carthage, was a second time elected consuP 
and then dispatched to Spain, where he confirmed 
the reputation for good fortune and for valour which 
he had eamed in Africa. Within a year and three 
months after his arrival in Spain he surrounded 
Numantia \\-ith his siege works, destroyed the city 
and levelled it to the ground." No man of any 
nationahty before his day had immortaUzed his name 
by a more illustrious feat of destropng cities ; for 
by the destruction of Carthage and Numantia he 
liberated us, in the one case from fear, in the 
other from a reproach upon our name. This same 
Scipio, when asked by Carbo the tribune what he 
thought about the killing of Tiberius Gracchus, 



sentiret, respondit, si is occupandae rei publicae 
animum habuisset, iure caesum. Et cum omnis 
contio adclamasset, hostium, inquit, armatorum 
totiens clamore non territus, qui possum vestro 

5 moveri, quorum noverca est Italia ? Reversus in 
urbem intra breve tempus, M'. Aquilio C. Sem- 
pronio consuHbus abhinc annos centum et sexaginta,^ 
post duos consulatus duosque triumphos et bis 
excisos terrores rei pubUcae mane in lectulo repertus 
est mortuus, ita ut quaedam ehsarum faucium in 

6 cervice reperirentur notae. De tanti viri morte 
nulla habita est quaestio eiusque corpus velato 
capite elatum est, cuius opera super totum terrarum 
orbem Roma extulerat caput. Seu fatalem, ut 
plures, seu conflatam insidiis, ut ahqui prodidere 
memoriae, mortem obiit, vitam certe dignissimam 
egit, quae nulhus ad id temporis praeterquam avito 
fulgore vinceretur. Decessit anno ferme sexto et 

7 quinquagesimo : de quo si quis ambiget, recurrat 
ad priorem consulatum eius, in quem creatus est 
anno octavo et tricesimo^ : ita dubitare desinet. 

1 V. Ante tempus excisae Numantiae praeclara in 

Hispania mihtia D. Bruti fuit, qui penetratis omnibus 

Hispaniae gentibus ingenti vi hominum urbiumque 

^ cijc Laurent. ; ci. AP ; clvii Kritz. 
^ XXXVII! Puteanus ; xxxvi AP. 

' 129 B.c. 

* There was nothing unusual about wrapping up the head 
of a corpse (c/. Aurehus Victor 58 " obvoluto capite elatus 
est)." Velleius is apparently striving for the verbal effect, 
somewhat forced it is true, of the contrast between velato 
capite . . , extulerat caput. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. iv. 4— v. 1 

replied that he had been justly slain if his purpose 
had been to seize the govemment. WTien the 
■whole assembly cried out at this utterance he said, 
" How can I, -svho have so many times heard the 
battle shout of the enemy w-ithout feehng fear, be 
disturbed by the shouts of men hke you, to whom 
Italy is only a stepmother ? " A short time after 
Scipio's return to Rome, in the consulship of Manius 
Aquihus and Gaius Sempronius ^* — one hundred and 
sixty years ago — this man who had held two consul- 
ships, had celebrated two triumphs, and had t-nice 
destroyed cities which had brought terror to his 
country, was found in the morning dead in his bed 
with marks as though of strangulation upon his 
throat. Great man though he was, no inquest was 
held conceming the manner of his death, and with 
covered head * was borae to the grave the body of 
him whose services had enabled Rome to hft her 
head above the whole world. Whether his death 
was due to natural causes as most people think, or 
was the result of a plot, as some historians state, 
the hfe he Uved was at any rate so crowded ^viih 
honours that up to this time it was surpassed in 
brilhance by none, excepting only his grandsire."" 
He died in his fifty-sixth year. If anyone questions 
this let him call to mind his first consulship, to which 
he was elected in his thirty-eighth year, and he \sill 
cease to doubt. 

V. In Spain, even before the destruction of 
Numantia, Decimus Brutus had conducted a brilliant 
campaign in which he penetrated to all the peoples 
of the country, took a great niunber of men and 

• Publius Comelius Scipio Africanus, the victor of Zama. 



potitus numero, aditis quae vlx audita erant, Gal- 
laeci cognomen meruit. 

2 Et ante eum paucis annis tam severum illius Q. 
Macedonici in his gentibus imperium fuit, ut, cum 
urbem Contrebiam nomine in Hispania oppugnaret, 
pulsas praecipiti loco quinque cohortes legionarias 

3 eodem protinus subire iuberet, facientibusque omni- 
bus in procinctu testamenta, velut ad certam mortem 
eundum foret, non deterritus proposito,^ quem mori- 
turum miserat mihtem victorem recepit : tantum 
efFecit mixtus timori pudor spesque desperatione 
quaesita. Hic virtute ac severitate facti, at Fabius 
Aemilianus PauU exemplo discipHna in Hispania 
fuit clarissimus. 

1 VL Decem deinde interpositis annis, qui Ti. 
Gracchum, idem Gaium fratrem eius occupavit furor, 
tam virtutibus eius omnibus quam huic errori similem, 
ingenio etiam eloquentiaque longe praestantiorem. 

2 Qui cum summa quiete animi civitatis princeps esse 
posset, vel vindicandae fraternae mortis gratia vel 
praemuniendae regaHs potentiae eiusdem exempli 
tribunatum ingressus, longe maiora et acriora petens"^ 
dabat civitatem omnibus ItaUcis, extendebat eam 

3 paene usque Alpis, dividebat agros, vetabat quem- 

^ perseverantia ducis followed proposito in P. It was 
hracketed hy Davis as a rtum/inal gloss which had crept into 
the text. ^ petens Ruhnken ; re petens AP. 

» The cognomen was given for his partial subjugation of 
the Gallaeci, a people in western Hispania Tarraconensis 
inhabiting what is now Galicia and part of Portugal. 

» 123 B.c, 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. v. l— vi. 3 

cities and, by extending his operations to regions 
which hitherto had scarcely been heard of, eamed 
for himself the cognomen of Gallaecus." 

A few years before in this same country 
Qmntus Macedonicus had exercised command as 
general ^vith a discipline of remarkable rigour. For 
instance, in an assault upon a Spanish town called 
Contrebia he ordered five legionary cohorts, which 
had been driven down from a steep escarpment, 
forthwdth to march up it again. Though the soldiers 
were making their wills on the battlefield, as though 
they were about to march to certain death, he was 
not deterred, but aftersvards received the men, 
whom he sent forth to die, back in camp \actorious. 
Such was the effect of shame mingled with fear, and 
of a hope bom of despair. Macedonicus won renown in 
Spain by the uncompromising braven»' of tliis exploit ; 
Fabius Aemilianus, foUowing the example of Paulus 
on the other hand, by the severity of his disciphne. 

VI. After an interval of ten years the same mad- 
ness which had possessed Tiberius Gracchus now 
seized upon his brother Gaius, who resembled him 
in his general ^irtues as weU as in his mistaken 
ambition, but far surpassed him in abiUty and 
eloquence. Gaius might have been the first man in 
the state had he held his spirit in repose ; but, 
whether it was -with the object of avenging his 
brother's death or of pa^^ing the way for kingly 
power, he foUowed the precedent which Tiberius had 
set and entered upon the career of a tribune.* His 
aims, however, were far more ambitious and drastic. 
He was for giving the citizenship to aU ItaUans, 
extending it aknost to the Alps, distributing the 
public domain, limiting the holdings of each citizen 



quam civem plus quingentis iugeribus habere, 
quod aliquando lege Licinia cautum erat, nova 
constituebat portoria, novis coloniis replebat pro- 
vincias, iudicia a senatu transferebat ad equites, 
frumentum plebi dari instituerat ; nihil immotum, 
nihil tranquillum, nihil quietum, nihiP denique in 
eodem statu relinquebat ; quin alterum etiam con- 
tinuavit tribunatum. 

4 Hunc L. Opimius consul, qui praetor Fregellas 
exciderat, persecutus armis unaque Fulvium Flaccum, 
consularem ac triumphalem virum, aeque prava 
cupientem, quem C. Gracchus in locum Tiberii fratris 
triumvirum nominaverat,- eumque^ socium regahs 

5 adsumpserat potentiae, morte adfecit. Id unum 
nefarie ab Opimio proditum, quod capitis non dicam 
Gracchi, sed civis Romani pretium se daturum idque 

6 auro repensurum proposuit. Flaccus in Aventino 
armatos* ac pugnam ciens cum filio maiore iugulatus 
est ; Gracchus profugiens, cum iam comprehen- 
deretur ab iis, quos Opimius miserat, cervicem 
Euporo servo praebuit, qui non segnius se ipse 
interemit, quam domino succurrerat. Quo die sin- 
gularis Pomponii equitis Romani in Gracchum fides 
fuit, qui more Cochtis sustentatis in ponte hostibus 

^ nihil inserted hy Haase. 
^ nominaverat] Halm conjectured nomine, re autem. 
^ eum AP ; eumque Gelenius. 
* armatos Gelenius ; armatus AP. 

' This limitation of the amount of ager puhlicus which 
an individual might hold was one of the many rogationes 
proposed by the tribune C. Licinius Stolo in 375 b.c. and 
finally carried in 365, after ten years of constant struggle 
with the patricians. 

* 121 B.C. 


to five hundred acres as had once been pro^ided by 
the Licinian law," establishing new customs duties, 
fiUing the pro\-inces with new colonies, transferring 
the judicial powers from the senate to the equites, 
and began the practice of distributing grain to the 
people. He left nothing undisturbed, nothing un- 
touched, nothing unmolested, nothing, in short, as 
it had been. Furthermore he continued the exercise 
of his office for a second term. 

The consul, Lucius Opimius, who, as praetor, had 
destroved Fregellae, hunted do\\Ti Gracchus with 
armed men and put him to death,^ slapng yrith him 
Fuhius Flaccus, a man who, though now enter- 
taining the same distorted ambitions, had held the 
consulship and had won a triumph. Gaius had 
named Flaccus trium\-ir in the place of his brother 
Tiberius and had made him his partner in his plans 
for assuming kingly power. The conduct of Opimius 
was execrable in this one respect, that he had 
proposed a reward to be paid for the head, I Mill 
not say of a Gracchus, but of a Roman citizen, and 
had promised to pay it in gold. Flaccus, together 
with his elder son, was slain upon the Aventine 
while summoning to battle his armed supporters. 
Gracchus, in his flight, when on the point of being 
apprehended by the emissaries of Opimius, offered 
his neck to the sword of his slave Euporus. Euporus 
then slew himself with the same promptness \\ith 
which he liad given assistance to his master. On the 
same day Pomponius, a Roman knight, gave remark- 
able proof of liis fidelity to Gracchus ; for, after 
holding back his enemies upon the bridge, as Cocles'' 

* This is the famous Horatius who defended the bridge 
single-handed against the army of Porsenna. 



7 eius, gladio se transfixit. Ut Ti. Gracchi antea 
corpus, ita Gai mira crudelitate victorum in Tiberim 
deiectum est. 

1 VIL Hunc Ti. Gracchi liberi, P. Scipionis Africani 
nepotes, viva adhuc matre Cornelia, Africani filia, 
viri optimis ingeniis male usi, vitae mortisque habuere 
exitum : qui si civilem dignitatis concupissent 
modum, quidquid tumultuando adipisci gestierunt, 
quietis obtulisset res publica. 

2 Huic atrocitati adiectum scelus unicum. Quippe 
iuvenis specie excellens necdum duodevicesimum 
transgressus annum immunisque delictorum pater- 
norum, Fulvii Flacci fiUus, quem pater legatum de 
condicionibus miserat, ab Opimio interemptus est. 
Quem cum haruspex Tuscus amicus flentem in 
vincula duci vidisset, quin tu hoc potius, inquit, 
facis ? Protinusque inUso capite in postem lapideum 
ianuae carceris efFusoque cerebro expiravlt. 

3 Crudelesque mox quaestiones in amicos cUentes- 
que Gracchorum habitae sunt. Sed Opimium, virum 
aUoqui sanctum et gravem, damnatum postea 
iudicio pubUco memoria istius saevitiae nuUa civiUs 

4 prosecuta est misericordia. Eadem RupiUum Popi- 
Uumque, qui consules asperrime in Tiberu Gracchi 

• Consuls 132 b.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. vi. 7— vii. 4 

had done of yore, he threw himself upon his sword. 
The body of Gaius, like that of Tiberius before him, 
was thrown into the Tiber by the victors, with the 
same strange lack of humanity. 

VII. Such were the Uves and such the deaths of 
the sons of Tiberius Gracchus, and the grandsons of 
Publius Scipio Africanus, and their mother 
Comeha, the daughter of Africanus, still Uved to 
witness their end. An ill use they made of their 
excellent talents. Had they but coveted such 
honours as citizens might lawfully receive, the state 
would have conferred upon them through peaceful 
means all that they sought to obtain by unla^^-ful 

To this atrocity was added a crime without 
precedent. The son of Fulvius Flaccus, a youth of 
rare beauty who had not yet passed his eighteenth 
year and was in no way involved in the acts of 
his father, when sent by his father as an envoy 
to ask for terms, was put to death by Opimius. 
An Etruscan soothsayer, who was his friend, seeing 
him dragged weeping to prison, said to him, " Why 
not rather do as I do ? " At these words he 
forth^rith d;ished out his brains against the stone 
portal of the prison and thus ended his Ufe. 

Severe investigations, directed against the friends 
and foUowers of the Gracchi, foUowed. But when 
Opimius, who during the rest of his career had been 
a man of sterUng and upright character, was after- 
wards condemned by pubUc trial, his con\iction 
aroused no sympathy on the part of the citizens 
because of the recoUection of his cruelty in this 
instance. RupiUus and PopiUus," who, as consuls, 
had prosecuted the friends of Tiberius Gracchus with 



amicos saevierant, postea iudiciorum publicorum 
merito oppressit invidia. 

Rei tantae parum ad notitiam pertinens inter- 

6 ponetur.i Hic est Opimius, a quo consule celeberri- 

mum Opimiani vini nomen ; quod iam nuUum esse 

spatio annorum colligi potest, cum ab eo sint ad 

te, M. Vinici, consulem anni centum et quinquaginta. 

6 Factum Opimii, quod^ inimicitiarum quaesita ernt 
ultio, minor secuta auctoritas, et visa ultio privato 
odio magis quam publicae vindictae data. 

7 In legibus^ Gracchi inter perniciosissima nume- 
rarim,* quod extra Italiam colonias posuit. Id 
maiores, cum viderent tanto potentiorem Tyro 
Carthaginem,Massiliam Phocaea,Syracusas Cox"intho, 
Cyzicum ac Byzantium Mileto, genitali solo, dih- 
genter vitaverant et civis Romanos ad censendum 

8 ex provinciis in Itaham revocaverant. Prima autem 
extra ItaUam colonia Carthago condita est. Sub- 
inde Porcio Marcioque consuUbus deducta colonia 
Narbo Martius. 

1 VIII. Mandetur deinde memoriae severitas iudi- 
ciorum. Quippe C. Cato consularis, M. Catonis nepos, 
Africani sororis fiUus, repetundarum ex Macedonia 

^ interponetur AP ; interponatur Heinsius. 

^ quod AP ; quo Heiisiiis and Bentley. 

' The passac/e from In legibus to condita est, § 8, w found 
in AP before Mors Drusi in chap. xv. In that context, as 
the text now stands, the passafje is out of place. Chidius 
transferred it to its present position. It may, however, be a 
fragnient of a chapter comparing the leqislative activities of 
Drasus with those of Gracchus, thefirst part of which is now 
lost. * numerarim A ; numeraverim P. 

■ The colony at Carthage was founded 122 b.c. under the 
name Colonia lunonia. 

* 118 B.c. It was on the site of the modern Narbonne, to 
which it gave its name. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. vii. 4— viii. 1 

the utmost severity, deservedly met at a later date 
with the same mark of popular disapproval at their 
pubhc trials. 

I shall insert here a matter hardly relevant to 
these important events. It was this same Opimius 
from whose consulship the famous Opimian ^vine 
received its name. That none of this ^\ine is now 
in existenee can be inferred from the lapse of time, 
since it is one hundred and fifty years, Marcus 
Vinicius, from his consulship to yours. 

The conduct of Opimius met vith a greater 
degree of disapproval because it was a case of seeking 
revenge in a private feud, and this act of revenge 
was regarded as having been committed rather in 
satisfaction of a personal animosity than in defence 
of the rights of the state. 

In the legislation of Gracchus I should regard 
as the most pernicious his planting of colonies 
outside of Italy. This pohcy the Romans of the 
older time had carefully avoided ; for they saw 
how much more powerful Carthage had been 
than Tyre, Massiha than Phocaea, Syracuse than 
Corinth, Cyzicus and Byzantium than Miletus, 
— all these colonies, in short, than their mother 
cities — and had summoned all Roman citizens from 
the pro\inces back to Italy that they might be 
enrolled upon the census hsts. The first colony to 
be founded outside of Italy was Carthage." Shortly 
afterwards the colony of Narbo Martius was founded, 
in the consulship of Porcius and Marcius.* 

VIII. I must next record the severity of the law 
courts in condemning for extortion in Macedonia 
Gaius Cato, an ex-consul, the grandson of Marcus 
Cato, and son of the sister of Africanus, though the 



damnatiis est, cum lis eius HS. quattuor milibus 
aestimaretur : adeo illi viri magis voluntatem 
peccandi intuebantur quam modum, factaque ad 
consilium dirigebant et quid, non in quantum 
admissum foret, aestimabant. 

2 Circa eadem tempora M. C^ Metelli fratres uno 
die triumphaverunt. Non minus clarum exemplum 
et adhuc unicum Fulvii Flacci, eius qui Capuam 
ceperat, fiUorum, sed alterius in adoptionem dati, in 
collegio consulatus fuit ; adoptivus in Acidini Manlii 
familiam datus. Nam censura Metellorum patrue- 
lium, non germanorum fratrum fuit, quod solis 
contigerat Scipionibus. 

3 Tum Cimbri et Teutoni transcendere Rhenmn, 
multis mox nostris suisque cladibus nobiles. Per 
eadem tempora clarus eius Minucii, qui porticus, 
quae hodieque celebres sunt, molitus est, ex Scor- 
discis triumphus fuit. 

1 IX. Eodem tractu temporum nituerunt oratores 
Scipio Aemih'anus LaeHusque, Ser. Galba, duo 
Gracchi, C. Fannius, Carbo Papirius ; nec praeter- 
eundus Metellus Numidicus et Scaurus, et ante 

2 omnes L. Crassus et M. Antonius : quorum aetati 
ingeniisque successere C. Caesar Strabo, P. Sul- 
picius ; nam Q. Mucius iuris scientia quam proprie 
eloquentiae nomine celebrior fuit. 

' M. C. Voss; M. AP; A Idus proposed duo. 

" Soraething less than £40, if the text is correct. 

* 179 B.c. 

" What Velleius probably had in mind was the aedileship 
in 213 B.c. of Publius and Marcus Scipio, referred to by 
Polybius X. 4. Hence some editors have supposed that 
afdilihus or in aedilitate have dropped out of the text ; but 
this is hardly necessary. The author is thinking simply of 
brothers who were colleagues in office. * 108 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. %iii. 1— ix. 2 

claim against him amounted to but four thousand 
sesterces." But the judges of that day looked rather 
at the purpose of the culprit than at the measure 
of the ^ATong, applying to actions the criterion of 
intention and weigliing the character of the sin and 
not the extent of it. 

About the same time the two brothers Marcus 
and Gaius Metellus celebrated their triumphs on 
one and the same day. A coincidence equally cele- 
brated which still reraains unique, was the conjunction 
in the consulship ^ of the sons of FuKius Flaccus, 
the general who had conquered Capua, but one of 
these sons, however, had passed by adoption into the 
family of Acidinus ManHus. As regards the joint 
censorship of the two Metelli, they were cousins, not 
brothers, a coincidence which had happened to the 
family of the Scipios alone.* 

At this time the Cimbri and Teutons crossed the 
Rhine. These peoples were soon to become famous 
by reason of the disasters which they inflicted upon 
us and we upon them. About the same time '^ took 
place the famous triumph over the Scordisci of 
Minucius, the builder of the porticoes which are 
famous even in our own day. 

IX. At this same period flourished the illustrious 
orators Scipio Aemilianus and LaeUus, Sergius Galba, 
the two Gracchi, Gaius Fannius, and Carbo Papirius. 
In this hst we must not pass over the names of 
Metellus Numidicus and Scaurus, and above all of 
Lucius Crassus and Marcus Antonius. They were 
followed in time as well as in talents by Gaius 
Caesar Strabo and PubUus Sulpicius. As for Quintus 
Mucius, he was more famous for his knowledge of 
jurisprudence than, strictly speaking, for eloquence. 



3 Clara etiam per idem aevi spatium fuere ingenia 
in togatis Afranii, in tragoediis Pacuvii atque Accii, 
usque in Graecorum ingeniorum comparationem 
evecti,^ magnumque interhos ipsos facientis operi suo 
locum, adeo quidem, ut in illis limae, in hoc paene 

4 plus videatur fuisse sanguinis,^ celebre et Lucilii 
nomen fuit, qui sub P. Africano Numantino bello 
eques mihtaverat. Quo quidem tempore iuvenes adhuc 
lugurtha ac Marius sub eodem Africano mihtantes 
in iisdem castris didicere, quae postea in contrariis 

5 facerent. Historiarum auctor iam tum Sisenna erat 
iuvenis, sed opus belli civihs Sullanique post aUquot 

6 annos ab eo seniore editum est. Vetustior Sisenna 
fuit Caehus, aequaUs Sisennae RutiUus Claudiusque 
Quadrigarius et Valerius Antias. Sane non ignore- 
mus eadem aetate fuisse Pomponium sensibus cele- 
brem, verbis rudem et novitate inventi a se operis 

1 X. Prosequamur nota severitatem censorum Cassii 
Longini Caepionisque, qui abhinc annos centum 
quinquaginta tris^ Lepidum Aemilium augurem, 
quod sex miUbus HS. aedes conduxisset, adesse 
iusserunt. At nunc si quis tanti habitet, vix ut 
senator agnoscitur : adeo natura a rectis in prava, 

^ evecti Gelenius ; evectis B ; eius aetatis A ; eius 
aetatis P. 

'^ I have suhstituted o comma after sanguinls for Halm^s 
period, making Lucilii the suhstantive with which facientis 
agrees. Heiusius suppUes Enni after locum. 

^ cuii Kritz ; clvii AP. 

* He is referring to the Jugurthine War. 

' The Pabulae Atellanae or Atellan Parce. While not 
the inventor he may have been the first to give these farces 
literary form. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. ix. 3— x. 1 

In the same epoch other men of talent were 
illustrious : Afranius in the wTiting of native comedy, 
in tragedy Pacuvius and Accius, a man who rose into 
competition even with the genius of the Greeks, and 
made a great place for his own work among theirs, 
with this distinction, however, that, while they 
seemed to have more polish, Accius seemed to 
possess more real blood. The name of Lucihus was 
also celebrated ; he had served as a knight in the 
Numantine war under Pubhus Africanus. At the 
same time, Jugurtha and Marius, both still young 
men, and serving under the same Africanus, 
received in the same camp the miUtary training 
which they were later destined to employ in 
opposing camps.'' At this time Sisenna, the author 
of the Histopies, was still a young man. His works 
on the Civil Wars and the Wars of Sulla were 
pubhshed several years later, when he was a relatively 
old man. Caehus was earher than Sisenna, while 
Rutihus, Claudius Quadrigarius and Valerius Antias 
were his contemporaries. Let us not forget that at 
this period lived Pomponius, famed for his subject 
matter, though untutored in style, and noteworthy 
for the new kind of composition which he invented.'' 

X. Let us now go on to note the severity of the 
censors Cassius Longinus and Caepio," who sum- 
moned before them the augur Lepidus Aemihus for 
renting a house at six thousand sesterces.'' This 
was a hundred and fifty-three years ago. Nowadays, 
if any one takes a residence at so low a rate he is 
scarcely recognized as a senator. Thus does nature 
pass from the normal to the perverted, from that 

* Censors in 125 b.c. 
* A iittle more than £50. 



a pravis in vitia,^ a vitiis in praecipitia per- 
2 Eodem tractu temporum et Domitii ex Arvernis 
et Fabii ex Allobrogibus victoria fuit nobilis ; Fabio 
Pauli nepoti ex victoria cognomen Allobrogico 
inditum. Notetur Domitiae familiae peculiaris quae- 
dam et ut clarissima, ita artata numero felicitas. 
Septem ante hunc nobilissimae simplicitatis iuvenem, 
Cn. Domitium,fuere,singuli^omnes^parentibus geniti, 
sed omnes ad consulatum sacerdotiaque, ad triumphi 
autem paene omnes pervenerunt insignia. 

1 XL Bellum deinde lugurthinum gestum est per 
Q. Metcllum nuUi secundum saeculi sui. Huius 
legatus fuit C. Marius, quem praediximus, natus 
agresti* loco, hirtus atque horridus vitaque sanctus, 
quantum bello optimus, tantum pace pessimus, 
immodicus gloriae, insatiabilis, impotens semperque 

2 inquietus. Hic per publicanos aliosque in Africa 
negotiantis criminatus Metelli lentitudinem, tra- 
hentis iam in tertium annum bellum, et naturalem 
nobilitatis superbiam morandique in imperiis cupi- 
ditatem effecit, ut, cum commeatu petito Romam 
venisset, consul crearetur bellique paene patrati a 
Metello, qui bis lugurtham acie fuderat, summa 

^ prava . . . vitia thit^ transposed hy Sterk ; a rectis in 
vitia a (om. A) vitiis in prava a pravis AP. 
2 singuli Lipsius and Madvig ; singulis AP. 

• omnes Pluygers ; omnino AP. 

• agresti Voss ; eqiiestri AP. 

• 122 B.c. » 109-8 B.c. ' 107 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. x. l— xi. 2 

to the vicious, and from the vicious to the abyss of 


At the same period'^ took place the notable 
victory of Domitius over the Arverni, and of Fabius 
over the AUobroges. Fabius, who was the grandson 
of Paulus, received the cognomen of AUobrogicus in 
commemoration of his ^ictory. I must also note 
the strange fortune which distinguished the family 
of the Domitii, the more remarkable in view of the 
limited number of the family. Before the present 
Gnaeus Domitius, a man of notable simpUcity of hfe, 
there have been seven Domitii, all only sons, but 
they all attained to the consulate and priesthoods 
and ahnost all to the distinction of a triumph. 

XI. Then foUowed the Jugurthan war waged 
under the generalship'' of Quintus Metellus, a man 
inferior to no one of his time. His second in command 
was Gaius Marius, whom we have akeady mentioned, 
a man of rustic birth, rough and uncouth, and austere 
in his life, as excellent a general as he was an e\il 
influence in time of peace, a man of unbounded 
ambition, insatiable, without self-control, and always 
an element of unrest. Through the agency of the 
tax - gatherers and others who were engaged in 
business in Africa he criticized the delays of Metellus, 
who was now dragging on the war into its third year, 
charging him with the haughtiness characteristic of 
the nobiUty and with the desire to maintain himself 
in mihtary commands. Ha\ing obtained a furlough 
he went to Rome, where he succeeded in procuring 
his election as consul and had the chief command of 
the war placed in his ovm hands,"^ although the war 
had ah-eady been practically ended by Metellus, 
who had twice defeated Jugurtha in battle. The 



committeretur sibi. Metelli tamen et triumphus 
fuit clarissimus et meritum ex virtute ^ ei cognomen 
3 Numidici inditum. Ut paulo ante Domitiae familiae, 
ita Caeciliae notanda claritudo est. Quippe intra 
duodecim ferme annos huius temporis consules fuere 
Metelli aut censores aut triumpharunt amplius 
duodecies, ut appareat, quemadmodum urbium im- 
periorumque, ita gentium nunc florere fortunam, 
nunc senescere, nunc interire. 

1 Xn. At C. Marius L. Sullam iam tunc ut prae- 
caventibus fatis copulatum sibi quaestorem habuit 
et per eum missum ad regem Bocchum lugurtha 
rege abhinc annos ferme centum triginta quattuor- 
potitus est ; designatusque iterum consul in urbem 
reversus secundi consulatus initio Kal. lanuariis 

2 eum in triumpho duxit. Effusa, ut praediximus, 
immanis vis Germanarum gentium, quibus nomen 
Cimbris ac Teutonis erat, cum Caepionem Man- 
humque consules et ante Carbonem Silanumque 
fudissentfugassentquein Galhis et exuissentexercitu, 
Scaurumque Aurehum consularem et ahos celeberrimi 
nominis viros trucidassent, populus Romanus non 
ahum repellendis tantis hostibus magis idoneum 

3 imperatorem quam Marium est ratus Tum multi- 
plicati consulatus eius. Tertius in apparatu belli 
consumptus ; quo anno Cn. Domitius tribunus plebis 
legem tuht, ut sacerdotes, quos antea conlegae 

^ meritum et (om. P) virtutique AP. 
^ cxxxiiii Aldtis; cxxxviii AP. 

" Praecaventihus fatis is variously interpreted. Krause 
takes it to mean that the fates were seeking to guard against 
the future rivalry and discord of these two men ; Kritz, 
wrongly, I think, that the fates were warning Marius in 
advance that Sulla was destined to be his successful 
opponent. * 104 b.c. " Bk. ii. ch. 8. ' 105 b.c 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xi. 2— xii. 3 

triumph of Metellus was none the less brilUant, and 
the cognomen of Numidicus earned by his valour was 
bestowed upon him. As I commented, a short time 
ago, on the glory of the family of the Domitii, let me 
now comment upon that of the CaeciUi. Within the 
compass of about twelve years during this period, the 
MeteUi were distinguished by consulships, censor- 
ships, or triumph more than twelve times. Thus it 
is clear that, as in the case of cities and empires, so 
the fortunes of famiUes flourish, wane, and pass away. 

XII. Gaius Marius, even at this time, had Lucius y^ 
Sulla associated with him as quaestor, as though the 
fates were trring to avoid subsequent events." He 
sent SuUa to King Bocchus and through liim gained 
possession of Jugurtha, about one hundred and thirty- 
four years before the present time. He retumed to V 
the city as consul designate for the second time, 
and on the kalends of January,'' at the inauguration 
of his second consulship, he led Jugurtha in triumph. 
Since, as has already*" been stated, an immense horde 
of the German races caUed the Cimbri and the 
Teutons had defeated and routed the Consuls Caepio 
and ManUus'' in Gaul, as before them Carbo " 
and Silanus,' and had scattered their armies, and 
had put to death Scaurus AureUus an ex-consul. 
and other men of reno^^Ti, the Roman people was 
of the opinion that no general was better quaUfied 
to repel these mighty enemies than Marius. His 
consulships then followed each other in succession. 
The third was consumed in preparation for this war. 
In this year^ Gnaeus Domitius, the tribune of the 
people, passed a law that the priests, who had 
pre\iously been chosen by their colleagues, should 

• 113 B.C. ' 109 B,C. » 104 B.C. 



4 sufficiebant, populus crearet. Quarto trans Alpis circa 
Aquas Sextias cum Teutonis conflixit, amplius cen- 
tum quinquaginta milia hostium priore ac postero 
die ab eo trucidata^ gensque excisa Teutonum. 

5 Quinto citra Alpis in campis, quibus nomen erat 
Raudiis, ipse consul et proconsul Q. Lutatius Catulus 
fortunatissimo decertavere proelio ; caesa aut capta 
amplius centum milia^ hominum. Hac victoria 
videtur meruisse Marius, ne eius nati rem publicam 

6 paeniteret, ac mala bonis repensasse. Sextus con- 
sulatus veluti praemium ei meritorum datus. Non 
tamen huius consulatus fraudetur gloria, quo Servilii 
Glauciae Saturninique Apulei furorem continuatis 
honoribus rem pubhcam lacerantium et gladiis 
quoque et caede comitia discutientium, consul armis 
compescuit hominesque exitiabiUs in Hostilia curia 
morte multavit. 

1 XHL Deinde interiectis paucis annis tribunatum 
iniit M. Livius Drusus, vir nobihssimus, eloquentis- 
simus, sanctissimus, meliore in omnia ingenio animo- 

2 que quam fortuna usus. Qui cum senatui priscum 
restituere cuperet decus et iudicia ab equitibus ad 
eum transferre ordinem (quippe eam potestatem 
nacti equites Gracchanis legibus cum in multos 
clarissimos atque innocentissimos viros saevissent, 

^ trucidata Ruhnken ; trucidatis AP. 
* c AP ; cc Puteanus and Lipsius. 

« 102 B.c. * 101 B.C. • 100 B.C. 

"* Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time ; 
Glaucia was praetor and desired the consulship. 
• 91 B.c. ' See ch. vi. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xii. 4— xiii. 2 

now be elected by the people. In his fourth consul- / 
ship" Marius met the Teutons in battle beyond the .._ 
Alps in the vicinity of Aquae Sextiae. More than 
a hundred and fifty thousand of the enemy were 
slain by him on that day and the day after, and the 
race of the Teutons was exterminated. In his fifth 
consulship* the consul himself and the proconsul 
Quintus Lutatius Catulus fought a most successful 
battle on this side of the Alps on the plain called 
the Raudian Plain. More than a hundred thousand 
of the enemy were taken or slain. By this ^dctory 
Marius seems to have eamed some claim upon his 
country that it should not regret his birth and to 
have counterbalanced his bad by his good deeds. 
A sixth consulship*^ was given him in the hght of a 
reward for his services. He must not, however, be 
deprived of the glory of this consulship, for during ^ 
this term as consul he restrained by arms the mad 
acts of Ser\-iUus Glaucia and Saturninus Apuleius 
who were shattering the constitution by continuing 
in office,'* and were breaking up the elections with 
armed violence and bloodshed, and caused these 
dangerous men to be put to death in the Curia 

XIII. After an interval of a few years Marcus 
Livius Drusus entered the tribunate,' a man of noble 
birth, of eloquent tongue and of upright life ; but 
in all his acts, his success was not in keeping \^ith his 
talents or his good intentions. It was his aim to 
restore to the senate its ancient prestige, and again 
to transfer the law courts to that order from the 
knights. The knights had acquired this prerogative 
through the legislation of Gracchus/and had treated 
with severity many noted men who were quite 



tum P. Rutilium, virum non saeculi sui, sed omnis 
aevi optimum, interrogatum lege repetundarum 
maximo cum gemitu civitatis damnaverant), in iis 
ipsis, quae pro senatu moliebatur, senatum habuit 
adversarium non intellegentem, si qua de plebis 
commodis ab eo agerentur, veluti inescandae in- 
liciendaeque multitudinis causa fieri, ut minoribus 
3 perceptis maiora permitteret. Denique ea fortuna 
Drusi fuit, ut malefacta collegarum quam quaevis^ 
optime ab ipso cogitata senatus probaret magis, et 
honorem, qui ab eo deferebatur, sperneret, iniurias, 
quae ab illis intendebantur, aequo animo reciperet, 
et huius summae gloriae invideret, illorum modicam^ 

1 XIV. Tum conversus Drusi animus, quando bene 
incepta male cedebant, ad dandam civitatem Italiae. 
Quod cum moliens revertisset e foro, immensa illa 
et incondita, quae eum semper comitabatur, cinctus 
multitudine in area domus suae cultello percussus, 
qui adfixus lateri eius rehctus est, intra paucas horas 

2 decessit. Sed cum ultimum redderet spiritum, in- 
tuens circumstantium maerentiumque frequentiam, 
effudit vocem convenientissimam conscientiae suae : 
ecquandone, inquit, propinqui amicique, similem 
mei civem habebit res publica ? Hunc finem claris- 
simus iuvenis vitae habuit : cuius morum minime 

3 omittatur argumentum. Cum aedificaret domum in 

^ quam quaevis Froelich ; quamvis A ; eius quam 
Ruhnken followed hy Halm. 

2 modicam AP ; inmodicam Ualm. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xiii. 2— xiv. 3 

innocent, and, in particular, had brought to trial on 
a charge of extortion and had condemned, to the 
great sorrow of all the citizens, PubUus RutiUus, one 
of the best men not only of his age, but of aU time. 
But in these very measures which Livius undertook 
on behaU" of the senate he had an opponent in the 
senate itself, which failed to see that the proposals 
he also urged in the interest of the plebs weremade 
as a bait and a sop to the populace, that they niight, 
bv receiving lesser concessions, permit the passage 
of more important measures. In the end it was the 
niisfortune of Drusus to find that the senate gave 
niore approval to the e\i\ measures of his coUeagues 
than to his own plans, however exceUent, and that 
it spumed the dignity which he would confer upon 
it only to accept tamely the real sUghts levelled 
airainst it by the others, tolerating the mediocrity 
of his coUeagues while it looked \\ith jealous eyes 
upon his own distinction. 

XIV. Since his exceUent programme had fared so 
badly, Drusus tumed his attention to granting the 
citizenship to the ItaUans. While he was engaged 
in this effort, and was retuming from the forvun 
siu-rounded by the large and unorganized crowd 
which always attended him, he was stabbed in the 
area before his house and died in a few hours, the 
assassin leaWng the weapon in his side. As he 
breathed his last and gazed at the throng of those 
who stood weeping about him, he uttered the words, 
most expressive of his own feeUngs : " O my 
relatives and friends, wiU my country ever have 
another citizen Uke me ? " Thus ended the Ufe of 
this iUustrious man. One index of his character 
should not be passed over. When he was building 



Palatio in eo loco, ubi est quae quondam Ciceronls, 
mox Censorini fuit, nunc Statilii Sisennae est, pro- 
mitteretque ei architectus, ita se eam aedificaturum, 
ut libera conspectu immunisque ab omnibus arbitris' 
esset neque quisquam in eam despicere posset, tu 
vero, inquit, si quid in te artis est, ita compone 
domum meam, ut, quidquid agam, ab omnibus per- 
spici possit.- 

1 XV. Mors Drusi iam pridem tumescens bellum 
excitavit Italicum ; quippe L. Caesare et P. Rutilio 
consulibus abhinc annos centum viginti, universa 
Italia, cum id malum ab Asculanis ortum esset 
(quippe Servilium praetorem Fonteiumque legatum 
occiderant) ac deinde a Marsis exceptum in omnis 
penetrasset regiones, arma adversus Romanos cepit. 

2 Quorum ut fortuna atrox, ita causa fuit iustissima : 
petebant enim eam civitatem, cuius imperium armis 
tuebantur : per omnis annos atque omnia bella 
duplici numero se mihtum equitumque fungi neque 
in eius civitatis ius recipi, quae per eos in id ipsum 
pervenisset fastigium, per quod homines eiusdem 
et gentis et sanguinis ut externos alienosque fastidire 

3 Id bellum amplius trecenta milia iuventutis Italicae 
abstuht. Clarissimi autem imperatores fuerunt 
Romani eo bello Cn. Pompeius, Cn. Pompei Magni 
pater, C. Marius, de quo praediximus, L. SuUa 

* arbitris B, om. A ; hominibus P, et A above the line. 

^ Here followed the paragraph In legibus . . . condita est 
which has been trans/erred, after Cludius, to the end of 
Ch. vii. as better fiiting the context there. It may, however, 
have been the conrhi.iion of a passage in which Velleius compared 
the legislation of Livius Ihiistts with that of Gaiiis Gracchus, 
the first portion ofwhich is now lost. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xiv. 3— xv. 3 

his honse on the Palatine on the site where now 
stands the house which once belonged to Cicero, 
and later to Censorinus, and which now belongs to 
StatiUus Sisenna, the architect ofFered to build it 
in such a way that he would be free from the pubHc 
gaze, safe from all espionage, and that no one could 
look down into it. Li^ius rephed, " If you possess 
the skill you must build my house in such a way 
that whatever I do shall be seen by all." 

XV. The long smouldering fires of an ItaUan war 
were now fanned into flame by the death of Drusus. 
One hundred and twenty years ago," in the consul- 
ship of Lucius Caesar and PubUus RutiUus, all Italy 
took up arms against the Romans. The rebelUon 
began with the people of Asculum, who had put to 
death the praetor Ser\iUus and Fonteius, his deputy ; 
it was then taken up by the Marsi, and from them 
it made its ways into all the districts of Italy. The 
fortune of the ItaUans was as cruel as their cause was 
just ; for they were seeking citizenship in the state 
whose power they were defending by their arms ; 
every year and in everj^ war they were fumishing a 
double number of men, both of cavalry and of 
infantr)', and yet were not admitted to the rights 
of citizens in the state which, through their efforts, 
had reached so high a position that it could look 
do^^Ti upon men of the same race and blood as 
foreigners and aUens. 

This war carried off more than three hundred 
thousand of the youth of Italy. On the Roman 
side in this war the most illustrious commanders 
were Gnaeus Pompeius, father of Pompey the 
Great, Gaius Marius, ahready mentioned, Lucius 

• 91 B.C. 



anno ante praetura functus, Q. Metellus, Numidici 
filius, qui meritum cognomen Pii consecutus erat : 
4 quippe expulsum civitate a L. Saturnino tribuno 
plebis, quod solus in leges eius iurare noluerat, pie- 
tate sua, auctoritate senatus, consensu rei publicae^ 
restituit patrem. Nec triumphis honoribusque quam 
aut causa exiUi aut exilio aut reditu clarior fuit 

1 XVL Italicorum autem fuerunt celeberrimi duces 
Silo Popaedius, Herius Asinius, Insteius Cato, C. 
Pontidius, Telesinus Pontius, Marius Egnatius, 

2 Papius Mutilus. Neque ego verecundia domestici 
sanguinis gloriae quidquam, dum verum refero, 
subtraham : quippe multum Minatii Magii, atavi 
mei, Aeculanensis, tribuendum est memoriae, qui 
nepos Decii Magii, Campanorum principis, cele- 
berrimi et fidelissimi viri, tantam hoc bello Romanis 
fidem praestitit, ut cum legione, quam ipse in Hir- 
pinis conscripserat, Herculaneum simul cum T. Didio 
caperet, Pompeios cum L. SuUa oppugnaret Comp- 

3 samque^ occuparet : cuius de virtutibus cum ahi, tum 
maxime dilucide Q.^ Hortensius in annahbus suis 
rettulit. Cuius illi pietati plenam populus Romanus 
gratiam rettuUt ipsum viritim civitate donando, duos 

^ rei publicae AP; populi Romani Puteamts. 

^ Corapsamque Voss ; Cosamque AP. 

■ dilucideque Q. P; dilucideq. que A, corrected hy Lipslus. 

' Pius here means " dutiful towards his father." 

HISTORY OF ROME, 11. xv. 3— x^i. 3 

Sulla, who in the previous year had filled the 
praetorship, and Quintus Metellus, son of Metellus 
Numidicus, who had deservedly received the 
cognomen of Pius," for when his father had been 
exiled from the state by Lucius Satuminus, the 
tribune of the people, because he alone refused 
to observe the laws which the tribune had made, 
the son had effected his restoration through his 
own devotion, aided by the authority of the senate 
and the unanimous sentiment of the whole state. 
Numidicus earned no greater reno^ra by his triumphs 
and pubHc honours than he earned by the cause 
of his exile, his exile, and the manner of his 

XVL On the Itahan side the most celebrated 
generals were Silo Popaedius, Herius Asinius, 
Insteius Cato, Gaius Pontidius, Telesinus Pontius, 
Marius Ignatius, and Papius Mutilus ; nor ought I, 
through excess of modesty, to deprive my o-sra kin 
of glory, especially when that wliich I record is the 
truth ; for much credit is due the memory of my 
great-grandfather Minatius Magius of Aeculanum, 
grandson of Decius Magius, leader of the Campanians, 
of proven loyalty and distinction. Such fideUty did 
Minatius display towards the Romans in this war 
that, with a legion wliich he himself had enroUed 
among the Hirpini, he took Herculaneum in con- 
junction with Titus Didius, was associated with 
Lucius SuUa in the siege of Pompeii, and occupied 
Compsa. Several historians have recorded his 
services, but the most extensive and clearest 
testimony is that of Quintus Hortensius in his 
Annals. The Romans abundantly repaid his loyal 
zeal by a special grant of the citizenship to himself, 



filios eius creando praetores, cum seni adhuc crea- 
4 Tam varia atque atrox fortuna Italici belli fuit, 
ut per biennium continuum^ duo Romani consules, 
Rutilius ac deinde Cato Porcius, ab hostibus occi- 
derentur, exercitus populi Romani multis in locis 
funderentur, utque ad saga iretur diuque in eo habitu 
maneretur. Caput imperii sui Corfinium legerant 
atque appellarant Italicam. Paulatim deinde reci- 
piendo in civitatem, qui arma aut non ceperant aut 
deposuerant maturius, vires refectae sunt, Pompeio 
Sullaque et Mario fluentem procumbentemque rem 
populi Romani ^ restituentibus. 

1 XVII. Finito ex maxima parte, nisi quae Nolani 
belK manebant rehquiae, ItaUco bello, quo quidem 
Romani victis adflictisque ipsi exarmati quam integri^ 
universis civitatem dare maluerunt, consulatum 
inierunt Q. Pompeius et L. Cornelius Sulla, vir qui 
neque ad finem victoriae satis laudari neque post 

2 victoriam abunde vituperari potest. Hic natus 
familia nobili, sextus a Corneho Rufino, qui bello 
Pyrrhi inter celeberrimos fuerat duces, cum familiae 
eius claritudo intermissa esset, diu ita se gessit, ut 
nullam petendi consulatum cogitationem habere 

^ continuiim Gelennts; continuo ^P. 
* rem populi Romani Laurent. ; rem P. R. BA ; remp. P. 
^ integri Heinsius ; integris A P. 

" The number was increased frora four to six in 198 b.c. 
It was increased to eight by SuUa. 

" The saf/um or military cloak symbolized war as the 
toffa symbolized peace. 

' i.e. before the war began. What Velleius had in mind 
in using maluerimt is a Uttle vague. The original 
" choice " lay between granting the citizenship and war. 
They chose the latter alternative. After the war was 
over they granted to their enemies in defeat the citizenship 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xvi. 3— xvii. 2 

and by making his sons praetors at a time when 
the number elected was still confined to six.<* 

So bitter was this ItaUan war, and such its vicissi- 
tudes, that in two successive years two Roman 
consuls, first Rutilius and subsequently Cato Porcius, 
were slain by the eneniy, the armies of the Roman 
people were routed in many places, and the Romans 
were compelled to resort to miUtary dress* and to 
remain long in that garb. The ItaUans chose 
Corfinium as their capital, and named it ItaUca. 
Then Uttle by Uttle the strength of the Romans was 
recruited by admitting to the citizenship those who 
had not taken arms or had not been slow to lay 
them down again, and Pompeius, SuUa, and Marius , 
restored the tottering power of the Roman people.^ 

XVII. Except for the remnants of hostiUty which 
Ungered at Nola the ItaUan war was now in large 
measure ended, the Romans, themselves exhausted, 
consenting to grant the citizenship indi^idually to 
the conquered and humbled states in preference to 
giving it to them as a body when their own strength 
was still unimpaired.*' This was the year in which 
Quintus Pompeius andLuciusComeUus SuUa' entered 
upon the consulship. SuUa was a man to whom, up 
to the conclusion of his career of victory, sufficient 
praise can hardly be given, and for whom, after his 
victory, no condemnation can be adequate. He was 
sprung of a noble family, the sixth in descent from 
the CorneUus Rufinus who had been one of the famous 
generals in the war with Pyrrhus. As the renown 
of his family had waned, SuUa acted for a long while 
as though he had no thought of seeking the consul- 

which they might have conferred in the beginning and 
so avoided the war. * 88 b.c. 



3 videretur : deinde post praeturam inlustratus bello 
Italico et ante in Gallia legatione sub Mario, qua^ 
eminentissimos duces hostium fuderat, ex successu 
animum sumpsit petensque consulatum paene omnium 
civium sufFragiis factus est ; sed eum honorem unde- 
quinquagesimo aetatis suae anno adsecutus est. 

1 XVIII. Per ea tempora Mithridates, Ponticus rex, 
vir neque silendus neque dicendus sine cura, bello 
acerrimus, virtute eximius, aliquando fortuna, semper 
animo maximus, consiliis dux, miles manu, odio in 
Romanos Hannibal, occupata Asia necatisque in ea 
omnibus civibus Romanis, quos quidem eadem die 

2 atque hora redditis civitatibus Utteris ingenti cum 
polHcitatione praemiorum interimi iusserat, quo 

3 tempore neque fortitudine adversus Mithridatem 
neque fide in Romanos quisquam Rhodiis par fuit 
(horum fidem Mytilenaeorum perfidia inluminavit, 
qui M'.2 Aquilium aliosque Mithridati vinctos tradi- 
derunt, quibus libertas in unius Theophanis gratiam 
postea a Pompeio restituta est), cum terribiUs ItaUae 
quoque videretur imminere, sorte obvenit SuUae 
Asia provincia. 

4 Is egressus urbe cum circa Nolam moraretur 

^ qua Gelenius ; quae AP. 
" M' Euhnken ; M. AP. 

« 88 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xvii. 3— xviii. 4 

ship. Then, after his praetorship, having eamed 
distinction not only in the Italian war but also, even 
before that, in Gaul, where he was second in com- 
mand to Marius, and had routed the most eminent "^ 
leaders of the enemy, encouraged by his successes, 
he became a candidate for the consulship and was 
elected by an ahnost unanimous vote of the citizens. 
But this honour did not come to him until the forty- 
ninth year of his age. 

XVill. It was about this time" that Mithridates, 
king of Pontus, seized Asia and put to death all 
Roman citizens in it. He was a man about whom 
one cannot speak except vdih concem nor yet 
pass by in silence ; he was ever eager for war, of 
exceptional braver}', always great in spirit and some- 
times in achievement, in strategy a general, in bodily 
prowess a soldier, in hatred to the Romans a Hannibal. 
He had sent messages to the various cities of Asia 
in which he had held out great promises of reward, 
ordering that all Romans should be massacred on 
the same day and hour throughout the province. 
In this crisis none equalled the Rhodians either in 
courageous opposition to Mithridates or in loyalty 
to the Romans. Their fidelity gained lustre from 
the perfidy of the people of Mytilene, who handed 
Manius AquiUus and other Romans over to Mitliri- 
dates in chains. The Mytilenians subsequently had 
their Uberty restored by Pompey solely in considera- 
tion of his friendship for Theophanes. WTien 
Mithridates was now regarded as a formidable 
menace to Italy herself, the province of Asia feU to 
the lot of SuUa, as proconsul. 

SuUa departed from the city, but was stiU lingering 
in the vicinity of Nola, since that city, as though 



(quippe ea urbs pertinacissime arma retinebat exer- 
cituque Romano obsidebatur, velut paeniteret eius 
fidei, quam omnium sanctissimam bello praestiterat 

6 Punico), P. Sulpicius tribunus plebis, disertus, acer, 
opibus gratia amicitiis vigore ingenii atque animi 
celeberrimus, cum antea rectissima voluntate apud 
populum maxumam quaesisset dignitatem, quasi 
pigeret eum virtutum suarum et bene consulta ei 

6 male cederent, subito pravus et praeceps se^ C. Mario 
post septuagesimum annum omnia imperia et omnis 
provincias concupiscenti addixit legemque ad popu- 
lum tulit, qua Sullae imperium abrogaretur, C. Mario 
bellum decerneretur Mithridaticum, aliasque leges 
perniciosas et exitiabiles neque tolerandas liberae 
civitati tulit. Quin etiam Q. Pompei consulis filium 
eundemque Sullae generum per emissarios factionis 
suae interfecit. 

1 XIX Tum Sulla contracto exercitu ad urbem rediit 
eamque armis occupavit, duodecim auctores novarum 
pessimarumque rerum, inter quos Marium cum filio 
et P. Sulpicio, urbe exturbavit ac lege lata exules 
fecit. Sulpicium etiam^ adsecuti equites in Lauren- 
tinis paludibus iugulavere, caputque eius erectum 
et ostentatum pro rostris velut omen inminentis 

2 proscriptionis fuit. Marius post sextum consula- 

' se addidit Puteanus. 
2 etiam hracketed by Orelli and Cornelissen. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xviii. 4— xix. 2 

regretting its exceptional loyalty so sacredly main- 
tained in the Punic war, still persisted in maintaining 
armed resistance to Rome and was being besieged 
by a Roman army. While he was still there PubUus , 
Sulpicius, tribune of the people, a man of eloquence \^ — 
and energ)', who had earned distinction by his 
wealth, his influence, his friendships, and by the 
vigour of his native abiHty and his courage, and had 
pre\-iously won great influence with the people by 
honourable means, now, as if regretting hiis \-irtues, 
and discovering that an honourable course of conduct 
brought him only disappointment, made a sudden 
plunge into evil ways, and attached himself to / 
Marius, who, though he had passed his seventieth V^ 
year, still coveted every position of power and every 
province. Along with other pieces of pemicious 
and baleful legislation intolerable in a free state, 
he proposed a bill to the assembly of the people 
abrogating Sulla's command, and entrusting the J 
Mithridatic war to Gaius Marius. He even went so ^ 
far as to cause, through emissaries of his faction, the 
assassination of a man who was not only son of 
Quintus Pompeius the consul but also son-in-law of 

XIX. Thereupon Sulla assembled his army, 
retumed to the city, took armed possession of it, 
drove from the city the twelve persons responsible 
for these revolutionary and \-icious measures — among ^ 
them Marius, his son, and Publius Sulpicius — and ^ 
caused them by formal decree " to be declared y 
exiles. Sulpicius was overtaken by horsemen and 
slain in the Laurentine marshes, and his head was 
raised aloft and exhibited on the front of the rostra 
as a presage of the impending proscription. Marius,/ 


tum annumque^ septuagesimum nudus ae limo obru- 
tus, oculis tantummodo ac naribus eminentibus, 
extractus arundineto circa paludem Maricae, in 
quam se fugiens consectantis SuUae equites abdiderat, 
iniecto in collum loro in carcerem Minturnensium 

3 iussu duumviri perductus est. Ad quem interficien- 
dum missus cum gladio servus publicus natione 
Germanus, qui forte ab imperatore eo bello Cimbrico 
captus erat, ut agnovit Marium, magno eiulatu 
expromens^ indignationem casus tanti viri abiecto 

4 gladio profugit e carcere. Tum cives, ab hoste 
misereri paulo ante principis viri docti, instructum 
eum viatico conlataque veste in navem imj^osuerunt. 
At ille adsecutus circa insulam Aenariam filium cur- 
sum in Africam direxit inopemque vitam in tugurio 
ruinarum Carthaginiensium toleravit, cum Marius 
aspiciens Carthaginem, illa intuens Marium, alter 
alteri possent esse solacio. 

1 XX. Hoc primum anno sanguine consulis Romani 
miUtis imbutae manus sunt ; quippe Q. Pompeius, 
coUega SuUae, ab exercitu^ Cn. Pompei proconsuUs 
seditione, sed quam dux creaverat, interfectus est. 

2 Non erat Mario Sulpicioque Cinna temperatior. 
Itaque cum ita civitas ItaUae data esset, ut in octo 
tribus contribuerentur novi cives, ne potentia eorum 

^ annumque Voss ; annoque AP. 

2 expromens Acidalitis and Madviff ; expromenti BP ; ex- 
primenti A. 

3 ab exercitu A ; ad exercitum P ; Burer waa in doubt 
whether the reading should be ab or ad. 

» Ihiumvir was the title of the chief official in the Roman 
colonies. Like the consuls in Rome there were two of them. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xix. 2— xx. 2 

who had held six consulships and was now more 
than seventy years of age, was dragged, naked and 
covered with mud, his eyes and nostrils alone 
showing above the water, from a reed-bed near the 
marsh of Marica, where he had taken refuge when y 
pursued by the cavalry of Sulla. A rope was 
cast about his neck and he was led to the prison 
of Mintumae on the order of its dnumvirJ^ A public 
slave of German nationality was sent with a sword 
to put him to death. It happened that this man had 
been taken a prisoner by Marius when he was 
commander in the war against the Cimbri ; when 
he recognized Marius, giving utterance •«•ith loud v^ 
outcry to his indignation at the phght of this great 
man, he threw away his sword and fled from the 
prison. Then the citizens, taught by a foreign 
enemy to pity one who had so short a time before 
been the first man in the state, furnished Marius 
with money, brought clothing to cover him, and 
put him on board a ship. Marius, overtaking his/ 
son near Aenaria, steered his course for Africa, where^ 
he endured a Ufe of poverty in a hut amid the ruins 
of Carthage. There Marius, as he gazed upon 
Carthage, and Carthage as she beheld Marius, might 
well have ofFered consolation the one to the other. 

XX. In this year the hands of Roman soldiers 
were first stained with the blood of a consul. Quintus 
Pompeius, the colleague of Sulla, was slain by the 
army of Gnaeus Pompeius the proconsul in a mutiny 
which their general himself had stirred up. 

Cinna was a man as lacking in restraint as Marius <' 
and Sulpicius. Accordingly, although the citizen- 
ship had been given to Jtaly wth the pro^iso that 
the new citizens should be enrolled in but eight 



et multitudo veterum civium dignitatem frangeret 
plusque possent recepti in beneficium quam auctores 
beneficii, Cinna in omnibus tribubus eos se distribu- 
turum pollicitus est : quo nomine ingentem totius 

3 Italiae frequentiam in urbem acciverat. E qua 
pulsus collegae optimatiumque viribus cum in Cam- 
paniam tenderet, ex auctoritate senatus consulatus 
ei abrogatus est suffectusque in eius locum L. Cor- 
nelius Merula flamen dialis. Haec iniuria homine 

4 quam exemplo dignior fuit. Tum Cinna corruptis 
primo centurionibus ac tribunis, mox etiam spe 
largitionis militibus, ab eo.exercitu, qui circa Nolam 
erat, receptus est. Is cum universus in verba eius 
iurasset, retinens insignia consulatus patriae bellum 
intulit, fretus ingenti numero novorum civium, e 
quorum delectu trecentas amplius cohortes conscrip- 

5 serat ac triginta legionum instar impleverat. Opus 
erat partibus auctoritate, cuius augendae gratia 
C. Marium cum fiho de exiUo revocavit quique cum 
iis pulsi erant. 

1 XXI. Dum bellum autem infert patriae Cinna, Cn. 
Pompeius, Magni pater, cuius praeclara opera bello 
Marsico praecipue circa Picenum agrum, ut prae- 
scripsimus, usa erat res pubHca quique Asculum 
ceperat, circa quam urbem, cum in multis aliis 
regionibus exercitus dispersi forent, quinque et 

• 87 B.c. 

' The normal strength of a legion was from 5000 to 6000 
men. Each legion was divided into ten cohorts. 



HISTORY OF ROME. II. xx. 2— xxi. 1 

tribes, so that their power and numbers might not 
weaken the prestige of the older citizens, and that 
the beneficiaries might not have greater power than 
the benefactors, Cinna now promised to distribute 
them throughout all the tribes. With this object 
he had brought together into the city a great 
multitude from all parts of Italy. But he was driven 
frora the city by the united strength of his colleague 
and the optimates, and set out for Campania. His 
consulship was abrogated by the authority of the 
senate and Lucius ComeHus Merula, priest of Jupiter, 
was chosen consul in his place. This illegal act was 
more appropriate in the case of Cinna than it was a 
good precedent. Cinna was then received by the 
army at Nola, after corrupting first the centurions 
and tribunes and then even the private soldiers with 
promises of largesse." When they all had swom 
allegiance to him, while still retaining the insignia 
of the consulate he waged war upon his country, 
relying upon the enormous number of new citizens, 
from whom he had levied more than three hundred 
cohorts, thus raising the number of his troops to the 
equivalent of thirty legions.* But his party lacked y 
the backing of strong men ; to remedy this defect C^ 
he recalled Gaius Marius and his son from exile, 
and also those who had been banished ^\\\\ them. 

XXI. While Cinna was waging war against his 
country, the conduct of Gnaeus Pompeius, the father 
of Pompey the Great, was somewhat equivocal. As 
I have already told, the state had made use of his 
distinguished ser^ices in the Marsian war, particu- 
larly in the territor}' of Picenum ; he had taken 
Asculum, in the ^icinity of which, though armies 
were scattered in other regions also, seventy-five 



septuaginta milia civium Romanorum, amplius sexa- 

2 ginta Italicoi*um una die conflixerant, frustratus spe 
continuandi consulatus ita se^ dubium mediumque 
partibus praestitit, ut omnia ex proprio usu ageret 
temporibusque insidiari ^-ideretur, et huc atque illuc, 
unde spes maior adfulsisset potentiae, sese^ exercitum- 

3 que deflecteret. Sed ad ultimum magno atrocique 
proelio cum Cinna conflixit : cuius commissi patrati- 
que sub ipsis moenibus focisque^ urbis Romanae 
pugnantibus spectantibusque quam fuerit eventus 

4 exitiabilis, vix verbis exprimi potest. Post hoc cum 
utrumque exercitum velut parum bello exhaustum 
laceraret pestilentia, Cn. Pompeius decessit.* Cuius 
interitus vohiptas amissorum aut gladio aut morbo 
civium paene damno repensata est, populusque 
Romanus quam vivo iracundiam debuerat, in corpus 
mortui contulit. 

5 Seu duae seu tres Pompeiorum fuere familiae, 
primus eius nominis ante annos fere centum sexaginta 
septem^ Q. Pompeius cum Cn. ServiUo consul fuit. 

6 Cinna et Marius haud incruentis utrimque cer- 
taminibus editis urbem occupaverunt, sed prior 
ingressus Cinna de recipiendo Mario legem tuht. 

1 XXIL Mox C. Marius pestifero civibus suis reditu 

1 COS. sulta se A. 

^ potentiae sese Halm ; potentia esse A ; potentiae se P. 

'^ focisque Voss; sociisque AP; oculisque Halni after 

* Halm marks a laeuna before decessit ; Sauppe proposea 
to supply de caelo {or fuhnine) tactus. 

^ CLXvii BA ; CLxviii P ; clxxii Laurent. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxi. 1— xxii. 1 

tliousand Roman citizens and more than sixty 
thousand Italians had met in battle on a single day. 
Foiled in his hope of a second term in the consulship, 
he maintained a doubtful and neutral attitude as 
between the two parties. so that he seemed to be 
acting entirely in his own interest and to be watching 
his chance, turning >\dth his army now to one side 
and now to the other, according as each ofFered a 
greater promise for power for himself. In the end, 
however, he fought against Cinna in a great and 
bloodv battle. Words ahnost fail to express how 
disastrous to combatants and spectators ahke was 
the issue of this battle, which began and ended 
beneath the walls and close to the very hearths of 
Rome. Shortly after this battle, while pestilence 
was ravaging both armies, as though their strength 
had not been sapped enough by the war, Gnaeus 
Pompeius died. The joy felt at his death almost 
counterbalanced the feeling of loss for the citizens 
who had perished by sword or pestilence, and the 
Roman people vented upon his dead body the hatred 
it had owed him while he hved. 

Whether there were two famihes of the Pompeii 
or three, the first of that name to be consul was 
Quintus Pompeius, who was colleague of Gnaeus 
Servihus, about one hundred and sixty-seven years 
ago. . 

Cinna and Marius both seized the city after<L— - 
conflicts which caused much shedding of blood on 
both sides, but Cinna was the first to enter it, 
whereupon he proposed a law authorizing the recall 
of Marius. 

XXII. Then Gaitis Marius entered the city, and 
his retum was fraught with calamity for the citizens. 



intravit moenia. Nihil illa victoria fuisset crudelius, 
nisi mox SuUana esset secuta ; neque licentia gladio- 
rum in mediocris^ saevitum, sed excelsissimi quoque 
atque eminentissimi^ civitatis viri variis suppliciorum 

2 generibus adfecti. In iis consul Octavius, vir lenis- 
simi animi, iussu Cinnae interfectus est. Merula 
autem, qui se sub adventum Cinnae consulatu abdi- 
caverat, incisis venis superfusoque altaribus sanguine, 
quos saepe pro salute rei publicae flamen dialis 
precatus erat deos, eos in execrationem Cinnae 
partiumque eius tum precatus optime de re publica 

3 meritum spiritum reddidit. M. Antonius, princeps 
civitatis atque eloquentiae, gladiis militum, quos 
ipsos facundia sua moratus erat,'iussu Marii Cinnaeque 
confossus est. Q. Catulus, et aliarum virtutum et 

4 belli Cimbrici gloria, quae illi cum Mario communis 
fuerat, celeberrimus, cum ad mortem conquireretur, 
conclusit se loco nuper calce harenaque perpolito 
inlatoque igni, qui vim odoris excitaret, simul exitiali 
hausto spiritu, simul incluso suo mortem magis 
voto quam arbitrio inimicorum obiit. 

Omnia erant praecipitia in re puWica, nec tamen 
adhuc quisquam inveniebatur, qui bona civis Romani 
aut donare auderet aut petere sustineret. Postea 
id quoque accessit, ut saevitiae causam avaritia 

' in mediocris] in mediocri A ; immediocri B ; in medio- 
creis P. 

* excelsissimi quaque atque eminentissimi Heinslus ; ex- 
celsissimae quoque a. eminentissimae AP. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxii. 1-5 

No victory would ever have exceeded his in cruelty 
had Sulla's not foUowed soon afterwards. Nor did 
the licence of the sword play havoc among the 
obscure alone ; the highest and most distinguished 
men in the state were made the victims of many 
kinds of vengeance Amongst these Octavius the , 
consul, a man of the mildest temper, was slain by the C 
command of Cinna. Merula, however, who had abdi- 
cated his consulship just before the arrival of Cinna, 
opened his veins and, as his blood drenched the altars, 
he implored the gods to whom, as priest of Jupiter, 
he had formerly praved for safety of the state, to visit 
their wrath upon Cinna and his party. Thus did he 
yield up the Ufe which had served the state so well. 
Marcus Antonius, the foremost statesman and orator/ 
of Rome, was struck do^sTi, at the order of Marius^ 
and Cinna, by the swords of soldiers, though he 
caused even these to hesitate by the power of his 
eloquence. Then there was Quintus Catulus, re- 
no^raed for his virtues in general and for the glory, . 
which he had shared with 5larius, of ha\-ing won the <C. 
Cimbrian war ; when he was being hunted do^sTi for 
death, he shut himself in a room that had lately been 
plastercd with lime and sand ; then he brought fire that 
it might cause a powerful vapour to issue from the 
plaster, and by breathing the poisonous air and then 
holding his breath he died a death according rather 
\\ith his enemies' wishes than with their judgement. 
The whole state was now plunging headlong into 
ruin ; and yet no one had so far appeared who either 
dared to offer for pillage the goods of a Roman 
citizen, or could bring himself to demand them. 
Later, however, even this extreme was reached, 
and avarice furnished a motive for ruthlessness ; 



praeberet et modus culpae ex pecuniae modo con- 
stitueretur et qui fuisset locuples, fieret is nocens. 
suique quisque periculi merces foret, nec quidquam 
videretur tui*pe, quod esset quaestuosum. 

1 XXIIL Secundum deinde consulatum Cinna et 
septimum Marius in priorum dedecus iniit, cuius initio 
morbo oppressus decessit, vir in bello hostibus, in 
otio civibus infestissimus quietisque impatientissimus. 

2 In huius locum suffectus Valerius Flaccus, turpissimae 
legis auctor, qua creditoribus quadrantem solvi 
iusserat, cuius facti merita eum poena intra bien- 

3 nium consecuta est. Dominante in Italia Cinna maior 
pars nobiUtatis ad Sullam in Achaiam ac deinde post 
in Asiam perfugit. 

Sulla interim cum Mithridatis praefectis circa 
Athenas Boeotiamque et Macedoniam ita dimicavit, 
ut et Athenas reciperet et plurimo circa multiplicis 
Piraei portus munitiones labore expleto amplius 
ducenta milia hostium interficeret nec minus multa 

4 caperet. Si quis hoc rebellandi tempus, quo Athenae 
oppugnatae a SuUa sunt, imputat Atheniensibus, ni- 
mirum veri vetustatisque ignarus est : adeo enim certa 
Atheniensium in Romanos fides fuit, ut semper et 

" That is, his property was divided among those re- 
sponsible for his death. 

' For this period and its proscriptions see Plutarch, Life 
of SuUa. ' 86 B.c. ' 87-86 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxii. 5— xxiii. 4 

the magnitude of one's crime was determined by 
the magnitude of his property ; he who possessed 
riches became a malefactor and was in each case 
the prize" set up for his o^^ti murder. In short 
nothing was regarded as dishonourable that brought 

XXIII. Cinna then entered upon his second 
consulship, and Marius upon his seventh," only to/ 
bring dishonoxu" upon his former six. An illness^- 
which came upon Marius at the very beginning of 
his year of office ended the life of this man, who, 
impatient as he was of tranquilUty, was as dangerous 
to his fellow-citizens in peace as he had been in 
war to Rome's enemies. In his place was chosen 
as consul sufFectus Valerius Flaccus, the author of a 
most disgraceful law, by which he had ordained that 
one-fourth only of a debt should be paid to the 
creditors, an act for which a well-deserved punish- 
ment overtook him within two years. During this 
time, while Cinna held the reins of power in Italy, a 
large proportion of the nobles took refuge with 
Sulla in Achaea, and afterwards in Asia. 

In the meantime Sulla fought ^dth the generals 
of Mithridates at Athens,in Boeotia, andin Macedonia 
with such success that he recovered Athens, and, 
after surmounting many difficulties in overcoming 
the manifold fortifications of Piraeus, slew more than 
two hundred thousand of the enemy and made 
prisoners of as many more.<^ If anyone regards this 
period of rebelUon, during which Athens sufFered 
siege at the hands of Sulla, as a breach of good faith 
on the part of the Athenians, he shows a strange 
ignorance of the facts of history ; for so constant 
was the loyalty of the Athenians towards the Romans 



in omni re, quidquid sincera fide gereretur, id Romani 

5 Attica fieri praedicarent Ceterum tum oppressi 
Mithridatis armis homines miserrimae condicionis 
cum ab inimicis tenerentur, oppugnabantur ab amicis 
et animos extra moenia, corpora necessitati servientes 

6 intra muros habebant. Transgressus deinde in Asiam 
SuUa parentem ad^ omnia supphcemque Mithridatem 
invenit, quem multatum pecunia ac parte navium 
Asia omnibusque aUis provinciis, quas armis occu- 
paverat, decedere coegit, captivos recepit, in per- 
fugas noxiosque animadvertit, paternis, id est 
Ponticis finibus contentum esse iussit. 

1 XXIV. C. Flavius Fimbria, qui praefectus equitum 
ante adventum Sullae Valerium Flaccum consularem 
virum interfecerat exercituque occupato imperator 
appellatus forti^ Mithridatem pepulerat proeHo, sub 
adventu^ Sullae se ipse interemit, adulescens, quae 

2 pessime ausus erat, fortiter executus. Eodem anno 
P. Laenas tribunus plebis Sex. Lucilium, qui priore^ 
anno tribunus plebis fuerat, saxo Tarpeio deiecit, et 
cum collegae eius, quibus diem dixerat, metu ad 
Sullam profugissent, aqua ignique iis interdixit. 

1 ad liuhnken ; ante AJP. 
* forti Puteanus ; fonte AP ; sponte Halm. 
' sub adventu AP; sub adventum Halm, 
* qui in priore AP. 

" i.e. with their Roraan besiegers. 
* The province of Asia, i.e. Aaia Minor. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxiii. 4— xxiv. 2 

that always and invariably, whenever the Romans 
referred to any act of unqualified loyalty, they 
called it an example of " Attic faith." But at this 
time, overvvhelmed as they were by the arms of 
Mithridates, the Athenians were in a most unhappy 
phght. Held in subjection by their enemies and 
lijesieged by their friends, although in obedience to 
necessity they kept their bodies wilhin the walls, 
their hearts were outside their fortifications." After 
the capture of Athens Sulla crossed into Asia, 
where he found Mithridates submissive to all his 
demands and in the attitude of a suppliant He 
compelled him, after paying a fine in money and 
giving up half his fleet, to evacuate Asia^ and all 
the other pro\inces which he had seized ; he also 
secured the return of all prisoners, inflicted punish- 
ment upon deserters and others who had been in 
any way culpable, and obhged Mithridates to be 
satisfied \\ith the boundaries of his inheritance, that 
is to say, •wiih Pontus. 

XXIV. Before the arrival of Sulla, Gaius Flavius 
Fimbria, prefect of horse, had put to death Valerius 
Flaccus, a man of consular rank, had taken command 
of his army, by which he was saluted as imperator, 
and had succeeded in defeating Mithridates in 
battle. Now, on the eve of Sulla's arrival, he took 
his own life. He was a young man who, however 
reprehensible his bold designs might be, at any 
rate executed them with bravery. In the same year 
Publius Laenas, tribune of the people, threw Sextus 
Lucilius, tribune of the preWous year, from the 
Tarpeian rock. When his colleagues, whom he also 
indicted, fled in fear to Sulla, he had a decree of 
banishment passed against them. 



8 Tum SuUa compositis transmarinis rebus, cum ad 
eum primum omnium Romanorum legati Parthorum 
venissent, et in iis quidam magi ex notis corporis 
respondissent caelestem eius vitam et memoriam 
futuram, revectus in Italiam haud plura quam triginta 
armatorum miUa adversum ducenta amplius hostium 

4 exposuit Brundusii. Vix quidquam in Sullae operi- 
bus clarius duxerim, quam quod cum per triennium 
Cinnanae Marianaeque partes Italiam obsiderent, 
neque inlaturum se bellum iis dissimulavit nec quod 
erat in manibus omisit, existimavitque ante frangen- 
dum hostem quam ulciscendum civem, repulsoque 
extemo metu, ubi quod ahenum esset vicisset, 

6 superaret^ quod erat domesticum. Ante adventum 
L. SuUae Cinna seditione orta ab exercitu interemp- 
tus est, vir dignior, qui arbitrio victorum moreretur 
quam iracundia mihtum. De quo vere dici potest, 
ausum esse^ eum quae nemo auderet bonus, per- 
fecisse quae a nuUo nisi fortissimo perfici possent, 
et fuisse eum in consultando temerarium, in exe- 
quendo virum. Carbo nullo sufFecto collega solus 
toto anno consul fuit. 

1 {^ XXV. Putares Sullam venisse in Itaham non belh 

1 superaret AP ; Halm regards as a case of careless writ- 
ing ; Ellis understands superaret as having in it an imperative 

' ausura esse Orelli ; ausum P ; aususs with Jinal s sub- 
sequently deleted A. 

» 83 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxiv. 3— xxv. 1 

Sulla had now settled afFairs across the sea. There 
came to him ambassadors of the Parthians — he was 
the first of the Romans to be so honoured — and 
among them some -v^ase men who, from the marks 
on his body, foretold that his life and his fame 
would be worthy of a god. Returning to Italy he 
landed at Brundisium," having not more than thirty 
thousand men to face more than two hundred 
thousand of the enemy. Of all the exploits of 
SuUa there is nothing that I should consider more 
noteworthy than that, during the three years in 
which the party of Marius and Cinna were continu- 
ously masters of Italy, he never hid from them his 
intention to wage war on them, but at the same time 
he did not interrupt the war which he then had on 
his hands. He considered that his duty was to 
crush the enemy before taking vengeance upon 
citizens, and that after he had repelled the menace 
of the foreigner and won a victory in this war abroad, 
he should then prove liimself the master in a war at 
home. Before Sulla's arrival Cinna was slain in a 
mutiny of his army. He was a man who deserved 
to die by the sentence of his victorious enemies 
rather than at the hands of his angry soldiers. Of 
him one can truly say that he formed daring plans, 
such as no good citizen would have conceived, and 
that he accomplished what none but a most resolute 
man could have accomplished, and that he was 
foolhardy enough in the formulation of his plans, 
but in their execution a man. Carbo remained sole 
consul throughout the year without electing a 
colleague in the place of Cinna. 

XXV. One would think that Sulla had come to 
Italy, not as the champion of war but as the 



vindicem, sed pacis auctorem : tanta cum quiete 
exercitum per Calabriam Apuliamque cum singulari 
cura frugum, agrorum, hominum, urbium perduxit 
in Campaniam temptavitque iustis legibus et aequis 
condicionibus bellum componere ; sed iis, quibus 
et res^ pessima et immodica cupiditas erat, non 

2 poterat pax placere. Crescebat interim in dies Sullae 
exercitus confluentibus ad eum optimo quoque et 
sanissimo. Felici deinde circa Capuam eventu Sci- 
pionem Norbanumque consules superat, quorum Nor- 
banus acie victus, Scipio ab exercitu suo desertus 

3 ac proditus inviolatus a Sulla dimissus est. Adeo 
enim Sulla dissimilis fuit bellator ac victor, ut dum 
vincit, mitis ac iustissimo'^ lenior, post victoriam audito 
fuerit crudelior. Nam et consulem, ut praediximus, 
exarmatum Quintumque Sertorium, pro quanti mox 
belli facem ! et multos alios, potitus eorum, dimisit 
incolumes, credo ut in eodem homine dupHcis ac 

4 diversissimi animi conspiceretur exemplumri Post' 
victoriam — namque ascendens^ montem Tifata cum 
C. Norbano concurrerat — SuUa gratis Dianae, cuius 
numini regio illa sacrata est, solvit ; aquas salubri- 
tate medendisque corporibus nobiles agrosque omnis 
addixit deae. Huius gratae religionis memoriam et 
inscriptio templi adfixa posti hodieque et tabula 
testatur aerea intra aedem. 

^ res supplied hy Rnhnken. 

* mitis supplied by Krause ; ac iustissirao AP ; aequissimo 

^ post Gelenius ; posuit AP. 

* namque ascendens Halm ; qua demendes AP ; qua 
descendens Odenius. 

• 83 B.C. » See Chap. XXX. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxv. 1-4 

establisher of peace, so quietly did he lead his army 
through Calabria and Apuha into Campania, taking 
unusual care not to inflict damage on crops, fields, 
men, or cities, and such efforts did he make to end 
the war on just terms and fair conditions. But peace 
could not be to the liking of men whose cause was 
wicked and whose cupidity was unbounded. In the 
meantime Sulla's army was daily gro^ving, for all 
the better and saner citizens flocked to his side. 
By a fortunate issue of events he overcame the 
consuls Scipio and Norbanus near Capua." Norbanus 
was defeated in battle, while Scipio, deserted and 
betrayed by his army, was allowed by Sulla to go 
unharmed. So different was Sulla the warrior from 
Sulla the victor that, while his victory was in 
progress he was mild and more lenient than was 
reasonable, but after it was won his cruelty was 
unprecedented. For instance, as we have already 
said, he disarmed the consul and let him go, and 
after gaining possession of many leaders including 
Quintus Sertorius, so soon to become the firebrand 
of a great war,^ he dismissed them unharmed. The 
reason, I suppose, was that we might have a 
notable example of a double and utterly contradictory 
personality in one and the same man. 

It was while SuUa was ascending Mount Tifata 
that he had encountered Gaius Norbanus. After 
his victory over him he paid a vow of gratitude to 
Diana, to whom that region is sacred, and con- 
secrated to the goddess the waters reno^vned for their 
salubrity and power to heal, as well as all the lands in 
the vicinity. The record of this pleasing act of piety 
is witnessed to this day by an inscription on the door 
of the temple, and a bronze tablet within the edifice. 



1 XXVI. Deinde consules Carbo tertium et C. 
Marius, septiens consulis filius, annos natus sex et 
viginti, vir animi magis quam aevi paterni, multa 
fortiterque molitus neque usquam inferior nomine 
suo. Is^ apud Sacriportum pulsus a Sulla acie 
Praeneste, quod ante natura munitum praesidiis 
firmaverat, se exercitumque contulit. 

2 Ne quid usquam malis publicis deesset, in qua 
civitate semper virtutibus certatum erat, certabatur 
sceleribus, optimusque sibi videbatur, qui fuerat^ 
pessimus. Quippe dum ad Sacriportum dimicatur, 
Damasippus praetor Domitium consularem, Scae- 
volam^ Mucium, pontificem maximum et divini 
humanique iuris auctorem celeberrimum, et C. Car- 
bonem praetorium, consulis fratrem, et Antistium 
aedilicium velut faventis Sullae partibus in curia 

3 Hostilia trucidavit. Non perdat nobilissimi facti 
gloriam Calpurnia, Bestiae filia, uxor Antistii, quae 
iugulato, ut praediximus, viro gladio se ipsa transfixit. 
Quantum huius gloriae famaeque accessit nimc virtute 
feminae ! nec propria latet.* 

1 XXVII. At Pontius Telesinus, dux Samnitium, vir 
domi bellique fortissimus penitusque Romano nomini 

^ siio. Is Orelli ; sflis A (sulis according to Orelli) ; con- 
sulis P. 

* fuerat AP ; foret Halm. 

' Domitiura consularem, Scaevolam Mucium Ruhnken ; 
Dom. Scaevolam etiam AP. 

* virtute feminae nec propria latet Thomas ; virtute 
eminet patria latet AP ; virtute feminae propria patet Haupt 
followed by Halm. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxvi. 1— xxvii. 1 

XXVI. Carbo now became consul for the third 
time, in conjunction witli Gaius Marius, now aged 
twenty-six, the son of a father who had been seven 
times consul. He was a man who showed his father's 
spirit, though not destined to reach his years, who 
displayed great fortitude in the many enterprises he 
undertook, and never behed the name. Defeated 
by Sulla at Sacriportus he retired with his army to 
Praeneste, which town, thongh aheady strong by 
natiire, he had strengthened by a garrison. 

In order that nothing should be lacking to the 
calamities of the state, in Rome, a city in which there 
had aheady been rivalry in \-irtues, there was now a 
rivalr}' in crimes, and that man now regarded himself 
as the best citizen who had formerly been the worst. 
Wliile the battle was being fought at Sacriportus, 
■within the city the praetor Damasippus murdered 
in the Curia Hostiha, as supposed partisans of SuUa, 
Domitius, a man of consular rank ; Scaevola Mucius, 
pontifex maximus and famous author of works on 
rehgious and ci\il law ; Gaius Carbo, a former 
praetor, and brother of the consul, and Antistius, a 
former aedile. May Calpurnia, the daughter of 
Bestia and wife of Antistius, never lose the glory 
of a noble deed ; for, when her husband was put to 
death, as I have just said, she pierced her ovm 
breast \vith the sword. What increment has his 
glory and fame received through this brave act of 
a woman ! and yet his own name is by no means 

XXVII. While Carbo and Marius were still consuls, 
one hundred and nine years ago, on the Kalends of 
November, Pontius Telesinus, a Samnite chief, brave 
in spirit and in action and hating to the core the 



infestissimus, contractis circiter quadraginta milibus 
fortissimae pertinacissimaeque in retinendis armis 
iuventutis, Carbone ac Mario consulibus abhinc 
annos centum et novem^ Kal. Novembribus ita ad 
portam Collinam cum SuUa dimicavit, ut ad summum 

2 discrimen et eum et rem publicam perduceret, quae 
non maius periculum adiit Hannibalis intra tertium 
miliarium castra conspicata, quam eo die, quo cir- 
cumvolans ordines exercitus sui Telesinus dictitansque 
adesse Romanis ultimum diem vociferabatur eruen- 
dam delendamque urbem, adiiciens numquam defu- 
turos raptores Italicae libertatis lupos, nisi silva, in 

3 quam refugere solerent, esset excisa. Post primam 
demum horam noctis et Romana acies respiravit et 
hostium cessit. Telesinus postera die semianimis 
repertus est, victoris magis quam morientis vultum 
praeferens, cuius abscisum caput ferro figi^ ges- 
tarique circa Praeneste Sulla iussit. 

4 Tum demum desperatis rebus suis C. Marius 
adulescens per cuniculos, qui miro opere fabricati 
in diversas agrorum partis ferebant,^ conatus erum- 
pere, cum foramine e terra emersisset, a dispositis in 

6 id ipsum interemptus est. Sunt qui sua manu, sunt 
qui concurrentem mutuis ictibus cum minore fratre 
Telesini una obsesso et erumpente occubuisse pro- 
diderint. Utcumque cecidit, hodieque tanta patris 
imagine non obscuratur eius* memoria. De quo 

^ cix Kritz ; xt BA ; xl P. 

* ferro figi Madvig ; ferri AP. 

* ferebant Burman ; fuerunt AP ; ferunt Gelenius. 

* eius P ; civis AB. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxvii. 1-5 

very name of Rome, haWng collected about him 
forty thousand of the bravest and most steadfast 
youth who still persisted in retaining arms, fought 
with SuUa, near the Colhne gate, a battle so critical 
as to bring both Sulla and the city into the gravest 
peril. Rome had not faced a greater danger when 
she saw the camp of Hannibal -s^ithin the third 
milestone, than on this day when Telesinus went 
about from rank to rank exclaiming : " The last 
day is at hand for the Romans," and in a loud voice 
exhorted his men to overthrow and destroy their 
city, adding : " These wolves that made such ravages 
upon Itahan hberty will never vanish until we have cut 
do^ra the forest that harbours them." It was only 
after the first hour of the night that the Roman army 
was able to recover its breath, and the enemy retired. 
The next day Telesinus was found in a half-dying 
condition, but with the expression of a conqueror upon 
his face rather than that of a dpng man. Sulla 
ordered his severed head to be fixed upon a spear 
point and carried around the walls of Praeneste. 

The young Marius, now at last despairing of his 
cause, endeavoured to make his way out of Praeneste 
through the tunnels, ^vTought vvith great engineering 
skill, which led into the fields in different directions ; 
but, on emerging from the exit, he was cut off by 
men who had been stationed there for that purpose. 
Some authorities have asserted that he died by his 
own hand, some that he died in company with the 
younger brother of Telesinus, who was also besieged 
and was endeavouring to escape with him, and that 
each ran upon the other's sword. Whatever the 
manner of his death, his memory is not obscured 
even to-day by the great figure of his father. Sulla's 



iuvene quid existimaverit Sulla, in promptu est ; 

[^occiso enim demum eo Felicis nomen adsumpsit, 
quod quidem usurpasset iustissime, si eundem et 
vincendi et vivendi finem habuisset.j 

6 Oppugnationi autem Praenestis ac Marii praefuerat 
Ofella Lucretius, qui cum ante Marianarum fuisset 
partium praetor,i ad Sullam transfugerat. Felici- 
tatem diei, quo Samnitium Telesinique pulsus est 
exercitus, Sulla perpetua ludorum circensium honora- 
vit memoria, qui sub eius nomine SuUanae Victoriae 

1 XX\^III. Paulo ante quam Sulla ad Sacriportum 
dimicaret, magnificis proeHis partium eius viri 
hostium exercitum fuderant, duo Servilii apud 
Clusium, Metellus Pius apud Faventiam, M. LucuUus 
circa Fidentiam. 

2 LVidebantur finita belli civiHs mala, cum Sullae 
crudehtate aucta sunt.'^^ Quippe dictator creatus 
(cuius honoris usurpatio per annos centum et viginti 
intermissa ; nam proximus post annum quam Han- 
nibal Itaha excesserat, uti adpareat populum Ro- 
manum usum dictatoris haud metu desiderasse tali 
quo timuisset potestatem-) imperio, quo priores ad 
vindicandam maximis periculis rem publicam olim 
usi erant,^ eo in inmodicae crudeUtatis Ucentiam* 

3 usus est. Primus ille, et utinam ultimus, exemplum 
proscriptionis inveniQ ut in qua civitate petulantis 

' praetor AP ; proditor Voss ; fautor Scriner. 

* naud , • . potestatein Ellis ; aut metu desideras tulio 
cotimuis se (Tulio co timuisse P) potestatem AP \ ut in 
metu desiderasse ita in otio timuisse potestatem Ilalm. 

' imperio . . . usi erant Puhnken and Gelmiiis ; imperio 
prores (proh res P) ad vindicandara (-dum P) maximi 
periculi spolia miisierant AP. 

* eo inmodicae crud. licentia AP ; em. Cludius. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xx\ii. 5— xxviii. 3 

estimate of the young man is manifest ; for it was 
only after he was slain that he took the name of 
Fehx," a name which he would have been completely 
justified in assuming had his Ufe ended A^ith his 

The siege of Marius in Praeneste was directed by 
Ofella Lucretius, who had been a general on the 
Marian side but had deserted to SuUa. Sulla 
commemorated the great good fortune which fell 
to him on this day by instituting an annual festival 
of games held in the circus, which are still celebrated 
as the games of Suila's victory. 

XXVIII. Shortly before Sulla's \ictory at Sacri- 
portus, several leaders of his part}' had routed the 
enemy in successful engagements ; the two SerxiUi 
at Clusium, Metellus Pius at Faventia, and Marcus 
LucuUus in the vicinity of Fidentia. 

The terrors of the ci\il war seemed nearly at 
an end when they received fresh impetus from 
the cruelty of Sulla. Being made dictator' (the 
office had been obsolete for one hundred and 
twenty years, and had been last employed in 
the year after Hannibars departure from Italy ; 
it is therefore clear that the fear which caused 
the Roman people to feel the need of a dictator 
was outweighed by the fear of his excessive 
power) Sulla now \sielded with unbridled cruelty 
the powers which former dictators had em- 
ployed only to save their country in times of 
extreme danger. He was the first to set the 
precedent for proscription — would that he had been 
the last ! The result was that in the very state in 

• Tae " fortunate." 
» 82 B.C. 



convicii iudicium histrioni ex albo^ redditur, in ea 
iugulati civis Romani publice constitueretur auctora- 
mentum, plurimumque haberet, qui plurimos inter- 
emisset, neque occisi hostis quam civis uberius foret 
4 praemium fieretque quisque merces mortis suae.^Nec 
tantum in eos, qui eontra arma tulerant, sed in 
multos insontis saevitum. Adiectum etiam, ut bona 
proscriptorum venirent exclusique paternis opibus 
liberi etiam petendorum honorum iure proliiberenturj 
simulque, quod indignissimum est, senatorum filii 
et onera ordinis sustinerent et iura perderent. 

1 XXIX. Sub adventum in Itaham L. Sullae Cn. 
Pompeius, eius Cn. Pompei fihus, quem magnifi- 
centissimas res in consulatu gessisse bello Marsico 
praediximus, tris et viginti annos natus, abhinc annos 
centum et tredecim- privatis ut opibus, ita consihis 
magna ausus magnificeque conata executus, ad 
vindicandam restituendamque dignitatem patriae 
firmum ex agro Piceno, qui totus paternis eius 

2 chentehs refertus erat, contraxit exercitum : cuius 
viri magnitudo multorum voluminum instar exigit, 
sed operis modus paucis eum narrari iubet. 

Fuit hic genitus matre Luciha stirpis senatoriae, 

forma excellens, non ea, qua flos commendatur aetatis, 

sed ea^ dignitate constantiaque, quae* in iham con- 

^ histrioni ex albo Oronovius et Monunsen ; historiarum 
(historiarium P) ex alto ABP. 
- cx Kritz. 

^ sed ea Burman ; sed ex AP. 
* quae added hy Aldiis. 

» 83 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxviii. 3— xxix. 2 

which an actor who had been hissed from the stage 
has legal redress for wilful abuse, a premium for 
the murder of a citizen was now pubhcly announced ; 
that the richest man was he who had slain the 
greatest number ; that the bounty for slaying an 
enemy was no greater than that for slaying a citizen ; 
and that each man became the prize set up for his 
o^^Ti death. Nor was vengeance wreaked upon 
those alone who had bome arms against him, but 
on many innocents as well. In addition the goods 
of the proscribed were sold, and their children were 
not only deprived of their fathers' property but were 
also debarred from the right of seeking pubhc office, 
and to cap the chmax of injustice, the sons of senators 
were compelled to bear the burdens and yet lose the 
rights pertaining to their rank. 

XXIX. Just before the arrival of Lucius Sulla in 
Italy, Gnaeus Pompeius, the son of the Gnaeus 
Pompeius who, as has already been mentioned, won 
such briUiant successes in the Marsian war during 
his consulship, though but twenty-three years of 
age — it was one hundred and thirteen years ago " 
— on his own initiative and ^\ith his own private 
funds conceived and brilhantly executed a daring 
plan. To avenge his country and restore her dignity 
he raised a strong army from the di^trict of Picenum 
which was fiUed with the retainers of his father. To 
do justice to the greatness of this man would require 
many volumes, but the brief compass of my work 
compels me to hmit my description to a few words. 

On the side of his mother Luciha he was of 
senatorial stock. He was distinguished by a personal 
beauty, not of the sort which gives the bloom of 
youth its charm, but stately and unchanging, as 



veniens amplitudinem fortunamque eum ad ultimum 
vitae comitata est diem ; innocentia eximius, sanc- 

3 titate praecipuus, eloquentia medius, potentiae, quae 
honoris causa ad eum deferretur, non vi^ ab eo occu- 
paretur, cupidissimus, dux bello peritissimus, civis 
in toga, nisi ubi vereretur ne quem haberet parem, 
modestissimus, amicitiarum tenax, in offensis exora- 
bihs, in reconcilianda gratia fidehssimus, in acci- 
pienda satisfactione facillimus, potentia sua num- 

4 quam aut raro ad impotentiam usus, paene omnium 
vitiorum expers, nisi numeraretur inter maxima in 
civitate Hbera dominaque gentium indignari, cum 
omnes cives iure haberet pares, quemquam aequalem 

5 dignitate conspicere. Hic a toga virili adsuetus com- 
militio prudentissimi ducis, parentis sui, bonum et 
capax recta discendi ingenium singulari rerum 
mih'tarium prudentia excoluerat, ut a Sertorio 
Metellus laudaretur magis, Pompeius timeretur 

1 XXX. Tum M. Perpenna praetorius, e proscriptis, 
gentis clarioris quam animi, Sertorium inter cenam 
Oscae interemit Romanisque certam victoriam, 
partibus suis excidium, sibi turpissimam mortem 
pessimo auctoravit facinore. Metellus et Pompeius 

^ ui Mommsen ; ut AP. 

* Krause believes that there is a hialm of some length be- 
tween this chapter and XXX. 

« 72 B.c. 

* After the assassination Perpenna took charge of the 
army of Sertorius, was defeated by Ponipey, and taken 
prisoner. He sought to save his hfe by delivering up to 
Pompey the papers of Sertorius implicating many of the 
leading men of Rome in a conspiracy to change the con- 
stitution of Sulla. Pompey commanded that the papers be 
burnt, and that Perpenna be put to death. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxix. 2— xxx. 1 

befitted the distinction and good fortune of his 
career, and this beauty attended him to the last 
day of his Ufe. He was a man of exceptional purity 
of Ufe, of great uprightness of character, of but 
moderate oratorical talent, ambitious of such power 
as might be conferred upon him as a mark of 
honour, but not that which had to be forcibly 
usurped. In war a resourceful general, in peace a 
citizen of temperate conduct except when he feared 
a rival, constant in his friendships, easily placated 
when offended, loyal in re-estabUshing terms of amity, 
very ready to accept satisfaction, never or at least 
rarely abusing his power, Pompey was free from 
almost every fault. unless it be considered one of 
the greatest of faults for a man to chafe at seeing 
anyone his equal in dignity in a free state, the 
mistress of the world, where he should justly regard 
aU citizens as his equals. From the day on which 
he had assumed the toga he had been trained to 
miUtar>' ser\ice on the staff of that sagacious general, 
his father, and by a singular insight into miUtary 
tactics had so developed his exceUent native talent, 
which showed great capacity to leam what was 
best, that, while Sertorius bestowed the greater 
praise upon MeteUus, it was Pompey he feared the 
more strongly. 

XXX. Shortly afterwards Marcus Perpenna, an 
ex-praetor, one of those who had been proscribed, a 
man more distinguished for his birth than for liis char- 
acter, assassinated Sertorius at Osca at a banquet.* 
By this wicked deed he ensured success to the 
Romans, and destruction to his o%vn faction, and 
for himself a death of extreme dishonour.* MeteUus 
and Pompey won triumphs for their victories in 



2 ex Hispaniis triumphaverunt ; sed Pompeius, hoc 
quoque triumpho adhuc eques Romanus, ante diem 
quam consulatum iniret, curru urbem invectus est. 

3 Quem virum quis non miretur per tot extraordinaria 
imperia in summum fastigium evectum iniquo tuhsse 
animo, C. Caesaris absentis^ in altero consulatu 
petendo senatum populumque Romanum rationem 
habere : adeo famihare est hominibus omnia sibi 
ignoscere, nihil ahis remittere, et invidiam rerum non 
ad causam, sed ad voluntatem personasque dirigere. 

4 Hoc consulatu Pompeius tribuniciam potestatem re- 
stituit, cuius Sulla imaginem sine re- reHquerat. 

5 Dum Sertorianum bellum in Hispania geritur, 
quattuor et sexaginta fugitivi e ludo gladiatorio 
Capua profugientes duce Spartaco, raptis ex ea 
urbe gladiis, primo Vesuvium montem petiere, mox 
crescente in dies multitudine gravibus variisque 

6 casibus adfecere ItaUam. Quorum numerus in 
tantum adulevit, ut qua ultima dimicavere acie, 
nonaginta milia^ hominum se Romano exercitui 
opposuerint. Huius patrati gloria penes M. Crassum 
fuit, mox rci pubhcae omnium consensu^ principem. 

1 absentis add. Krause. 
"^ sine re Gelmdus', in iure AP. 
^ xc milia Voss ; xl a ccc AP. 
* omnium P ; omni A ; consensu add. Ellis. 

" Extraordmary commands : here may be included the 
extraordinary title of proconsul conferred upon him though 
but a private citizen in the war against Sertorius ; his extra- 
ordinary election to the consuiship in which the senate 
waived legal age and absence from Kome ; the power of the 
imperlum mxiius over the whole Mediterranean to fifty miles 
inland from its coasts, conferred in 67 b.c. by the Gabinian 
law ; and the extension of this power by the ManiHan law 
to cover all the fleets and armies in the east and the whole 
of Asia as far as Armenia. * 70 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxx. 2-6 

Spain. Pompey, who even at the time of this 
triumph was still a Roman knight, entered the eity 
in his triumphal car on the day before his enlrance 
upon liis consulate. Who is there who does not feel 
surprise that this man, who owed liis elevation to 
the highest position in the state to so many extra- 
ordinary commands," should have taken it ill that 
the senate and the Roman people were 'wilUng to 
consider Gaius Caesar as a candidate for the consul- 
ship a second time, though suing for it in absentia ? 
So common a faiUng is it for mankind to overlook 
every irregularity in their o^vn case, but to make 
no concessions to others, and to let their discontent 
with conditions be vented upon suspected motives 
and upon persons instead of the real cause. In this 
consulship'' Pompey restored the power of the 
tribunes, of which SuUa had left the shadow without 
the substance."^ 

While war was being waged against Sertorius in 
Spain sixty-four runaway slaves, under the leadership 
of Spartacus, escaping from a gladiatorial school in 
Capua, seized swords in that city, and at first took 
refuge on Mount Vesuvius ; ^ then, as their number 
increased daily, they afflicted Italy with many serious 
disasters Their number grew to such an extent 
that in the last battle which they fought they 
confronted the Roman army with ninety thousand 
men. The glory of ending this war belongs to 
Marcus Crassus, who was soon by unanimous consent 
to be regarded as the first citizen in the state. 

• i.e. by depriving the tribunes of the right of initiating 
legislation, by reducing the right of intercessio to a siraple 
ius auxilii ferendi (Cic. I)e lef/f/. iii. 9), and by disquaUfying 
tribunes from hoiding curule offices. <* 73-7 Ib.c. 



1 XXXI. Converterat Cn, Pompei persona totum in 
se terrarum orbem et per omnia maior civi^ habe- 
batur. Qui cum consul perquam laudabiliter iurasset 
se in nullam provinciam ex eo magistratu iturum 

2 idque servasset, post biennium A. Gabinius tribunus 
legem tulit, ut cum belli more, non latrociniorum, 
orbem classibus iam, non furtivis expeditionibus 
piratae terrerent quasdamque etiam Italiae urbes 
diripuissent, Cn. Pompeius ad eos opprimendos mit- 
teretur essetque ei imperium aequum in omnibus 
provinciis cum proconsulibus usque ad quinquage- 
simum miliarium a mari. Quo scito^ paene totius 

3 terrarum orbis imperium uni viro deferebatur ; sed 
tamen idem hoc ante septennium^ in M. Antonii 

4 praetura decretum erat. Sed interdum persona ut 
exemplo nocet, ita invidiam auget aut levat* : in 
Antonio homines aequo animo passi erant ; raro 
enim invidetur eorum honoribus, quorum vis non 
timetur : contra in iis homines extraordinaria refor- 
midant, qui ea suo arbitrio aut deposituri aut reten- 
turi videntur et modum in voluntate habent. Dis- 
suadebant optimates, sed consiUa impetu victa sunt. 

1 XXXII. Digna est memoria Q. Catuli cum aucto- 
ritas tum verecundia. Qui cum dissuadens legem 

* maior civi Heinsiiis ; maiore vi AP. 

* quo scito Scheqk ; quos c A ; quo senatus Cos. P. 

^ septennium Krause ; bienniura AP. 

* leva A. 

» 67 B.c. 

' In 74 B.c. Marcus Antonius, the father of the triumvir, 
who had held the praetorship the previous year, obtained 
through the influence of Cethegus and the consul Cotta the 
command of the fleet and the coasts of the Mediterranean 
in order to clear the sea of pirates. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxi. 1— xxxii. 1 

XXXI. The personality of Pompey had now tumed 
the eyes of the world upon itself, and in all things 
he was now regarded as more than a mere citizen. 
As consul he made the laudable promise, which he 
also kept, that he would not go from that office to 
any pro\ince. But, two years afterwards, when the 
pirates were terrifying the world, not as heretofore 
by furtive marauding expeditions but with fleets of 
ships in the manner of regular warfare, and had 
ah-eady plundered several cities of Italy, Aulus 
Gabinius, a tribune, proposed an enactmenf* to the 
effect that Gnaeus Pompeius should be sent to crush 
them, and that in all the provinces he should have a 
power equal with that of the proconsular govemors 
to a distance of fifty miles from the sea. By this 
decree the command of ahnost the entire world was 
being entrusted to one man. Seven years before, it 
is true, like power had been decreed to Marcus 
Antonius as praetor.* But sometimes the personality 
of the recipient of such power, just as it renders the 
precedent more or less dangerous, increases or 
diminishes its im-idiousness. In the case of Antonius 
people had looked upon his position with no concem. 
For it is not often that we begmdge honours to those 
whose power we do not fear. On the other hand 
men shrink from conferring extraordinary powers 
upon those who seem hkely to retain them or lay 
them aside only as they themselves choose, and 
whose inclinations are their only check. The 
optimates ad\ised against the grant to Pompey, 
but sane advice succumbed to impulse. 

XXXII. The sterUng character of Quintus Catulus 
and his modesty on this occasion are worthy of 
record. Opposing the law before the assembled 



in contione dixisset esse quidem praeelarum virum 
Cn. Pompeium, sed nimium iam liberae^ rei publicae 
neque omnia in uno reponenda adiecissetque : " si 
quid huic acciderit, quem in eius locum substituetis ? " 
subclamavit universa contio, te, Q. Catule. Tum 
ille victus consensu omniura et tam honorifico civitatis 

2 testimonio e contione discessit. Hic hominis vere- 
cundiam, populi iustitiam mirari libet, huius, quod 
non ultra contendit, plebis, quod dissuadentem et 
adversarium voluntatis suae vero testimonio fraudare 

3 Per idem tempus Cotta iudicandi munus, quod 
C. Gracchus ereptum senatui ad equites, SuUa ab 
ilHs ad senatum transtulerant,^ aequahter in utrum- 
que ordinem partitus est ; Otho Roscius lege sua 
equitibus in theatro loca restituit. 

4 At Cn. Pompeius multis et praeclaris viris in id 
bellum adsumptis discriptoque paene in omnis 
recessus maris praesidio navium, brevi inexsupera- 
bili manu terrarum orbem hberavit praedonesque 
saepe multis iam ahis locis^ victos circa Ciliciam classe 
adgressus fudit ac fugavit ; et quo maturius bellum 

^ liberae A (an eramre after ae); liber aeret (aere F, 
BP. ^ transtulerat A . 

3 praedonesque per multa a multis locis AP ; alias ac 
multis Burer. 

» Otho Roscius, tribune in 67 b.c. The law set apart the 
first fourteen rows, next to the Senators, who sat in the 
orchestra, for those of equestrian rating. Cicero also speaks 
of it as a restoration, but we have no information as to when 
the distinction was first made. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxii. l^ 

people he had said that Pompey was without 
question a great man, but that he was now becoming 
too great for a free repubhc, and that all powers 
ought not to be reposed in one man. " If anytliing 
happens to Pompey," he added, " whom will you 
put in his place r " The people shouted with one 
accord, " You, Catulus." Then, yielding to the 
unanimous desire of the people for the proposed law 
and to this honourable tribute of his fellow-citizens, 
he left the assembly. At this point one would fain 
express admiration for the modesty of the man and 
the faimess of the people ; in the case of Catulus, 
because he ceased liis opposition, and, in the case 
of the people, because it was unwilling to withhold 
from one who was speaking against the measure in 
opposition to them this real e\-idence of their 

About the same time Cotta divided service 
upon the juries equally between the senatorial and 
equestrian orders. Gaius Gracchus had taken this 
privilege from the senate and given it to the knights, 
while Sulla had again transferred it from the knights 
to the senate. Otho Roscius by his law restored to 
the knights their places in the theatre." 

Meanwhile Gnaeus Pompey enlisted the services 
of many illustrious men, distributed detachments 
of the fleet to all the recesses of the sea, and 
in a short time ^vith an im^incible force he freed 
the world from the menace of piracy. Near the 
CiUcian coast he deUvered his final attack upon 
the pirates, who had aUeady met vrith frequent 
defeats in many other places, and completely routed 
them. Then, in order that he might the more 
quickly put an end to a war that spread over so wide 



6 tam late difFusum conficeret, reliquias eorum con- 
tractas in urbibus remotoque mari loco in certa sede 

6 constituit. Sunt qui hoc carpant, sed quamquam in 
auctore satis rationis est, tamen ratio quemlibet 
magnum auctorem faceret ; data enim facultate sine 
rapto vivendi rapinis arcuit. 

1 XXXin. Cum esset in fine bellum piraticum et 
L. Lucullus, qui ante septem annos ex consulatu 
sortitus Asiam Mithridati oppositus erat magnasque 
et memorabiles res ibi gesserat, Mithridatem saepe 
multis locis fuderat, egregia Cyzicum liberarat 
victoria, Tigranem, regum maximum, in Armenia 
vicerat ultimamque bello manum paene magis 
noluerat imponere quam non potuerat, quia^ ahoqui 
per omnia laudabiUs et bello paene invictus pecuniae 
pellebatur cupidine, idem bellum adhuc adminis- 
traret, Manilius tribunus plebis, semper venahs et 
alienae minister potentiae, legem tuht, ut bellum 

2 Mithridaticum per Cn. Pompeium administraretur. 
Accepta ea magnisque certatum inter imperatores 
iurgiis, cum Pompeius Lucullo infamiam pecuniae, 
Lucullus Pompeio interminatam cupiditatem obii- 
ceret imperii neuterque ab altero quod arguebat^ 

^ quia Bothe ; qui AP. 

2 ab altero quod arguebat Burman; ab eo quod argue- 
batur AP. 

" An allusion to Pompey's cognomen " The Great. 
* 66 B.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxii. 5— xxxiii. 2 

an area, he collected the remnants of the pirates 
and established them in fixed abodes in cities far 
from the sea. Some criticize him for this ; but 
although tho plan is sufficiently recommended by 
its author, it would have made its author great* 
whoever he might have been ; for, by giving the 
pirates the opportunity to hve ^nthout brigandage, 
he restrained them from brigandage. 

XXXIII. When the war ^\-lth the pirates was 
dra^-ing to a close, Pompey was assigned to the 
command against Mithridates in place of Lucius 
Lucullus. Seven years before this, Lucullus, at the 
conclusion of his consulship, had obtained the pro- 
consulship of Asia, and had been placed in command 
against Mithridates.* In this post he had performed 
some great and notable exploits, ha^^ing defeated 
Mithridates several times in different regions, freed 
Cyzicus by a brilUant victory, and conquered 
Tigranes, the greatest of kings, in Armenia. That 
he had not put an end to the war was due, one might 
say, to lack of inchnation rather than of abihty ; 
for although in all other respects he was a man of 
laudable character and in war had scarcely ever 
been defeated, he was a victim to the love of money. 
He was still engaged in carrying on the same struggle 
when Manihus, tribune of the people, a man of venal 
character always, and ready to abet the ambitions 
of others, proposed a law that Pompey should be 
given the chief command in the Mithridatic war. 
The law was passed, and the two commanders began 
to ^de \nih each other in recriminations, Pompey 
charging Lucullus with his unsavoury greed for 
money, and Lucullus taunting Pompey with his 
unbounded ambition for mihtary power. Neither 



3 mentitus argui posset. Nam neque Pompeius, ut 
primum ad rem publicam adgressus est, quemquam 
omnino^ parem tulit, et in quibus rebus primus esse 
debebat, solus esse cupiebat (neque eo viro quisquam 
aut alia omnia minus aut gloriam magis concupiit, 
in adpetendis honoribus inmodicus, in gerendis vere- 
cundissimus, ut qui eos ut libentissime iniret, ita 
finiret aequo animo, et quod cupisset, arbitrio suo 

4 sumeret, alieno deponeret) et Lucullus, summus 
alioqui vir, profusae huius in aedificiis convictibusque 
et apparatibus luxuriae primus auctor fuit, quem ob 
iniectas moles mari et receptum sufFossis montibus 
in terras mare haud infacete Magnus Pompeius 
Xerxen togatum vocare adsueverat. 

1 XXXIV. Per id tempus a Q. Metello Creta insula 
in populi Romani potestatem redacta est, quae 
ducibus Panare et Lasthene quattuor et viginti 
milibus iuvenum coactis, velocitate pernicibus, armo- 
rum laborumque patientissimis, sagittarum usu cele- 
berrimis, per triennium Romanos exercitus fati- 

2 gaverat. Ne^ ab huius quidem usura gloriae^ tem- 

peravit animum Cn. Pompeius, quin* victoriae 

partem conaretur vindicare. Sed et LucuUi et 

Metelli triumphum cum ipsorum singularis virtus, 

^ omniuo Acidalius ; animo AP. 

^ ne add. Gelenius. 

' iisura gloriae Rhenanu^ ; usurae gloria AP, 

^ quin Gelenius ; qui AP. 

" Literally, Xerxes in the toqa. The reference is to 
Xerxes' bridge across the Hellespont and his canal through 
the Isthmus at Mount Athos. 

* As in the case of Lucullus. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxiii. 3— xxxiv. 2 

could be convicted of falsehood in his charge against 
the other. In fact Pompey, from the time when he 
first took part in pubUc Ufe, could not brook an 
equal at all. In undertakings in which he should 
have been merely the first he \nshed to be the only 
one. No one was ever more indifFerent to other 
things or possessed a greater cra\-ing for glory ; he 
knew no restraint in hjs quest for office, though he 
was moderate to a degree in the exercise of his 
powers. Entering upon each new office with the 
utmost eagerness, he would lay them aside \\-ith 
unconcem, and, although he consulted his own 
wishes in attaining what he desired, he }ielded to 
the wishes of others in resigning it. As for Lucullus, 
who was otherwise a great man, he was the first to 
set the example for our present la\ish extravagance 
in building, in banquets, and in furnishings. Because 
of the massive piles which he built in the sea, and 
of his letting the sea in upon the land by digging 
through mountains, Pompey used to call him, and 
not without point, the Roman Xerxes." 

XXXIV. During the same period the island of Crete 
was brought under the sovereignty of the Roman 
people by Quintus Metellus. For three years this 
island, under the leadership of Panares and Las- 
thenes who had collected a force of twenty-four 
thousand men, swift in their movements, hardened 
to the toils of war, and famous in their use of the 
bow, had wom out the Roman armies. Gnaeus 
Pompeius could not refrain from coveting some of 
this glory also,^ and sought to claim a share in his 
victory. But the triumphs, both of Lucullus and of 
Metellus, were rendered popular in the eyes of all 
good citizens not only by the distinguished merits 



tum etiam invidia Pompei apud optimum quemque 

3 fecit favorabilem. 

Per haec tempora M. Cicero, qui omnia incre- 
menta sua sibi debuit, vir novitatis nobilissimae et ut 
vita clarus, ita ingenio maximus, quique^ effecit, ne 
quorum arma viceramus, eorum ingenio vinceremur, 
consul Sergii Catilinae Lentulique et Cethegi et 
ahorum utriusque ordinis virorum coniurationem 
singulari virtute, constantia, vigiha curaque aperuit.'- 

4 CatiHna metu consularis imperi urbe pulsus est ; 
Lentulus consularis et praetor iterum Cethegusque 
et alii clari nominis viri auctore senatu, iussu consulis 
in carcere necati sunt. 

1 XXXV. Ille senatus dies, quo haec acta sunt, vir- 
tutem M. Catonis iam multis in rebus conspicuam 

2 atque praenitentem in altissimo culmine locavit.^ 
Hic genitus proavo M. Catone, principe illo famihae 
Porciae, homo Virtuti simiUimus et per omnia ingenio 
diis quam hominibus propior, qui numquam recte 
fecit, ut facere videretur, sed quia ahter facere non 
potuerat, cuique id solum visum est rationem habere, 
quod haberet iustitiam,^ omnibus humanis vitiis 
immunis semper fortunam in sua potestate habuit. 

3 Hic tribunus plebis designatus et adhuc admodum 
adulescens, cum ahi suaderent, ut per municipia 

1 quique Oudendorp ; qui AP. 

* aperuit Oelenius ; eripuit AP. 

' culmine locavit ATadvig ; luminavit AP. 

* iustitiam Gelenius ; iustitiae AP. 

« 63 B.c. 

* He is referring to the sentiment expressed in the famous 
lines of Horace, Ep. ii. 1. 1.56, " Graecia capta ferum victorem 
cepit et artes Intulit agresti Latio." 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxiv. 2— xxxv. 3 

of the two generals themselves but also by the 
gen^ral unpopularity of Pompey. 

At this time the conspiracy of Sergius Catiline,* 
Lentulus, Cethegus, and other men of both the 
equestrian and senatorial orders was detected by 
the extraordinary courage, firmness, and careful 
vigilance of the consul Marcus Cicero, a man who 
owed his elevation wholly to himself, who had 
ennobled his lowly birth, who was as distinguished 
in his life as he was great in genius, and who saved 
us from being vanquished in intellectual accomplish- 
ments by those whom we had vanquished in arms.* 
CatiUne was driven from the city by fear of the 
authority of the consul ; Lentulus, a man of consular 
rank and twice a praetor, Cethegus, and other men of 
illustrious family were put to death in prison on the 
order of the consul, supported by the authority of the 

XXXV. The meeting of the senate at which this 
action had been taken raised the character of 
Marcus Cato, which had already shone forth con- 
spicuously in other matters, to a lofty pinnacle. 
Descended from Marcus Cato, the first of the 
Porcian house, who was his great-grandfather, he 
resembled Virtue herself, and in all his acts he 
revealed a character nearer to that of gods than 
of men. He never did a right action solely for the 
sake of seeming to do the right, but because he 
could not do other-v^ise. To him that alone seemed 
reasonable which was Ukewise just. Free from all 
the failings of mankind he always kept fortune 
subject to his control. At this time, though he was 
only tribune elect and still quite a young man, while 
others were urging that Lentulus and the other 



Lentulus coniuratique custodirentur, paene inter 
ultimos interrogatus sententiam, tanta vi animi atque 
ingenii invectus est in coniurationem, eo ardore 
oris orationem omnium lenitatem suadentium so- 

i cietate consilii suspectam fecit, sic impendentia ex 
ruinis incendiisque urbis et commutatione status 
publici pericula exposuit, ita consulis virtutem am- 
plificavit, ut universus senatus in eius sententiam 
transiret animadvertendumque in eos, quos prae- 
diximus, censeret maiorque pars ordinis eius Cice- 
ronem^ prosequerentur domum. 

5 At Catilina non segnius conata obiit, quam sceleris 
conandi consilia inierat : quippe fortissime dimicans 
quem spiritum supplicio debuerat, proelio reddidit. 

1 XXXVL Consulatui Ciceronis non mediocre adiecit 
decus natus eo anno divus Augustus abhinc annos 
Lxxxii,^ omnibus omnium gentium viris magnitudine 
sua inducturus caliginem. 

2 lam paene supervacaneum videri potest emi- 
nentium ingeniorum notare tempora. Quis enim 
ignorat diremptos gradibus aetatis floruisse hoc 
tempore Ciceronem, Hortensium, anteque^ Crassum, 
Cottam, Sulpicium, moxque Brutum, CaHdium,* 
Caehum, Calvum et proximum Ciceroni Caesarem 
eorumque velut alumnos Corvinum ac Pollionem 

^ Cicevonem lIottiHi/er ', Catonem ^P. 

* Lxxxii AP ; Lxxx Kritz; lxxxxii Aldus. 

* anteque ed. Bipont.; saneque AP. 

* Cottam Aldus; Catonera AP. 

» His faiuous speech is reported in Sallust, Catiline, 
chap. Ui. * 63 b.c. 

* He has now come to Rome's greatest epoch, the 
Ciceronian and the Augustan ages, sufficiently indicated by 
the inention of Cicero and Augustus. Hence the emphasis 
upon iam. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxv. 3— xxxvi. 2 

conspirators should be placed in custody in the 
Italian towns, Cato," though among the very last 
to be asked for his opinion, inveighed against the 
conspiracy \\-ith such vigour of spirit and intellect 
and such earnestness of expression that he caused 
those who in their speeches had urged leniency 
to be suspected of complicity in the plot. Such 
a picture did he present of the dangers which 
threatened Rome, by the buming and destruction 
of the city and the subversion of the constitution, 
and such a eulogy did he give of the consuFs firm 
stand, that the senate as a body changed to the 
support of his motion and voted the imposition of 
the death penalty upon the conspirators, and a large 
number of the senators escorted Cicero to his home. 

As for Catiline, he proceeded to carry out his 
criminal undertaking with as much energy as he had 
shown in planning it. Fighting >vith desperate 
courage, he gave up in battle the life which he had 
forfeited to the executioner. 

XXXVI. No sHght prestige is added to the consul- 
ship of Cicero by the birth in that year'' — ninety- 
two years ago — of the emperor Augustus, who was 
destined by his greatness to overshadow all men of 
all races. 

It may now^ seem an almost superiluous task to 
indicate the period at which men of eminent talent 
flourished. For who does not know that at this 
epoch, separated only by differences in their ages, 
there flourished Cicero and Hortensius ; a httle 
earUer Crassus, Cotta, and Sulpicius ; a httle later 
Brutus, Cahdius, CaeUus, Calvus, and Caesar, who 
ranks next to Cicero ; next to them, and, as it 
were, their pupils, come Corvinus and Pollio Asinius, 



que carminum Varronem ac Lucretium neque uUo 
in suscepto carminis sui opere^ minorem Catullum. 
3 Paene stulta est inhaerentium oculis ingeniorum 
enumeratio, inter quae maxime nostri aevi eminent 
princeps carminum Vergilius Rabiriusque et conse- 
cutus Sallustium Livius Tibullusque et Naso, per- 
fectissimi in forma operis sui ; nam vivorum ut 
magna admiratio, ita censura difficilis est. 

1 XXX VIL Dum haec in urbe Italiaque geruntur, 
Cn. Pompeius memorabile adversus Mithridaten, 
qui post Luculli profectionem magnas novi exercitus 

2 viris reparaverat, bellum gessit. At rex fusus fugatus- 
que et omnibus exutus copiis Armeniam Tigranem- 
que socer generum^ petiit,^ regem eius temporis, 
nisi qua LucuUi armis erat infractus, potentissimum. 

3 Simul itaque duos persecutus Pompeius intravit 
Armeniam. Prior filius Tigranis, sed discors patri, 

4 pervenit ad Pompeium ; mox ipse supplex et prae- 
sens se regnumque dicioni eius permisit, praefatus 
neminem alium neque Romanum neque ullius gentis 
virum futurum fuisse, cuius se societati commissurus 
foret, quam Cn. Pompeium ; proin omnem sibi vel 
adversam vel secundam, cuius auctor ille esset, 
fortunam tolerabilem futuram : non esse turpe ab 
eo vinci, quem vincere esset nefas, neque inhoneste 

^ in suspecti operis sui carmine AP; for the many 
emendations suggested for this vexed passage see Kritz and 

^ socer generum Heitisius ; socerum AP. 

^ petit AP ; petiit Gelenius. 

• Tiie omission of Horace from this list is as noteworthy 
as the omission of Plautus from tiie writers of comedy in 
Chap. xvii. of Bk. I. 


HISTORY OF ROxME, II. xxxvi. 2— xxx\ii. 4 

Sallust, the rival of Thucydides, the poets Varro 
and Lucretius, and Catullus, who ranks second to 
none in the branch of hterature which he under- 
took. It is almost folly to proceed to enumerate 
men of talent who are almost beneath our eyes, 
among whom the most important in our owti age 
are Virgil, the prince of poets, Rabirius, Livy, who 
foUows close upon Sallust, Tibullus, and Naso, each 
of whom achieved perfection in his own branch of 
hterature.'' As for Uving wTiters, while we admire 
them greatly, a critical hst is difficult to make. 

XXXVII. While these occurrences were taking 
place in the city and in Italy, Gnaeus Pompeius 
carried on a notable campaign against Mithridates, 
who after the departure of Lucullus had again 
prepared a new army of great strength. The king 
was defeated and routed, and after losing all his 
forces sought refuge in Armenia with his son-in-law 
Tigranes, the most powerful king of his day, though 
his power had been somewhat broken by Lucullus. 
Pompey accordingly entered Armenia in pursuit of 
both kings at once. First a son of Tigranes, who 
was at variance with his father, came to Pompey. 
Then the king in person, and, in the guise of a 
supphant, placed himself and his kingdom under 
the jurisdiction of Pompey, prefacing this act ^vith 
the statement that he would not have submitted 
himself to the aUiance of any man but Gnaeus 
Pompeius, whether Roman or of any other nationaUty ; 
that he would be ready to bear any condition, 
favourable or otherwise, upon which Pompey might 
decide ; that there was no disgrace in being beaten 
by one whom it would be a sin against the gods to 
defeatj and that there was no dishonour in sub- 



aliquem summitti huic, quem fortuna super omnis 
6 extulisset. Servatus regi honos imperii, sed multato 
ingenti pecunia, quae omnis, sicuti Pompeio moris 
erat, redacta in quaestoris potestatem ac publicis 
descripta Utteris. Syria aHaeque, quas occupaverat, 
provinciae ereptae, et aliae restitutae populo Romano, 
aliae tum primum in eius potestatem redactae, ut 
Syria, quae tum primum facta est stipendiaria. Finis 
imperii regii^ terminatus Armenia. 

1 XXXVIIL Haud absurdumvidetur propositioperis 
regulae paucis percurrere, quae cuiusque ductu gens 
ac natio redacta in formulam provinciae stipendiaria 
facta- sit, ut quae partibus notavimus, faciUus^ simul 
universa conspici possint. 

2 Primus in SiciUam traiecit exercitum consul 
Claudius, set* provinciam eam post annos ferme duos 
et quinquaginta captis Syracusis fecit MarceUus 
Claudius. Primus Africam Regulus nono ferme 
anno primi Punici belU aggressus est^ ; sed post 
centum et novem^ annos P. Scipio AemiUanus eruta 
Carthagine abhinc annos centum septuaginta' tris 
Africam in formulam redegit provinciae. Sardinia 
inter primum et secundum beUum Pimicum ductu 
T. ManUi consuUs certum recepit imperi iugum, 

3 Immane belUcae civitatis argumentum, quod semel 

' regW Heinsius ; regi AP. 

^ stipendiaria facta Amerbach in marg. et lApsius; 
stipendia facta AP. 

^ notavimus facilius ut quae partibus AP ; order changed 
hy Acidelius and Haase. 

* set Sauppe ; et AP. 

' beili aggressus est sujyplied by Halm. 

^ cviiii Bipont. ; ccmi AP. 

' CLXxiii Kritz ; ci-xxxii AP. 

« 261 B.c. » 212 B.c. • 256 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxvii. 4— xxxviii. 3 

mitting to one whom fortune had elevated above 
all others. The king was pennitted to retain the 
honours of royalty, but was compelled to pay a 
large sum of money, all of which, as was Pompey's 
practice, was remitted to the quaestor and hsted in 
the pubhc accounts. Syria and the other pro^inces 
which Mithridates had seized were wrested from him. 
Some were restored to the Roman people, and others 
were then for the first time brought under its sway 
— Syria, for instance — which first became a tributary 
pro^ince at this time. The sovereignty of the king 
was now limited to Armenia. 

XXX\TII. It does not seem out of keeping with the 
plan wliich I have set before me in my work to give a 
brief synopsis of the races and nations which were 
reduced to pro\-inces and made tributary to Rome, 
and by what generals. Thus it will be easier to see 
at a glance when grouped together, the facts akeady 
given in detail. 

Claudius the consul was the first to cross into Sicily 
mith an army," but it was only after the capture of 
Syracuse, fifty years later,'' that it was converted 
into a pro\ince by Marcellus Claudiizs. Regulus 
was the first to invade Africa, in the ninth year of 
the First Punic war.* It was one hundred and 
nine years later, one hundred and seventy-three 
years ago, that Pubhus Scipio Aemihanus destroyed 
Carthage and reduced Africa to the form of a 
pro\-ince,'' Sardinia finally became subject to the ^/ 
yoke in the interval between the First and Second 
Punic War,' through the agency of Titus ManUus 
the consul. It is a strong proof of the warhke 
character of our state that only three times did the 
' 146 B.C. »235 B.C. 



sub regibus, iterum hoc T. ManKo consule, tertio 
Augusto principe certae pacis argumentum lanus 

4 geminus clausus dedit. In Hispaniam primi omnium 
duxere exercitus Cn. et P. Scipiones initio secundi 
belli Punici abhinc annos ducentos quinquaginta ; 
inde varie possessa et saepe amissa partibus, uni- 

5 versa ductu Augusti facta stipendiaria est. Mace- 
doniam Paulus, Mummius Achaiam, Fulvius Nobilior 
subegit AetoHam, Asiam L. Scipio, Africani frater, 
eripuit Antiocho, sed beneficio senatus popuhque 
Romani mox ab AttaHs^ possessam regibus^ M. Per- 
penna capto Aristonico fecit tributariam. Cyprus 

6 devicta nullius adsignanda gloriae est^ ; quippe 
senatus consulto, ministerio Catonis, regis morte, 
quam ille conscientia acciverat, facta provincia est. 
Creta Metelli ductu longissimae Ubertatis fine mul- 
tata est. Syria Pontusque Cn. Pompei virtutis 
monumenta sunt. 

1 XXXIX. GaUias primum a* Domitio Fabioque,^ 
nepote Pauli, qui Allobrogicus vocatus est, intratas 
cum exercitu, magna mox clade nostra, saepe et 
adfectavimus et omisimus.^ Sed fulgentissimum C. 
Caesaris opus in his conspicitur ; quippe eius ductu 

^ ab Attalis Gelenius ; habita lis AP. 
^ regibus P; om. A. 

^ Cyprus devicta nuUius adsignanda gloriae est Laurent. ; 
Cypro devicta nuUis adsignanda gloria est AP. 

* a add. Aldus. 

* Fabioque Ursinus ; Fabio AP. 

8 omisimus Heinsius ; amisimus AP, 

• 218 B.c. » 167 B.c. « 146 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxviii. 3— xxxix. 1 

closing of the temple of the double-faced Janus 
give proof of unbroken peace : once under the kings, ^ 
a second time in the consulship of the Titus Manhus 
just mentioned, and a third time in the reign of 
Augustus. The two Scipios, Gnaeus and PubUus, 
were the first to lead armies into Spain," at the 
beginning of the Second Punic War, two hundred 
and fifty years ago ; from that time on we alter- 
nately acquired and lost portions of it until under 
Augustus the whole of it became tributary. Paulus 
conquered Macedonia,* Mummius Achaea," Fulvius 
NobiUor AetoUa,'' Lucius Scipio, the brother of 
Africanus, ^vTCsted Asia from Antiochus,^ but, by 
the gift of the senate and the Roman people, it 
soon afterwards passed to the ovvnership of the 
AttaUds. It was made a tributary proWnce by 
Marcus Perpenna ai\eT the capture of Aristonicus.' 
No credit for the conquest of Cyprus can be assigned 
to any general, since it was by a decree of the Senate, 
carried out by Cato, that it became a province " on 
the death of its king, self-inflicted in consciousness 
of guilt. Crete was punished by Metellus by the 
termination ^ of the Uberty which she had long 
enjoyed. Syria and Pontus are monuments to the 
valour of Gnaeus Pompeius.* 

XXXIX. Domitius and Fabius, son of Paulus, 
who was sumamed AUobrogicus, first entered the 
Gauls with an army ; later these provinces cost us • 
much blood in our attempts at conquest altemating 
with our loss of them. In aU these operations the 
work of Caesar is the most briUiant and most con- 
spicuous. Reduced under his auspices and general- 

" 189 B.c. • 190 B.C. ' 130 B.c. 

» 57 B.c. * 67 B.C. * 6-2 b.c 



auspiciisque infractae paene^ idem, quod totus ter- 

2 rarum orbis, in aerarium- conferunt stipendium. Ab 
eodem facta * * *3 Numidicus. Ciliciam perdomuit 
Isauricus et post bellum Antiochinum Vulso Manlius 
Gallograeciam. Bithynia, ut praediximus, testamen- 
to Nicomedis rehcta hereditaria. Divus Augustus 
praeter Hispanias ahasque gentis, quarum titulis 
forum eius praenitet, paene idem facta Aegypto 
stipendiaria, quantum pater eius Galhis, in aerarium 

3 reditus contulit. At Ti. Caesar quam certam His- 
panis parendi confessionem extorserat parens, lUyriis 
Delmatisque extorsit. Raetiam autem et Vindelicos 
ac Noricos Pannoniamque et Scordiscos novas im- 
perio nostro subiunxit provincias. Ut has armis, 
ita auctoritate Cappadociam populo Romano fecit 
stipendiariam. Sed revertamur ad ordinem. 

1 XL. Secuta deinde Cn. Pompei militia, gloriae 
laborisne maioris incertum est. Penetratae cum 
victoria Media, Albania, Hiberia* ; deinde flexum 
agmen ad eas nationes, quae dextra atque intima 
Ponti incolunt, Colchos Heniochosque et Achaeos, 
et oppressus auspiciis Pompei, insidiis fiUi Pharnacis 
Mithridates, ultimus omnium iuris sui regum praeter 

^ pene AP ; plane vel plene Burman. 

^ in aerarium Aldus ; ignauura AP. 

' The lacuna is thus supplied hy Haase: facta [Numidia 
provincia, e qua iam olim cognomen virtute partum detulerat 
Metellus] Numidicus. 

* Albani Hiberi (Hideri A) ac deinde AP; em. Burman. 

' 58-50 B.c. * 46 B.c. 

* Tlie words in bracltets are a translation of Haase's con- 
jecture. See footnote to text. 

■* 78 B.c. * i.e. Galatia, 188 B.c. 

' 74 B.c. » 30 B.c. * 10 B.c. 

< 16-12 B.c. ^ A.D. 17. * 66-63 b.c 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xxxix. l— xl. 1 

ship," they pay aknost as much tribute into the w 
treasury as the rest of the world. Caesar also made 
[Numidia a province,* from which Metellus had 
long before won by his valour the cognomen of]<^ 

Isauricus conquered Cihcia,'* and Vulso Manlius 
Gallograecia * after the war ^vith Antiochus. Bithynia, 
as has been already said, was bequeathed to the 
Romans by the will of Nicomedes.' Besides Spain 
and other countries whose names adorn his Forum, 
Augustus made Eg}'pt tributary,^' thereby con-^/' 
tributing nearly as mucli revenue to the treasury as 
his father had brought to it from the Gauls. Tiberius 
Caesar extorted from the Illyrians and Dalmatians a 
definite confession of submission ^ such as that 
which Augustus had wrested from Spain. He also 
added to our empire as new pro\inces Raetia, 
Vindehcia, Noricum. Pannonia, and the Scordisci 
These he conquered by arms.' Cappadocia he made 
tributary to the Roman people through the mere 
prestige of his name.J But let us now return to the 
order of events. 

XL. Then followed the military exploits of Gnaeus 
Pompeius,^' in regard to which it would be difficult 
to say whether the glory they earned or the labour 
they cost was the greater. Media, Albania, and 
Iberia were invaded viith victorious arms. Then he 
changed the direction of his march to the regions 
of the interior, to the right of the Black Sea — the 
Colchians, the Heniochi, and the Achaei. Mithridates 
was crushed, the last of the independent kings/ 
except the rulers of the Parthians, through the 
treachery of his son Phamaces, it is true, but 
during the period of Pompey's command. Then, 



2 Parthicos. Tum victor omnium quas adierat gentium 
Pompeius suoque et civium voto maior et per omnia 
fortunam hominis egressus revertit in Italiam. Cuius 
reditum favorabilem opinio fecerat ; quippe plerique 
non sine exercitu venturum in urbem adfirmarunt 
et Ubertati publicae statuturum arbitrio suo modum. 

3 Quo magis hoc homines timuerant, eo gratior civilis 
tanti imperatoris reditus fuit : omni quippe Brun- 
dusii dimisso exercitu nihil praeter nomen imperatoris 
retinens cum privato comitatu, quem semper illi 
astare^ moris fuit, in urbem rediit magnificentissi- 
mumque de tot regibus per biduum egit triumphum 
longeque maiorem omni ante se inlata pecunia in 
aerarium, praeterquam a Paulo, ex manubiis intulit. 

4 Absente Cn. Pompeio T. Ampius et T. Labienus 
tribuni plebis legem tulerant,^ ut is ludis circensibus 
corona aurea et omni cultu triumphantium uteretur, 
scaenicis autem praetexta coronaque aurea. Id ille 
non plus quam semel, et hoc sane nimium fuit, 
usurpare sustinuit. Huius viri fastigium tantis aucti- 
bus fortuna extuht, ut primum ex Africa, iterum ex 
Europa, tertio ex Asia triumpharet et, quot partes 
terrarum orbis sunt, totidem faceret monumenta 

^ illi astare DoederJein ; illi trahere Ruhnken ; illi fatare 

■^ tulerant Acidalitis ; tulerunt AP. 

" A general holding the imperium had the title imperator. 
He is here referring to the use of the title in the acclama- 
tions of the soldiers after a victory. In this sense it was 
considered as the preUminary to a triumph. 


«fter conquering all the races in liis path, Pompey 
returned to Italy, ha^ing achieved a greatness v- 
which exceeded both his own hopes and those 
of his fellow-citizens, and ha\ing, in all his cam- 
paigns, sutpassed the fortune of a mere mortal. It 
was o^ving to this impression that his return created 
such favourable comment ; for the majority of his 
countr)'men had insisted that he would not enter 
the city ^Wthout his army, and that he would set 
a limit upon public liberty according to his own 
caprice. The retum of so great a general as an 
ordinary citizen was all the more welcome because "^ 
of the apprehensions which had been entertained. 
For, dismissing his whole army at Brundisium, andv^ 
retaining none of his former power except the title 
of imperator,^ he retumed to the city with only the ^ 
retinue which regularly attended him. There he 
celebrated, for a period of two days, a most 
magnificent triumph over the many kings whom he 
had conquered, and from the spoils he contributed 
to the treasury a far larger sum of money than any 
other general had ever done except Paulus. 

In Pompey's absence the tribunes of the people, 
Titus Ampius and Titus Labienus, proposed a law 
that at the games of the circus Pompey should be 
permitted to wear a golden crown and the fuU dress 
of the triumphator, and at the theatre the purple-^, 
bordered toga and the golden crown. But he 
forbore to use this honour more than once, and 
indeed that was itself too often. This man was 
raised by fortune to the pinnacle of his career by 
great leaps, first triumphing over Africa, then over 
Europe, then over Asia, and the three divisions of 
the world thus became so many monuments of 



victoriae suae. Numquam eminentia invidia carent. 
6 Itaque et Lucullus et Metellus Creticus memor 
tamen acceptae iniuriae,^ non iniuste querens (quippe 
ornamentum triumphi eius captivos duces Pompeius 
subduxerat) et cum iis pars optimatium refragabatur, 
ne aut promissa civitatibus a Pompeio aut bene 
meritis praemia ad arbitrium eius persolverentur. 

1 XLL Secutus deinde est consulatus C. Caesaris, 
qui scribenti manum iniicit et quamlibet festinantem 
in se morari cogit^ Hic nobilissima luliorum genitus 
familia et, quod inter omnis antiquitatis studiosos^ 
constabat, ab Anchise ac Venere deducens genus, 
forma omnium civium excellentissimus, vigore animi 
acerrimus, munificentia efFusissimusJanimo super hu- 
manam et naturam et fidem evectus^Anagnitudine 
cogitationum, celeritate bellandi, patientia periculo- 
rum Magno illi Alexandrcy sed sobrio neque iracundo 

2 simillimus, qui denique semper et cibo et somno in 
vitam, non in voluptatem uteretur, cum fuissetLC. 
Mario sanguine coniunctissimus atque idem Cinnae 
gener, cuius filiam ut repudiaret nullo metu com- 
pelli potuit]^cum M. Piso consularis Anniam, quae 

Cinnae uxor fuerat, in SuUae dimisisset gratiam, 
^ The order is that of ElUs ; in AP et Metellus Creticus 

follows memor . . . iniuriae. 

^ antiquitatis studiosos Halm ; antiquissimos AP. 

' 59 B.C. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xl. 4— xli. 2 

his \ictory. Greatness is never without envy. 
Pompey met Mith opposition from Lucullus and 
from Metellus Creticus, who did not forget the 
slight he had received (indeed he had just cause 
for complaint in that Pompey had robbed him of 
the captive generals who were to have adorned his 
triumph), and from a section of the optimates who 
sought to prevent the fulfilment of Pompey's 
promises to the various cities and the payment of 
rewards in accordance ^^ith his \vishes to those who 
had been of serWce to him. 

XLI. Then followed the consulship" of Gaius "^ 
Caesar, who now lays hold upon my pen and compels j 
me, whatever my haste, to Unger a Avhile upon him. \> 
Sprung from the noble family of the JuUi, and tracing 
his descent from \'enus and Anchises, a claim con- 
ceded by all investigators of antiquity, he surpassed 
all his fellow-citizens in beauty of person. He was 
exceedingly keen and vigorous of mind, lavish in 
his generosity, and possessed a courage exceeding 
the nature, and even the credence, of man. In 
the magnitude of his ambitions, in the rapidity of 
his miUtary operations, and in his endurance of 
danger, he closely resembled Alexander the Great, 
but only when Alexander was free from the influence 
of wine and master of his passions ; for Caesar, in 
a word, never indulged in food or in sleep except 
as they ministered, not to pleasure, but to Ufe. 
To Gaius Marius he was closely related by blood ; 
he was also the son-in-law of Cinna, whose daughter 
no consideration of fear would induce him to divorce, 
whereas Marcus Piso, a man of consular rank, had 
divorced Annia, who had been the ^^-ife of Cinna, 
in order to win Sulla's favour. Caesar was only about 



habuissetque fere duodeviginti annos eo tempore, 
quo Sulla rerum potitus est, magis ministris Sullae 
adiutoribusque partium quam ipso conquirentibus 
eum ad necem mutata veste dissimilemque fortunae 
3 suae indutus habitum nocte urbe elapsus est. Idem 
postea admodum iuvenis, cum a piratis captus esset, 
ita se per^ omne spatium, quo ab iis retentus est, 
apud eos gessit, ut pariter iis terrori venerationique 
esset, neque umquam aut nocte aut die (cur enim 
quod vel maximum est, si narrari verbis speciosis 
non potest, omittatur ?) aut excalcearetur aut dis- 
cingeretur, in hoc scilicet, ne si quando aliquid ex 
solito variaret, suspectus iis, qui oculis tantummodo 
eum custodiebant, foret. 

1 XLII. Longum est narrare, quid et quotiens ausus 
sit, quanto opere conata eius qui obtinebat Asiam 
magistratus populi Romani metu^ suo destituerit. 
Illud referatur documentum tanti mox evasuri viri : 

2 quae nox eam diem secuta est, qua publica civitatium 
pecunia redemptus est, ita tamen, ut cogeret ante 
obsides a piratis civitatibus dari, et privatus et con- 
tracta classe^ tumultuaria invectus in eum locum, 
in quo ipsi praedones erant, partem classis fugavit, 
partem mersit, aliquot navis multosque mortalis 
cepit ; laetusque nocturnae expeditionis triumpho 

^ se per B ; semper AP. 

^ metu Gehnhis ; motu AP. 

' et privatus et coiitracta classe Seriner ; contracta classe 
et privatus et AP ; H<dm adcln manu after tumultiiaria, re- 
taining the MS. order of the preceding words. 

" Suetonius, Div. hdius 4, associates the adventure with 
the pirates with his visit to Rhodes in 76 b.c, whither he 
went to study oratory under Molo. Plutarch, Caes., places 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xli. 2— xlii. 2 

eighteen years of age at the time of Sulla's dictator- 
ship ; and when a search was made for him with a 
view to putting him to death, not, it is true, by 
SuUa himself, but by his minions and partisans, he 
escaped from the city at night by assuming a 
disguise wliich effectually concealed his rank. 
Later," but when still quite a young man, he was 
captured by pirates and so conducted himself during 
the entire period of his detention as to inspire in them 
to an equal degree both fear and respect. Neither 
by day nor by night did he remove his shoes or 
loosen his girdle — for why should a detail of the 
greatest significance be omitted merely because it 
cannot be adomed in imposing language ? — lest the 
slightest change in his usual garb might cause him 
to be suspected by liis captors, who guarded him 
only ^vith their eyes. 

XLII. It would take too long to tell of his many 
bold plans for the punishment of the pirates, or how 
obstinately the timid governor of Asia refused to 
second them. The follo^nng stor\', however, may 
be told as a presage of liis future greatness. On the 
night following the day on which his ransom was 
paid by the cities of Asia — he had, however, com- 
pelled the pirates before payment to give hostages 
to these cities — although he was but a private 
citizen without authority, and liis fleet had been 
coUected on the spur of the moment, he directed 
his course to the rendezvous of the pirates, put to 
flight part of their fleet, sank part, and captured 
several ships and many men. Well satisfied with 
the success of his night expedition he retumed 

it eariier, in comiexion with his vi^ut to Bithynia in 
81-80 Bjc. 



3 ad suos revectus^ est, mandatisque eustodiae quos 
ceperat, in Bithyniam perrexit ad proconsulem 
luncum 2 (idem enim Asiam eamque obtinebat) ^ 
petens, ut auctor fieret sumendi de captivis supplicii : 
quod ille se facturum negasset venditurumque cap- 
tivos dixisset (quippe sequebatur invidia inertiam), 
incredibilj celeritate revectus ad mare, priusquam 
de ea re ulli proconsulis redderentur epistulae,^ 
omnes, quos ceperat, suffixit cruci. 

1 XLIII. Idem mox ad sacerdotium ineundum 
(quippe absens pontifex factus erat in Cottae con- 
sularis locum, cum^ paene puer a Mario Cinnaque 
flamen dialis creatus victoria Sullae, qui omnia ab 
iis acta fecerat irrita, amisisset id* sacerdotium) 
festinans in Italiam, ne conspiceretur a praedonibus 
omnia tunc obtinentibus maria et merito iam'' in- 
festis sibi,quattuor scalmorum navem una cum duobus 
amicis decemque servis ingressus effusissimum Adria- 

2 tici maris traiecit sinum. Quo quidem in cursu con- 
spectis, ut putabat, piratarum navibus cum exuisset 
vestem alligassetque pugionem ad femur alterutri 
se fortunae parans, mox intellexit frustratum esse 
visum suum arborumque ex longinquo ordinem 

3 antemnarum praebuisse imaginem. 

Reliqua eius acta in urbe, nobilissima Cn. Dola- 

^ revectus Haase ; reversus AP. 
^ luncum Nipperdey ; lunium cum AP. 
^ idem enim Asiam eam quam obtinebat AP ; eamque 
Lipsms for eam quam. 

^ epistulae Burer ; epistula ABP. 
' cum added hy Lipsius. 
* id Gelenius; ■a.d AP. 
■^ iam] tam AP. 

" 74 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xlii. 3— xliii. 3 

to his friends and, after handing his prisoners into 
custody, went straight to Bithynia to Juncus, the 
proconsul — for the same man was govemor of 
Bithynia as well as of Asia — and demanded his 
sanction for the execution of his captives. When 
Juncus, whose former inacti\-ity had now given way 
to jealousy, refused, and said that he would sell the 
captives as slaves, Caesar returned to the coast 
with incredible speed and crucified all his prisoners 
before anyone had had time to receive a dispatch 
from the consul in regard to the matter. 

XLIII. Not long afterwards he was hastening to 
Italy to enter upon the priestly office of pontifex 
maximus to which he had been elected " in his 
absence in place of the ex-consul Cotta. Indeed, 
while still httle more than a boy he had already y 
been made priest o^ Jupiter by Marius and Cinna, but 
all their acts had been annuUed in consequence of 
Sulla's victory, and Caesar had thus lost this priest- 
hood. On the journey just mentioned, wishing to 
escape the notice of the pirates who then infested 
all the seas and by this time had good reasons for 
being hostile to him, he took two friends and ten 
slaves and embarked in a four-oared boat, and in 
this way crossed the broad expanse of the Adriatic 
Sea. During the voyage, sighting, as he thought, 
some pirate vessels, he removed his outer garments, 
bound a dagger to his thigh, and prepared himself 
for any event ; but soon he saw that his eyes had 
deceived him and that the illusion had been caused 
by a row of trees in the distance which looked hke 
masts and yards. 

As for the rest of his acts after his retum to the 
city, they stand in less need of description, since 



bellae'^ accusatio et maior civitatis in ea favor, quam 
reis praestari solet, contentionesque civiles cum Q. 
Catulo atque aliis eminentissimis viris celeberrimae, 
et ante praeturam victus in^ maximi pontificatus 
petitione Q, Catulus, omnium confessione senatus 
4 princeps, et restituta in aedilitate adversante quidem 
nobilitate monumenta C. Marii, simulque revocati 
ad lus dignitatis prosci'iptorum liberi, et praetura 
quaesturaque mirabili virtute atque industria obita 
in Hispania (cum esset quaestor sub Vetere Anti- 
stio, avo huius Veteris consularis atque pontificis, 
duorum consularium ct sacerdotum patris, viri in 
tantum boni, in quantum humana simplicitas intellegi 
potest) quo notiora sunt. minus egent stilo. 

1 XLIV. Hoc igitur consule inter eum et Cn. Pom- 
peium et M. Crassum inita potentiae societas, quac 
urbi orbique terrarum nec minus diverso cuique tem- 
pore ipsis exitiabilis fuit. Hoc consilium sequendi 

2 Pompeius causam habuerat, ut tandem acta in trans- 
marinis provinciis, quibus, ut praediximus, multi 
obtrectabant, per Caesarem confirmarentur consulem, 
Caesar autem, quod animadvertebat se cedendo 
Pompei gloriae aucturum suam et invidia communis 

^ nobilissima Cn. Dolabellae Haase ; nobilissimaque Dolo- 
bellae AP. ^ in adclecl by Hahn. 

» 77 B.c. » m B.c. « 63 B.c. " f>o B.C. 

* It was not as praetor and quaestor, but as propraetor 
a.nd quaestorius that he served in Spain In 61 b.c. and 67 b.c. 
' More probably while Consul elect. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xliii. 3— xliv. 2 

they are better known. I refer to his famous 
prosecution " of Gnaeus Dolabella, to whom the 
people showed more favour than is usually exhibited 
to men under impeachment ; to the well-known 
pohtical contests * ^\ith Quintus Catulus and other*^ 
eminent men ; to his defeat '^ of Quintus Catulus, 
the ackQQB.ledged leader of the Senate, for the 
office of pontifex maximus, before he himself had 
even been praetor ; to the restoration in his 
aedileship "^ of the monuments of Gaius Marius in ■/ 
the teeth of the opposition of the nobles ; to the 
reinstatement of the cliildren of proscribed persons 
in the rights pertaining to their rank ; and to his 
praetorship ' and quaestorship passed in Spain, in 
which he showed wonderful energy and valour. He 
was quaestor under \'etus Antistius, the grandfather 
of our 0^™ \"etus, the consular and pontiff, himself 
the father of two sons who have held the consulship 
and the priesthood and a man whose excellence 
reaches our highest conception of human integrity. 

XLIV. But to resume. It was in Caesar's consul- 
ship/ that there was formed between himself, ^ 
Gnaeus Pompeius and Marcus Crassus the partner- 
ship in political power which proved so baleful to 
the city, to the world, and, subsequently at different 
periods to each of the triumvirs themselves. 
Pompey's motive in the adoption of this pohcy had 
been to secure through Caesar as consul the long 
delayed ratification of his acts in the pro\inces i^ 
across the seas, to which, as I have already said, 
many stiU raised objections ; Caesar agreed to it 
because he reahzed that in making this concession 
to the prestige of Pompey he would increase his 
own, and that by throwing on Pompey the odium 



potentiae in illum relegata confirmaturum vires suas, 
Crassus, ut quem principatum solus adsequi non 
poterat, auctoritate Pompei, viribus teneret Caesaris, 

3 adfinitas etiam inter Caesarem Pompeiumque con- 
tracta nuptiis, quippe luliam,^ filiam C. Caesaris. 
Cn. Magnus duxit uxorem. 

4 In hoc consulatu Caesar legem tulit, ut ager 
Campanus plebei divideretur, suasore legis Pompeio. 
Ita circiter viginti milia civium eo deducta et ius 
urbis- restitutum post annos circiter centum quin- 
quaginta duos quam bello Punico ab Romanis Capua 

6 in formam praefecturae redacta erat. Bibulus, 
collega Caesaris, cum actiones eius magis vellet 
impedire quam posset, maiore parte anni domi se 
tenuit. Quo facto dum augere vult invidiam coUegae, 
auxit potentiam. Tum Caesari decretae in quin- 
quennium Galliae. 

1 XLV. Per idem tempus P. Clodius, homo nobiUs, 
disertus, audax, quique neque^ dicendi neque faciendi 
ullum nisi quem vellet nosset modum, malorum 
propositorum executor acerrimus, infamis etiam 
sororis stupro et actus incesti reus ob initum inter 
rehgiosissima populi Romani sacra adulterium, cum 
graves inimicitias cum M. Cicerone exerceret (quid 
enim inter tam dissimiles amicum esse poterat ?) et 
a patribus ad plebem transisset, legem in tribunatu 

^ Iiiliam added by OrellL 
^ urbis Ileinsius; ab his AP. 

' quique neque Ualm ; qui neque Vascosanus ; neqiic 
om. AP. 

" Dressed as a woman he had appeared at the sacred rites 
of the Bona Dea, at which only women were allowed to 
be present. They were presided over by Caesar's wife, 
Pompeia, with whom Clodius was suspected of having an 
amour. * 58 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xliv. 2— xlv. 1 

for their joint control he would add to his own 
power ; while Crassus hoped that by the influence 
of Pompey and the power of Caesar he might 
achieve a place of pre-eminence in the state which 
he had not been able to reach single-handed. Further- 
more, a tie of marriage was cemented between 
Caesar and Pompey, in that Pompey now wedded 
Julia, Caesar's daughter. 

In this consulship, Caesar, •«•ith Pompey's backing, 
passed a law authorizing a distribution to the plebs 
of the pubUc domain in Campania. And so about 
twenty thousand citizens were estabUshed there, 
and its rights as a city were restored to Capua one 
hundred and fifty-two years after she had been 
reduced to a prefecture in the Second Punic War. 
Bibulus, Caesar's colleague, with the intent rather 
than the power of hindering Caesar's acts, confined 
himself to his house for the greater part of the 
year. By this conduct, whereby he hoped to increase 
his colleague's unpopularity, he only increased his 
power. At this time the Gallic pro^inces were 
assigned to Caesar for a period of five years. 

XLV. About the same time Pubhus Clodius, a 
man of noble birth, eloquent and reckless, who 
recognized no limits either in speech or in act except 
his own caprice, energetic in the execution of his 
wicked projects, of ill-repute as the debaucher of 
his own sister, and accused of adulterous profanation 
of the most sacred rites of the Roman people,^ 
ha^ing conceived a violent hatred against Marcus 
Cicero — for what friendship could there be between 
men so unlike ? — caused himself to be transferred 
from a patrician into a plebeian family and, as 
tribune,^ proposed a law that whoever put to death 



tulit, qui civem Romanum indemnatum^ interemisset, 
ei aqua et igni interdiceretur : cuius verbis etsi non 

2 nominabatur Cicero, tamen solus petebatur. Ita vir 
optime meritus de re publica conservatae patriae 
pretium calamitatem exilii tulit. Non caruerunt 
suspicione oppressi Ciceronis C»esar et Pompeius. 
Hoc sibi contraxisse videbatur Cicero, quod inter 
viginti viros dividendo agro Campano esse noluisset. 

3 Idem intra biennium sera Cn. Pompei cura, verum 
ut coepit- intenta,^ votisque Italiae ac decretis 
senatus, virtute atque actione Annii Milonis tribuni 
plebis dignitati patriaeque restitutus est. Neque 
post Numidici exilium aut reditum quisquam aut 
expulsus invidiosius aut receptus est laetius. Cuius 
domus quam infeste a Clodio disiecta erat, tam 
speciose a senatu restituta est. 

4 Idem P. Clodius in tribunatu* sub honorificen- 
tissimo ministerii titulo M. Catonem a re publica 
relegavit : quippe legem tulit, ut is quaestor cum 
iure praetorio, adiecto etiam quaestore, mitteretur in 
insulam Cyprum ad spoliandum regno Ptolemaeum, 
omnibus morum vitiis eam contumeliam meritum. 

6 Sed ille sub adventum Catonis vitae suae vim intulit. 

^ indemnatum Puteanus ; damnatum AP. 

^ ut coepit GeUnius; et cupit AP. 

^ intenta Wopkens ; interita AP. 

* tribunatu Ueinsius ; senatu AP. 

« Literally " Should be forbidden fire and water." 
* By his suppression, in his consulship, of the conspiracy 
of Catiline. 

« 57 B.c. * 58 B.C. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xlv. 1-5 

a Roman citizen ^^ithout trial should be condemned 
to exile." Although Cicero was not expressly named 
in the wording of the bill, it was aimed at him 
alone. And so this man, who had earned by his 
great services the gratitude of his country,'' gained 
exile as his reward for saving the state. Caesar and 
Pompey were not free from the suspicion of having 
had a share in the fall of Cicero. Cicero seemed to 
have brought upon himself their resentment by 
refusing to be a member of the commission of twenty 
eharged with the distribution of lands in Campania.^ 
Within two years Cicero Avas restored"^ to his countrv 
and to his former status, thanks to the interest 
of Gnaeus Pompeius — somewhat belated, it is true, 
but effective when once exerted — and thanks to 
the prayers of Italy, the decrees of the senate, and 
the zealous activity of Annius Milo, tribune of the 
people. Since the exile and return of Numidicus 
no one had been banished amid greater popular 
disapproval or welcomed back ^vith greater en- 
thusiasm. As for Cicero's house, the mahciousness 
of its destruction by Clodius was now compensated 
for by the magnificence of its restoration by the 

Publius Clodius in his tribunate also removed 
Marcus Cato from the state,** under the pretence *- 
of an honourable mission. For he proposed a law 
that Cato should be sent to the island of Cyprus in 
the capacity of quaestor, but ^vith the authority of 
a praetor and with a quaestor as his subordinate, 
with instructions to dethrone Ptolemaeus, who by 
reason of his unmitigated viciousness of character 
well deserved this humiliation. However, just 
before the arrival of Cato, Ptolemy took his o^vn 



Unde pecuniam longe sperata maiorem Cato Romam 
retulit. Cuius integritatem laudari nefas est, inso- 
lentia paene argui potest, quod una cum consulibus 
ac senatu efFusa civitate obviam, cum per Tiberim 
subiret navibus, non ante iis egressus est, quam ad 
eum locum pervenit, ubi erat exponenda pecunia. 

1 XLVL Cum deinde inmanis res vix multis volumi- 
nibus explicandas C. Caesar in Gallia gereret^ nec 
contentus plurimis ac felicissimis victoriis innume- 
rabilibusque caesis et captis hostium milibus etiam 
in Britanniam traiecisset exercitum, alterum paene 
imperio nostro ac suo quaerens orbem, vetus par- 
consulum, Cn. Pompeius et M Crassus, alterum 
iniere consulatum, qui neque petitus honeste ab iis 

2 neque probabiliter gestus est. Caesari lege, quam 
Pompeius ad populum tuht, prorogatae in idem 
spatium temporis provinciae, Crasso bellum Parthi- 
cum iam^ animo molienti Syria decreta, Qui vir 
cetera sanctissimus immunisque voluptatibus neque 
in pecunia neque in gloria concupiscenda aut modum 
norat aut capiebat terminum. Hunc proficiscentem 

3 in Syriam diris cum ominibus tribuni plebis frustra 

retinere conati. Quorum execrationes si in ipsum 

^ gereret Stanger ; ageret AP. 

^ vetus par Ursinus ; victus pars AP. 

^ iam Heinsitis ; in AP. 

• 58-50 B.c. 

* 55 B.c. They had been consuls together in 70 b.c. 
The unfaimess consisted in making use of the tribunician 
veto to prevent the holding of the elections until the term 
of CorneUus Lentuhis and Lucius Marcius Phiiippus, who 
were unfavourable to their candidacy, had expired. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xlv. 5— xhi. 3 

life. Cato brought home from Cyprus a sum of 
money which greatly exceeded all expectations. To 
praise Cato's integrity would be sacrilege, but he 
can aknost be charged with eccentricity in the 
display of it ; for, in spite of the fact that all the 
citizens, headed by the consuls and the senate, 
poured out of the city to meet him as he ascended 
the Tiber, he did not disembark and greet them 
until he arrived at the place where the money was 
to be put ashore. 

XLVI. Meanwhile, in Gaul, Gaius Caesar was 
carrying on his gigantic task," which could scarcely 
be covered in many volumes. Not content with his 
many fortunate ^ictories, and A^ith slaying or taking 
as prisoners countless thousands of the enemy, he 
even crossed into Britain, as though seeking to add 
another world to our empire and to that which he 
had himself won. Gnaeus Pompeius and Marcus 
Crassus, who had once before been consuls together, 
now entered upon their second consulship,*' which 
office they not only won by unfair means, but also 
administered \%ithout popular approval. In a law 
which Pompey proposed in the assembly of the 
people, Caesar's tenure of office in his provinces was 
continued for another five years, and Syria was 
decreed to Crassus, who was now planning to make 
war upon Parthia. Although Crassus was, in his 
general character, entirely upright and free from 
base desires, in his lust for money and his ambition 
for glory he knew no hmits, and accepted no 
bounds. On his departure for Asia the tribunes of 
the people made ineffectual efforts to detain him 
by the announcement of baleful omens. If the 
curses which they called down upon him had 



tantummodo valuissent, utile- imperatoris damnum 
4 salvo exercitu fuisset rei publicae. Transgressum 
Euphraten Crassum petentemque Seleuciam circum- 
fusus inmanibus copiis equitum rex Orodes una cum 
parte maiore Romani exercitus interemit. Reliquias 
legionum C. Cassius, atrocissimi mox auctor facinoris, 
tum quaestor, conservavit Syriamque adeo in populi 
Romani potestate retinuit, ut transgressos in eam 
Parthos feUci rerum eventu fugaret ac funderet. 

1 XLVn. Per haec insequentiaque et quae prae- 
diximus tempora amphus quadringenta milia hostium 
a C. Caesare caesa sunt, plura capta ; pugnatum 
saepe derecta acie, saepe in agminibus, saepe erup- 
tionibus, bis penetrata Britannia, novem denique 
aestatibus vix uUa non iustissimus triumphus emeri- 
tus. Circa Alesiam vero tantae res gestae, quantas 
audere vix hominis, perficere paene nullius nisi dei 

2 Quarto^ ferme anno Caesar morabatur in Galliis, 
cum medium iam ex invidia potentiae <et viva illa> 
male^ cohaerentis inter Cn. Pompeium et C. Caesa- 
rem concordiae pignus lulia, uxor Magni, decessit : 
atque omnia inter destinatos tanto discrimini duces 

^ utile AP ; vile Lipsius. 
2 quarto Laurent. ; septimo AP. 

2 potentiae et viva illa male Shipley; Ponti et Camiliae 
AP ; potentiae male Lipsitis. 

" Battle of Carrhae, 53 b.c. 

* The assassination of Julius Caesar. 

« 52 B.c. Related in Bk. vii. of the Gallic War. * 54 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xlvi. 3— xlvii. 2 

affected Crassiis alone, the loss of the commander 
would not have been >vithout advantage to the 
state, had but the army been saved. He had 
crossed the Euphrates and was now marching toward 
Seleucia when he was surrounded by King Orodes 
with his innumerable bands of cavalry and perished 
together ^nth the greater part of his army." 
Remnants of the legions were saved by Gaius Cassius ^ 
— (he was later the perpetrator of a most atrocious 
crime,* but was at that time quaestor) — who not 
only retained Syria in its allegiance to the Roman 
people, but succeeded, by a fortunate issue of 
events, in defeating and putting to rout the Parthians 
when they crossed its borders. 

XLVII. During this period, including the years 
which immediately followed and those of which 
mention has already been made, more than four^ 
hundred thousand of the enemy were slain by Gaius 
Caesar and a greater number were taken prisoners. 
Many times had he fought in pitched battles, many 
times on the march, many times as besieger or 
besieged. Twice he penetrated into Britain, and in 
all his nine campaigns there was scarcely one which 
was not fully deserving of a triumph. His feats 
about Alesia " were of a kind that a mere man 
would scarcely venture to undertake, and scarcely 
anyone but a god could carry through. 

About the fourth year of Caesar's stay in Gaul 
occurred the death of JuHaj'* the wife of Pompey, the 
one tie which bound together Pompey and Caesar in 
a coahtion which, because of each one's jealousy of 
the other's power, held together with difficulty even 
during her hfetime ; and, as though fortune were 
bent upon breaking all the bonds between the two 



dirimente fortuna filius quoque parvus Pompei, lulia 
natus, intra breve spatium obiit, Tum in gladios 

3 eaedesque civium furente ambitu, cuius neque finis 
reperiebatur nec modus, tertius consulatus soli Cn. 
Pompeio etiam adversandum antea dignitati eius 
iudicio delatus est, cuius ille honoris gloria veluti 
reconciliatis sibi optimatibus maxime a C. Caesare 
alienatus est ; sed eius consulatus omnem vim in 
coercitionem^ ambitus exercuit. 

4 Quo tempore P. Clodius a Milone candidato con- 
sulatus exemplo inutili, facto^ salutari rei publicae 
circa Bovillas contracta ex occursu rixa iugulatus 
est. Milonem reum non magis invidia facti quam 

6 Pompei damnavit voluntas. Quem quidem M. Cato 
palam lata absolvit sententia. Qui si maturius 
tulisset, non defuissent qui sequerentur exemplum 
probarentque eum civem occisum, quo nemo per- 
niciosior rei publicae neque bonis inimicior vixerat. 

1 XLVIII. Intra breve deinde spatium belli civilis 
exarserunt initia, cum iustissimus quisque et a 
Caesare et a Pompeio vellet dimitti exercitus ; 
quippe Pompeius in secundo consulatu Hispanias 
sibi decerni voluerat easque per triennium absens 

^ coercitionera B ; coertionem AP ; coercitione Cludius. 
2 iniitili facto Gelenkis', inutiliter facto AP ; inutili sed 
facto Gelenius. 

» " Son " is supported by Livy, Epit. 106 and Suet. Caes. 
26. Dio xxxix. 64 says " daughter.' 

* 52 B.c. * 52 B.c. * 55 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, 11. xlvii. 2— xlviii. 1 

men destined for so great a conflict, Pompey's little 
son ^ by Julia also died a short time aftervvards. 
Then, inasmuch as agitation over the elections found 
vent in armed conflicts and civil bloodshed, which 
continued indefinitely and without check, Pompey 
was made consul for the third time,* now without a 
colleague, A\ith the assent even of those who up to 
that time had opposed Iiim for that ofEce. The 
tribute paid him by this honour, which seemed to 
indicate his reconciUation \\-ith the optimates, served 
more than anything else to aUenate him from 
Caesar. Pompey, however, employed his whole 
power during this consulship in curbing election 

It was at this time that Publius Clodius was slain *= 
by Milo, who was a candidate for the consulship, in 
a quarrel which arose in a chance meeting at Bo\allae ; 
a bad precedent, but in itself a service to the state. 
Milo was brought to trial and con\-icted quite as 
much through the influence of Pompey as on account' 
of the odium aroused by the deed. Cato, it is true, 
declared for his acquittal in an opinion openly 
expressed. Had his vote been cast earlier, men 
would not have been lacking to follow liis example 
and approve the slaying of a citizen as pernicious to 
the republic and as hostile to all good citizens as any 
man who had ever lived. 

XLVm. It was not long after this that the first 
sparks of ci^il war were kindled. All fair-minded men 
desired that both Caesar and Pompey should disband 
their armies. Now Pompey in his second consulship ''- 
had caused the provinces of Spain to be assigned to 
him, and though he was actually absent from them, 
administering the aflairs of the city, he continued to 



ipse ac praesidens urbi per Afranium et Petreium, 
consularem ac praetorium, legatos suos, admini- 
strabat et iis, qui a Caesare dimittendos exercitus 
contendebant, adsentabatur, iis, qui ab ipso quoque, 

2 adversabatur. Qui si ante biennium, quam ad arma 
itum est, perfectis muneribus theatri et aliorum 
operum, quae ei circumdedit, gravissima temptatus 
valetudine decessisset in Campania (quo quidem 
tempore universa Italia vota pro salute eius primi'^ 
omnium civium suscepit) defuisset fortunae destru- 
endi eius locus, et quam apud superos habuerat 
magnitudinem, inlibatam detulisset ad inferos. 

3 Bello autem civih et tot, quae deinde per continuos 
viginti annos consecuta sunt, mahs non alius maiorem 
flagrantioremque quam C. Curio tribunus plebis 
subiecit facem, vir nobilis, eloquens, audax, suae 
alienaeque et fortunae et pudicitiae prodigus, homo 
ingeniosissime nequam et facundus malo pubHco 

4 cuius animo [voluptatibus vel Hbidinibus]^ neque opes 
uUae neque cupiditates sufficere possent. Hic primo 
pro Pompei partibus, id est, ut tunc habebatur, pro 
re publica, mox simulatione contra Pompeium et 
Caesarem, sed animo pro Caesare stetit. Id gratis 
an accepto centies sestertio fecerit, ut accepimus, 

5 in medio rehnquemus. Ad ultimum saluberrimas^ 

coalescentis condiciones pacis, quas et Caesar iustis- 

^ prirai Vascosanus ; primo AP. 

2 voluptatibus vel libidinibus deleted as a gloss hy Gruter. 

^ et after saluberrimas deleted hy Geletdus. 

« About £100,000 or $500,000. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xlviii. 1-6 

govem them for three years through his lieutenants, 
Afranius and Petreius, the former of consular "^ 
and the latter of praetorian rank ; and while he 
agreed \«th those who insisted that Caesar should 
dismiss his army, he was opposed to those who 
urged that he should also dismiss his own Had 
Pompey only died two years before the outbreak of 
hostilities, after the completion of his theatre and 
the other pubhc buildings mth which he had 
surrounded it, at the time when he was attacked 
by a serious ilhiess in Campania and all Italy prayed 
for his safety as her foremost citizen, fortune would 
have lost the opportunity of overthrowing him and 
he would have borne to the grave unimpaired all the 
qualities of greatness that had been his in life. It 
was Gaiu s Ci udo, however, a tribune of the people, 
who, more than anyone else, appUed the flaming 
torch which kindled the cix-il war and all the e\ils 
which followed for twenty consecutive years. Curio 
was a man of noble birth, eloquent, reckless, prodigal v 
ahke of his own fortune and chastity and of those of 
other people, a man of the utmost cleverness in 
perversity, who used his gifted tonguc for the 
subversion of the state. No wealth and no pleasures 
sufficed to satiate his appetites. He was at first on 
the side of Pompey, that is to say, as it was then " 
regarded, on the side of the repubUc. Then he 
pretended to be opposed both to Pompey and Caesar, 
but in his heart he was for Caesar. Whether his " 
conversion was spontaneous or due to a bribe of.ten 
milhon sesterces,' as is reported, we shall leave un- 
"determmed. Finally, when a truce was on the point 
of being concluded on terms of the most salutary 
character, terms which were demanded in a spirit of 



simo animo postulabat et Pompeius aequo recipiebat, 
discussit ac rupit, unice cavente Cicerone concordiae 

Harum praeteritarumque rerum ordo cum iustis^ 
aliorum voluminibus promatur, tum, uti spero, 
6 nostris explicabitur. Nunc proposito operi sua forma 
reddatur, si prius gratulatus ero Q. Catulo, duobus 
Lucullis Metelloque et Hortensio, qui, cum sine 
invidia in re publica floruissent eminuissentque sine 
periculo, quieta aut certe non praecipitata fatali 
ante initium bellorum civilium morte functi sunt. 

1 XLIX. Lentulo et Marcello consulibus post urbem 
conditam annis septingentis et tribus,' et annos octo 
et septuaginta ante quam tu, M. Vinici, consulatum 
inires, bellum civile exarsit. Alterius ducis causa 

2 melior videbatur, alterius erat firmior ; hic omnia spe- 
ciosa, illic valentia ; Pompeium senatus auctoritas, 
Caesarem militum armavit fiducia. Consules senatus- 
que causae non^ Pompeio summam imperii detule- 

3 runt. Nihil relictum a Caesare, quod servandae 

pacis causa temptari posset, nihil receptum a Pom- 

peianis, cum alter consul iusto esset ferocior, Lentulus 

vero salva re publica salvus esse non posset, M. autem 

Cato moriendum ante, quam ullam condicionem civis 

^ iustis Gelenitis; iustius ^P. 

^ annis dcciii Gelenms; annis {AP) a cc.iii AB; 


^ non AP ; nomine Gronovius. 
<• 19 B.C. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xlviii. 5— xlix. 3 

the utmost fair-mindedness by Caesar and accepted 
by Pompey without protest, it was in the end broken 
and shattered by Curio in spite of Cicero's extra- 
ordinary efforts to preserve harmony in the state. 

As to the order of these events, and of those which 
have been mentioned before, the reader is referred 
to the special works of other historians, and I myself 
hope some day to give them in full. But at the 
present time it will be consistent with the general 
plan of this briefer narrative if I merely stop to 
congratulate Quintus Catulus, the two LuculU, 
Metellus, and Hortensius, who, after flourishing in 
pubHc hfe without emy and rising to pre-eminence 
without danger to themselves, in the course of 
nature died a peaceful or at least a not untimely 
death before the outbreak of the ciWl wars. 

XLIX. In the consulship of Lentulus and Mar- 
ceUus," seven hundred and three years after the 
founding of the city and seventy-eight years before 
your consulship, ^larcus Vinicius, the ci\"il war 
burst into flame. The one leader seemed to have 
the better cause, the other the stronger ; on the 
one was the appearance, on the other the reahty 
of power ; Pompey was armed ^\ith the authority 
of the ^senate, ,_Caesar with the devotion of his 
soldiers. The consuls and the senate conferred the, 
supreme authority not on Pompey but on his cause. 
No effort was omitted by Caesar that could be tried 
in the interest of peace, but no offer of his was 
accepted by the Pompeians. Of the two consuls, 
one showed more bitterness than was fair, the other, 
Lentulus, could not save himself from ruin without 
bringing ruin upon the state, while Marcus Cato in- 
sisted that they should fight to the death rather 



accipiendam rei publicae contenderet. Vir antiquus 
et gravis Pompei partes laudaret magis, prudens 
sequeretur Caesaris, et illa gloriosiora,^ haec terri- 
biliora duceret. 
4 Ut deinde spretis omnibus quae Caesar postulave- 
rat, tantummodo eontentus cum una legione titulum 
retinere provinciae, privatus- in urbem veniret et se 
in petitione consulatus sufFragiis populi Romani 
committeret decrevere, ratus bellandum Caesar cum 
exercitu Rubiconem transiit. Cn. Pompeius consules- 
que et maior pars senatus relicta urbe ac deinde Italia 
transmisere Dyrrachium. 

1 L. At Caesar Domitio legionibusque, Corfini quae^ 
una cum eo fuerant, potitus, duce aliisque, qui 
voluerant* abire ad Pompeium, sine dilatione dimissis, 
persecutus Brundusium, ita ut appareret malle integris 
rebus et condicionibus finire bellum quam opprimere 
fugientis, cum transgressos reperisset consules, in 

2 urbem revertit redditaque ratione consiliorum suorum 
in senatu et m contione ac miserrimae necessitudinis, 
cum alienis armis ad arma compulsus esset, Hispa- 
nias petere decrevit. 

8 Festinationem itineris eius aliquamdiu morata 

^ gloriosiora Cupenis ; gloriosa AP. 
^ privatus Gelenius ; privatusque AP. 
'■^ legionibusque Corfini quae P ; legionibusque Corfini 

* voluerant Gelenius ; venerant AP. 

" Probably refers to Caesar"s offer (App. B. C. ii. 32) to 
be satisfied with Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria, with two legions. 

» Jan. 12 or 13, 49 b.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xHx. 3—1. 3 

than allow the republic to accept a single dictate 
from a mere citizen. The stem Roman of the old- 
fashioned t^^pe would praise the cause of Pompey, the 
poUtic would follow the lead of Caesar, recognizing 
that while there was on the one side greater prestige, 
the otlier was the more formidable. 

When at last, rejecting all the demands of Caesar, 
who was content to retain the title to the pro^ince," 
with but a single legion, the senate decreed that he 
should enter the city as a private citizen and should 
as such, submit himself to the votes of the Roman 
people in his candidacy for the consulship, Caesar 
concluded that war was inevitable and crossed the 
Rubicon ^" with liis army. Gnaeus Pompeius, the 
consuls, and the majority of the scnate abandoned 
first the city, then Italy, and crossed the sea to 

L. Caesar, on his side, having got into his power 
Domitius and the legions that were with him at 
Corfinium, immediately released this commander 
and all others who so wished, and allowed them to 
join Pompey, whom he now foUowed to Brundisium, 
making it clear that he preferred to put an end to 
the war while the state was uninjured and negotiation 
stiU possible, ratlier than to crush his fleeing enemy. 
Finding that the consuls had crossed the sea he 
returned to the city, and after rendering to the 
senate and also to the assembly of the people an 
account of his motives and of the deplorable necessity 
of his position, in that he had been driven to arms 
by others who had themselves resorted to arms, he 
resolved to march on Spain. 

The rapidity of his march was delayed for some 
time by the city of MassiUa, which with more 



Massilia est, fide melior quam consilio prudentior, 
intempestive principalium armorum arbitria captans, 
quibus hi se debent interponere, qui non parentem 
4 coercere possunt. Exercitus deinde, qui sub Afranio^ 
consulari ac Petreio praetorio fueratj ipsius adventus 
vigore ac fulgore occupatus se Caesari tradidit ; 
uterque legatorum et quisquis cuiusque ordinis sequi 
eos voluerat, remissi ad Pompeium. 

1 LL Proximo anno cum Dyrrachium ac vicina ei 
urbi regio castris Pompei obtineretur,- qui accitis 
ex omnibus transmarinis provinciis legionibus, equi- 
tum ac peditum auxiliis, regumque et^ tetrarcharum 
simulque dynastarum copiis inmanem exercitum con- 
fecerat et mare praesidiis classium, ut rebatur, 
saepserat, quo minus Caesar legiones posset trans- 

2 mittere, sua et celeritate et fortuna C. Caesar usus 
nihil in mora habuit, quo minus eo quo vellet* ipse 
exercitusque classibus perveniret, et primo paene 
castris Pompei sua iungeret, mox etiam obsidione 
munimentisque eum complecteretur. Sed inopia 
obsidentibus quam obsessis erat gravior. Tum 

3 Balbus CorneUus excedente humanam fidem temeri- 
tate ingressus castra hostium saepiusque cum Lentulo 
conlocutus consule, dubitante quanti se venderet, 
illis incrementis fecit viam, quibus non in Hispania 

^ Afranio Burer ; Africanio B ; Afxicano AP. 
* obtineretur Heinsius ; retinetur BAP. 

'^ et added by Gelenius. 
* eo quo vellet Halm ; et cum vellet AP, 

" At Ilerda, August, 49 b.c, 
» 48 B.C. 



HISTORY OF ROME, II. 1. 3— li. 3 

honesty of intention than with wise discretion assumed 
the unseasonable role of arbiter between the two 
armed leaders, an intervention suited only to those 
who are in a position to coerce the combatant 
refusing obedience. Next, the army, commanded 
by Afranius, an ex-consul, and Petreius, an ex- 
praetor, taken ofF its guard by Caesar's energy and 
the lightning speed of his arrival, surrendered " to 
him. Both the commanders and all others, of what- 
ever rank, who ^vished to foUow them were allowed 
to return to Pompey. 

LI. The next year * found Dyrrachium and its 
vicinity occupied by the camp of Pompey, who by 
summoning legions from all the provinces beyond 
the sea, together vvith auxiliary troops of foot and 
horse, and the forces of kings, tetrarchs, and other 
subject rulers, had in this way collected a formidable 
army, and had with his fleets estabhshed, as he 
thought, a successful blockade upon the sea to 
prevent Caesar from transporting his legions across 
the Adriatic, But Caesar, relying upon his usual 
rapidity of action and his famous luck, allowed 
notliing to prevent him or his army from crossing 
and landing at any port he pleased, and at first 
pitched his camp almost touching that of Pompey, 
and then proceeded to surround the latter by 
entrenchments and siege works. But lack of provi- 
sions was a more serious matter to the besiegers than 
to the besieged. It was at this time that Balbus 
Comelius, at incredible risk, entered the camp of 
the enemy and held several conferences with the 
consul Lentulus, whose only doubt was what price 
to put upon himself. It was by stages such as this 
that Balbus, who was not even the son of a Roman 



ex cive'^ natus, sed Hispanus, in triumphum et ponti- 
ficatum adsurgeret fieretque ex privato consularis. 
Variatum deinde proeliis, sed uno longe magis Pom- 
peianis prospero, quo graviter impulsi sunt Caesaris 

1 Ln. Tum Caesar cum exercitu fatalem victoriae 
suae Thessaliam petiit. Pompeius, longe diversa 

2 aliis suadentibus, quorum plerique hortabantur, ut 
in ItaUam transmitteret (neque hercules quidquam 
partibus ilUs salubrius fuit), ahi, ut bellum traheret, 
quod dignatione partium in dies ipsis magis pro- 
sperum fieret, usus impetu suo hostem secutus est. 

3 Aciem Pharsahcam et illum cruentissimum Romano 
nomini diem tantumque utriusque exercitus profusum 
sanguinis et conhsa inter se duo rei pubhcae capita 
efFossumque alterum Romani imperii lumen et^ tot 
talesque Pompeianarum partium caesos viros non 

4 recipit enarranda hic scripturae modus. IUud notan- 
dum est : ut primum C. Caesar inchnatam vidit Pom- 
peianorum aciem, neque prius neque antiquius quid- 
quam habuit, quam ut in omnes partes, * * * ut^ 
mihtari verbo ex* consuetudine utar, dimitteret. Pro 

5 dii immortales, quod huius voluntatis erga Brutum 
suae postea vir tam mitis pretium tuht ! Nihil in illa 

^ in Hispania ex cive Morgenstern ; Hispaniae Asiae AP. 

^ et added by Ilalm. 

^ ut addedhi) Gelenius; in omnes partes AP; incolumes 
partes Ellis. This is a vexed passage, and many conjectures 
have been made as to which was the military expression. 
Ruhnken supposes a lacuna. 

* ex Lipsius ; et AP. 

« Described in Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 62-70. 

' August 9, 48 B.c. 

« See note on text. The general sense is supplied from 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. li. 3— lii. 5 

citizen born in Spain but actually a Spaniard, paved 
the way for his later rise to the pontificate and to 
a triumph, and from the rank of private citizen to 
that of a consul. Conflicts followed, wiih shifting 
fori:unes. One " of these battles was much more 
favourable to the Pompeians, and Caesar*s troops 
were severely repulsed. 

LII. Then Caesar marched \v-ith his army into 
Thessaly, destined to be the scene of his \-ictor)'. 
Pompey, in spite of the contrary ad\ice of others, 
foUowed his own impulse and set out after the 
enemy. Most of his advisers urged him to cross 
into Italy — nor indeed was there any course more 
expedient for his party — others advised him to 
prolong the war, which, by reason of the esteem in 
which the party was held, was daily becoming more 
favourable to them. 

The limits set to a work of this kind will not 
permit me to describe in detail the battle of 
Pharsalia,* that day of carnage so fatal to the Roman 
name, when so much blood was shed on either side, 
the clash of arms between the two heads of the 
state, the extinction of one of the two limiinaries of 
the Roman world, and the slaughter of so many 
noble men on Pompey's side. One detail, however, 
I cannot refrain from noting. When Gaius Caesar 
saw that Pompey's army was defeated he made it 
his first and foremost concern to send out orders to' 
grant quarter ' — if I may use the habitual mihtary 
expression. Ye immortal gods ! WTiat a reward 
did this merciful man afterwards receive for his 
kindness to Brutus ! There is nothing more mar- 

the account in Suet. Caes. 75 and Appian, Bellum Cicile 
u. 80. 



6 victoria mirabilius, magnificentius, clarius fuit, quam 
quod^ neminem nisi acie consumptum civem patria 
desideravit : sed munus misericordiae corrupit per- 
tinacia, cum libentius vitam victor iam daret, quam 
victi acciperent. 

1 Lin. Pompeius profugiens cum duobus Lentulis 
consularibus Sextoque filio et Favonio praetorio, 
quos comites ei fortuna adgregaverat, aliis, ut 
Parthos, aliis, ut Africam peteret, in qua fidelis- 
simum partium suarum haberet regem lubam, sua- 
dentibus, Aegyptum petere proposuit memor bene- 
ficiorum, quae in patrem eius Ptolemaei, qui tum 
puero quam iuveni propior regnabat Alexandriae, 

2 contulerat. Sed quis in adversis beneficiorum servat 
memoriam ? Aut quis ullam calamitosis deberi putat 
gratiam ? Aut quando fortuna non mutat fidem ? 
Missi itaque ab rege, qui venientem Cn. Pompeium 
(is iam a Mytilenis Corneliam uxorem receptam in 
navem fugae comitem habere coeperat) consilio 
Theodoti et Achillae exciperent hortarenturque, ut 
ex oneraria in eam navem, quae obviam processerat, 
transcenderet ; quod cum fecisset, princeps Romani 
nominis imperio arbitrioque Aegyptii mancipii C. 
Caesare P. Servilio consuhbus iugulatus est. Hic 

3 post tres consulatus et totidem triumphos domitum- 

^ in illa . . . quam quod Haase ; illa . . . quando AP. 

" Caesar, Bell. Civ. 104, says it was a " navicula parvula." 

» 48 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. lii. &— liii. 3 

vellous about that victory, nothing more magnificent, 
nothing more glorious, than that our country did 
not moum the loss of any citizen save those who had 
fallen in battle. But his offer of clemency was set 
at nought by the stubbornness of his opponents, 
since the \ictor was more ready to grant hfe than 
the vanquished to accept it. 

LIII. Pompey fled with the two Lentuh, both 
ex-consuls, his own son Sextus, and Favonius, a 
former praetor, friends whom chance had gathered 
about him as his companions. Some advised him 
to take refuge with the Parthians, others in Africa, 
where he had in King Juba a most loyal partisan ; 
but, remembering the favours which he had con- 
ferred upon the father of Ptolemy, who, though 
still between boyhood and manhood, was now 
reigning at Alexandria, he decided to repair to 
Egypt. But, in adversity who remembers past 
services ? Wlio considers that any gratitude is 
due to those who have met disaster ? When does 
change of fortune fail to shift allegiance ? Envoys 
were sent by the king at the instance of Theodotus 
and Achillas to receive Pompey on his arrival — he 
was now accompanied in his flight by his wife 
Comelia, who had been taken on board at Mytilene 
— and to urge him to change from the merchant 
ship to the vessel " which had come out to meet 
him. Having accepted the invitation, the first of 
the citizens of Rome was stabbed to death by the 
order and dictation of an Egj-ptian vassal, the year 
of his death being the consulship of Gaius Caesar . 
and Pubhus Servilius.* So died in his fifty-eighth 
year, on the very eve of his birthday, that upright 
and illustrious man, after holding three consulships, 



que terrarum orbem sanctissimi atque praestantis- 
simi viri in id evecti, super quod ascendi non potest, 
duodesexagesimum annum agentis pridie natalem 
ipsius vitae fuit exitus, in tantum in illo viro a se 
discordante fortuna, ut cui modo ad victoriam terra 
defuerat, deesset ad sepulturam. 
4 Quid aliud quam nimium occupatos dixerim, quos 
in aetate et tanti et paene nostri saeculi viri fefellit 
quinquennium, cum a C. Atilio et Q. Servilio con- 
sulibus tam facilis^ esset annorum digestio ? Quod 
adieci, non ut arguerem, sed ne arguerer. 

1 LIV. Non fuit maior in Caesarem, quam in Pom- 
peium fuerat, regis eorumque, quorum is auctoritate 
regebatur, fides. Quippe cum venientem eum temp- 
tassent insidiis ac deinde bello lacessere auderent, 
utrique summorum imperatorum,^ alteri mortuo,^ 
alteri superstiti meritas poenas luere suppliciis. 

2 Nusquam erat Pompeius corpore, adhuc ubique 
vivebat^ nomine. Quippe ingens partium eius favor 
bellum excitaverat Africum, quod ciebat rex luba 
et Scipio, vir consularis, ante biennium quam extin- 

3 gueretur Pompeius, lectus ab eo socer, eorumque 
copias auxerat M. Cato, ingenti cum difficultate 
itinerum locorumque inopia perductis ad eos legioni- 

^ facilis Gelenius ; felix (foelix A) AP. 
^ summorum imperatorum Mommsm; siunmo impera- 
torum AP. 

* alteri mortiio Lipsiiis. 

* viveba.t Heinsius ; lubae ^P. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. liii. 3— Uv. 3 

celebrating three triumphs, conquering the whole n 
world, and attaining to a pinnacle of farae beyond j 
which it is impossible to rise. Such was the incon- ^ 
sistency of fortune in his case, that he who but a 
short time before had found no more lands to conquer 
now found none for his burial. 

As regards Pompey's age, what excuse, other 
than that of excessive preoccupation, shall I make 
for those who have made an error of five years in 
the age of one who was not only a great man but 
who ahnost belongs to our century, especially as it 
is so easy to reckon from the consulship of Caius ^ 
Atihus and Quintus Ser\-ihus * ? I have added this 
remark not for the sake of criticizing others, but to 
avoid criticism of mysclf. 

LIV. The loyalty of the king, and of those by 
whose influence he was controUed, was no greater 
towards Caesar than it had been toward Pompey. 
For, upon Caesar's arrival in Egypt, they assailed 
him with plots and subsequently dared to challenge 
him in open warfare. By sufFering death they paid 
to both of these great commanders, the h^ing and 
the dead, a well-deserved atonement. 

Pompey the man was no more, but his name still 
lived everywhere. For the strong support his party 
had in Africa had stirred up in that country a war 
in which the mo\ing spirits were King Juba and 
Scipio, a man of consular rank, whom Pompey had 
chosen for his father-in-law two years before his 
death. Their forces were augmented by Marcus>— 
Cato, who, in spite of the great difficulty of the 
march, and the lack of suppUes in the regions 
traversed, succeeded in conducting his legions to 
• Consuls 106 B.C. 



bus. Qui vir cum summum ei a militibus deferretur 
imperium, honoratiori parere^ maluit. 

1 LV. Admonet promissae brevitatis fides, quanto 
omnia transcursu dicenda sint. Sequens fortunam 
suam Caesar pervectus in Africam est, quam occiso 
C- Curione, lulianarum duce partium, Pompeiani 
obtinebant exercitus. Ibi primo varia fortuna, mox 

2 pugnavit sua,^ inclinataeque hostium copiae : nec dis- 
similis ibi adversus victos quam in priores clementia 
Caesaris fuit. 

Victorem Africani belli Caesarem gravius excepit 
Hispaniense (nam victus ab eo Pharnaces vix quid- 
quam gloriae eius adstruxit), quod Cn. Pompeius, 
Magni filius, adulescens impetus ad bella maximi, 
ingens ac terribile conflaverat, undique ad eum 
adhuc paterni nominis magnitudinem sequentium 

3 ex toto orbe terrarum auxihis confluentibus. Sua 
Caesarem in Hispaniam comitata fortuna est, sed 
nullum umquam atrocius periculosiusque ab eo initum 
proelium, adeo ut plus quam dubio Marte descen- 
deret equo consistensque ante recedentem suorum 
aciem, increpata prius fortuna, quod se in eum ser- 
vasset exitum, denuntiaret mihtibus vestigio se non 
recessurum : proinde viderent, quem et quo loco 

4 imperatorem deserturi forent. Verecundia magis 

^ parere Burer ; parare P ; parari A . 
^ C. added by Stanrjer. 

' fortuna mox pugnavit sua Acidalius and Lipsius; 
fortunam expugnavit uia AP. 

" Cato had held the praetorship only. 

» At Thapsus, April 6, 46. 

• At Zela, in 47 b.c. It is here mentioned out of its 
proper order. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Uv. 3— Iv. 4 

them. Cato, although offered the supreme command 
by the soldiers, preferred to take orders from Seipio, 
his superior in rank." 

LV. Fidelity to my promise of brevity reminds 
me how rapidly I must pass over the details of my 
narrative. Caesar, following up his suecess, passed 
over to Africa, of which the Pompeian armies now 
held possession since the death of Gaius Curio, 
the leader there of the Caesarian party. At first 
his armies were attended by a varying fortune, but 
later by his usual luck the forces of the enemy 
were routed.* Here again he showed no less clemency 
toward the vanquished than to those whom he had 
defeated in the pre\-ious Mar. 

Caesar, victorious in Africa, was now confronted 
by a more serious war in Spain (for the defeat of 
Phamaces <^ may be passed over, since it added but 
little to his renown). This great and formidable war 
had been stirred up by Gnaeus Pompeius, the son 
of Pompey the Great, a young man of great energy 
in war, and reinforcements flowed in from all parts 
of the world from among those who still followed 
his father's great name. Caesar's usual fortune 
foUowed him to Spain ; but no battle in which he 
ever engaged was more bitterly fought or more 
dangerous to liis cause.*^ Once, indeed, when the 
fight was now more than doubtful, he leapt from 
his horse, placed himself before his hnes, now 
beginning to give way, and, after upbraiding fortune 
for saving him for such an end, announced to his 
soldiers that he would not retreat a step. He asked 
them to consider who their commander was and in 
what a pass they were about to desert him. It was 
«^ Battle of Munda, March 17, 45 b.c. 



quam virtute acies restituta, et a^ duce quam a 
milite fortius. Cn. Pompeius gravis vulnere inventus 
inter solitudines avias interemptus est ; Labienum 
Varumque acies abstulit. 

1 LVL Caesar omnium victor regressus in urbem, 
quod humanam excedat fidem, omnibus, qui contra 
se arma tulerant, ignovit, magnificentissimisque^ 
gladiatorii muneris, naumachiae et equitum peditum- 
que, simul elephantorum certaminis spectaculis 
epuHque per multos dies dati celebratione replevit 

2 eam. Quinque egit triumphos : Gallici apparatus 
ex citro, Pontici ex acantho, Alexandrini testudine, 
Africi ebore, Hispaniensis argento rasili constilit. 
Pecunia ex manubiis lata paulo amplius sexiens 
miliens sestertium. 

3 Neque ilh tanto viro et tam clementer omnibus 
victoriis suis uso plus quinque mensium principalis 
quies contigit. Quippe cum mense Octobri in urbem 
revertisset, idibus \Iartiis, coniurationis auctoribus 
Bruto et Cassio, quorum alterum promittendo con- 
sulatum non obhgaverat, contra differendo Cassium 
ofFenderat, adiectis etiam consihariis caedis famiUaris- 
simis omnium et fortuna partium eius in sumrnum 
evectis fastigium, D. Bruto et C. Trebonio ahisque 

4 clari nominis viris, interemptus est. Cui magnam 
invidiam conciharat M. Antonius, omnibus audendis 

^ restituta et a Orelli; restitutae C. A. B; restitutae 
sunt a AP. 

- magnificentissiraisque AB; que om. P; et magnifi- 
centissimis Halm and liuhnken. 

• The first fonr in 46 b.c, the Spanish triumph in 45 b.c. 

» About £5.500.000 or $-27,000,000. 

* March 15, 44 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Iv. 4— Ivi. 4 

shame rather than valoiir that restored their wavering 
Une, and the commander showed more coiirage than 
his men. Gnaeus Pompeius, badly wounded, was 
discovered on a pathless waste and put to death. 
Labienus and ^'^arus met their death in battle. 

LVI, Caesar, victorious over all his enemies, 
retumed to the city, and pardoned all who had borne ■^ 
arms against him, an act of generosity ahnost passing , 
belief. He entertained the city to repletion \n\\\ _ 
the magnificent spectacle of a gladiatorial show, a 
sham battle of ships, mock battles of cavalry, infantry, 
and even mounted elephants, and the celebration of 
a public banquet which was continued through 
several days. He celebrated five triumphs." The 
emblems in his GaUic triumph were of citrus wood ; _ 
in his Pontic of acanthus ; in his Alexandrian triumph 
of tortoise-shell, in his African of ivory, and in his 
Spanish of pohshed silver. The money borne in his 
triumphs, reahzed from the sale of spoils, amounted 
to a httle more than six hundred million sesterces.^ 

But it was the lot of this great man, who behaved 
with such clemency in all his victories, that his 
peaceful enjoyment of supreme power should last but 
five months. For, returning to the city in October, 
he was slain on the ides of March." Brutus and 
Cassius were the leaders of the conspiracy. He had 
failed to win the former by the promise of the 
consulship, and had offended the latter by the 
postponement of his candidacy. There were also 
in the plot to compass his death some of the most 
intimate of all his friends, who owed their elevation 
to the success of his party, namely Decimus Brutus, 
Gaius Trebonius, and others of illustrious name. 
Marcus Antonius, liis coUeague in the consulship, 



paratissimus, consulatus collega, inponendo capiti eius 
Lupercalibus sedentis pro rostris insigne regium, quod 
ab eo ita repulsum erat, ut non ofFensus^ videretur. 

1 LVII. Laudandum experientia consilium est Pan- 
sae atque Hirtii, qui semper praedixerant Caesari 
ut principatum armis quaesitum armis teneret. Ille 
dictitans mori se quam timere^ malle dum clementiam, 
quam praestiterat, expectat, incautus ab ingratis 
occupatus est, cum quidem plurima ei^ praesagia atque 

2 indicia dii immortales futuri obtulissent periculi. 
Nam et haruspices praemonuerant, ut diligentissime 
iduum Martiarum caveret diem, et uxor Calpumia 
territa nocturno visu, ut ea die domi subsisteret, 
orabat,^ et libelli coniurationem nuntiantes dati 
neque protinus ab eo lecti erant. Sed profecto 

3 ineluctabilis fatorum vis, cuiuscumque fortunam 
mutare constituit, consilia corrumpit. 

1 LVIII. Quo anno id patravere facinus Brutus et 
Cassius praetores erant, D. Brutus consul designatus. 

2 hi una cum coniurationis globo, stipati gladiatorum 
D. Bruti manu, Capitolium occupavere. Tum^ consul 
Antonius (quem cum simul interimendum censuisset 
Cassius testamentumque Caesaris abolendum, Brutus 
repugnaverat dictitans nihil amplius civibus praeter 
tjrranni — ^ita enim appellari Caesarem facto eius ex- 

Mta . . . offensus Rhenanus ; id . . . offensum AP. 
^ tiraere corrected to timeri A ; timere is more in keepiw/ 
with Plut. Caes. 57 and Smt. Div. lul. 86. 
3 pluriraa ei Orelli ; plurirai BA ; plurima P. 

* orabat AP ; orarat Halm. 
' tum Haase ; cum AP. 

• Usually of Etruscan origin, who professed ability to 
foretell the future from the exaraination of the entrails of 
sacrificial animals. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ivi. 4— h-iii. 2 

ever ready for acts of daring, had brought great 
odium upon Caesar by placing a royal crown upon 
his head as he sat on the rostra at the Lupercalia. 
Caesar put the crown from him, but in such a way 
that he did not seem to be displeased. 

LVII. In the light of experience due credit 
should be given to the counsel of Pansa and Hirtius, 
who had always warned Caesar that he must hold 
by arms the position which he had won by arms. 
But Caesar kept reiterating that he would rather 
die than live in fear, and while he looked for a retum 
for the clemency he had shown, he was taken off his 
guard by men devoid of gratitude, although the gods 
gave many signs and presages of the threatened 
danger. For the soothsayers " hed wamed him before- 
hand carefuUy to beware the Ides of March ; his 
wife Calpumia, terrified by a dream, kept begging 
him to remain at home on that day ; and notes 
waming him of the conspiracy were handed him, 
but he neglected to read them at the time. But 
verily the power of destiny is inevitable ; it con- 
founds the judgement of him whose fortune it has 
determined to reverse. 

LVIII. Brutus and Cassius were praetors, and 
Decimus Brutus was consul designate in the year 
in which they perpetrated this deed. These three, 
with the remainder of the group of conspirators, 
escorted by a band of gladiators belonging to 
Decimus Brutus, seized the capitol. Thereupon 
Antonius, as consul, summoned the senate. Cassius 
had been in favour of slapng Antony as well as 
Caesar, and of destroying Caesar's will, but Bmtus 
had opposed him, insisting that citizens ought not 
to seek the blood of any but the " tyrant " — for to 



3 pediebat — petendum esse sanguinem) convocato 
senatu, cum iam Dolabella, quem substituturus sibi 
Caesar designaverat consulem, fasces atque insignia 
corripuisset consulis, velut pacis auctor liberos suos 
obsides in Capitolium misit fidemque descendendi 

4 tuto interfectoribus Caesaris dedit. Et illud decreti 
Atheniensium celeberrimi exemplum, relatum a 
Cicerone, oblivionis praeteritarum rerum decreto 
patrum comprobatum est. 

1 LIX, Caesaris deinde testamentum apertum est, 
quo C. Octavium, nepotem sororis suae luliae, 
adoptabat. De cuius origine, etiam si praeveniet,^ 
pauca dicenda sunt. Fuit C. Octavius ut non patricia, 

2 ita admodum speciosa equestri genitus familia, gravis, 
sanctus, innocens, dives. Hic praetor inter nobilis- 
simos viros creatus primo loco, cum ei dignatio lulia 
genitam Atiam conciliasset uxorem, ex eo honore 
sortitus Macedoniam appellatusque in ea^ imperator, 
decedens ad petitionem consulatus obiit praetextato 
relicto filio. Quem C. Caesar, maior eius avunculus, 

3 educatum apud Phih"ppum vitricum dilexit ut suum, 
natumque annos duodeviginti Hispaniensis militiae 
adsecutum se postea comitem habuit, numquam aut 

^ praeveniet EUis ; praevenit et AP ; per se nitet 

"^ in eam AP ; corrected hy Gelenim ; ex ea Ursinus. 

■ i.ti. on his contemplated departure for the Parthian 

* It may be that Velleius means simply " son " as was 
indeed the fact, and that liheros is a rhetorical plural like 
that in Cic, Phil. i. I. 1. It is clear from Phil. i. 13. 31 that 
Cicero is referrinp: to but one. 

« When the Thirty Tyrants were overthrown and de- 
mocracy was restored under Thrasybulus. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. h-iii. 3— lix. 3 

call Caesar " tyrant " placed his deed in a better 
light. Dolabella, whom Caesar had named for the 
consulsliip, ^nth the intention of putting him in 
his own place," had already seized the fasces and 
the insignia of that office. Having summoned the 
senate, Antonius, acting as the guarantor of peace, 
sent his own sons ' to the capitol as hostages and 
thus gave his assurance to the slayers of Caesar that 
they might come doAvn in safety. On the motion 
of Cicero the famous precedent of the Athenians " 
granting amnesty for past acts was approved by 
decree of the senate. 

LIX. Caesar*s \\i\\ was then opened, by which he 
adopted Gaius Octavius, the grandson of his sister 
Juha. Of the origin of Octa\ius I must say a few 
words, even if the account comes before its proper 
place. Gaius Octavius, his father, though not of 
patrician birth, was descended from a very prominent 
equestrian family, and was himself a man of dignity, 
of upright and blameless hfe, and of great wealth. 
Chosen praetor at the head of the poll among a Ust 
of candidates of noble birth, this distinction won 
for him a marriage alhance -with Atia, a daughter 
of JuUa. After he had filled the office of praetor, 
the province of Macedonia fell to his lot, where he 
was honoured with the title of imperator. He was 
retuming thence to sue for the consulship when he 
died on the way, lea^^ing a son still in his early teens.'* 
Though he had been reared in the house of his step- 
father, Phihppus, Gaius Caesar, his great-uncle, loved 
this boy as his ovm son. At the age of eighteen 
Octavius foUowed Caesar to Spain in his campaign 
there, and Caesar kept him with him thereafter as his 
' Literally " still wearing the praetexta." 



alio usum hospitio quam suo aut alio vectum vehiculo, 

4 pontificatusque sacerdotio puerum honoravit. Et 
patratis bellis civiUbus ad erudiendam hberalibus 
disciplinis singularis indolem iuvenis ApoUoniam eum 
in studia miserat, mox belli Getici ac deinde Parthici 

5 habiturus commilitonem. Cui ut est nuntiatum de 
caede avuncuh, cum protinus ex vicinis legionibus 
centuriones suam suorumque mihtum operam ei 
polhcerentur neque eam spernendam Salvidienus et 
Agrippa dicerent, iUe festinans pervenire in urbem 
omnem ordinem ac rationem^ et necis et testamenti 

6 Brundusii comperit. Cui adventanti Romam inmanis 
amicorum occurrit frequentia, et cum intraret urbem, 
sohs orbis super caput eius curvatus aequahter rotun- 
datusque in colorem arcus velut coronam^ tanti mox 
viri capiti imponens conspectus est. 

1 LX. Non placebat Atiae matri Phihppoque vitrico 
adiri nomen invidiosae fortunae Caesaris, sed ad- 
serebant salutaria rei publicae terrarumque orbis 
fata conditorem conservatoremque Romani nominis. 

2 Sprevit itaque caelestis animus humana consilia et 
cum periculo potius summa quam tuto humilia pro- 
posuit sequi maluitque avunculo et Caesari de se 
quam vitrico credere,^ dictitans nefas esse, quo 

^ ordinera ac rationem Muncker ; ordinationem AP. 

^ The passaffe is corrupt as it stands. The general sense is, 
however, clear from the followinff passage in Seneca, Nat. 
Quaest. /. ^. 1; memoriae proditum est, quo die Divus 
Augustus . . . intravit, circa solem visura coloris varii 
circulum, qualis esse in arcu solet ; hunc Graeci halo vocant, 
nos dicere coronara aptissime possimus. 

* credere Geleniv^ ; cedere AP. 

• See note on text. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. lix. 3— Ix. 2 

companion, allowing him to share the same roof and 
ride in the samecarriage,and though hewas still a boy, 
honoured him with tlie pontificate. When the civil 
war was over, with a view to training his remarkable 
talents by hberal studies, he sent him to Apollonia 
to study, with the intention of taking him with 
him as his companion in his contemplated wars with 
the Getae and the Parthians. At the first armounce- 
ment of his uncle's death, although the centurions 
of the neighbouring legions at once profFered their 
own services and those of their men, and Salvidienus 
and Agrippa advised him to accept the offer, he 
made such haste to arrive in the city that he was 
already at Brundisium when he learned the details 
of the assassination and the terms of his uncle's will. 
As he approached Rome an enormous crowd of his 
friends went out to meet him, and at the moment 
of his entering the city, men saw above his head the 
orb of the sun with a circle about it, coloured hke 
the rainbow," seeming thereby to place a crown upon 
the head of one destined soon to greatness. 

LX. His mother Atia and Philippus his stepfather 
disliked the thought of his assuming the name of 
Caesar, whose fortune had aroused such jealousy, 
but the fates that preside over the welfare of the 
commonwealth and of the world took into their own 
keeping the second founder and preserver of the 
Roman name. His divine soul therefore spumed 
the counsels of human wisdom, and he determined to 
pursue the highest goal with danger rather than 
a lowly estate and safety. He preferred to trust 
the judgement concerning himself of a great-uncle 
who was Caesar, rather than that of a stepfather, 
saying that he had no right to think himself 



nomine Caesari dignus esset visus, semet ipsum sibi* 

3 videri indignum. Hunc protinus Antonius consul 
superbe excepit (neque is erat contemptus, sed metus) 
vixque admisso in Pompeianos hortos loquendi secum 
tempus dedit, mox etiam velut insidiis eius petitus 
sceleste insimulare coepit, in quo turpiter depre- 

4 hensa eius vanitas est. Aperte deinde Antonii ac 
Dolabellae consulum ad nefandam dominationem 
erupit furor. Sestertium septiens miliens, deposi- 
tum a C. Caesare ad aedem Opis, occupatum ab 
Antonio, actorum eiusdem insertis falsis civitatibus 
inmunitatibusque^ corrupti commentarii atque omnia 
pretio temperata, vendente rem publicam consule. 

5 Idem provinciam D.Bruto designato consuh decretam 
Galliam occupare statuit, Dolabella transmarinas 
decrevit sibi ; interque naturahter dissimilhmos ac 
diversa volentis crescebat odium, eoque C. Caesar 
iuvenis cotidianis Antonii petebatur insidiis. 

1 LXI. Torpebat oppressa dominatione Antonii 
civitas. Indignatio et dolor omnibus, vis ad resis- 
tendum nulU aderat, cum C. Caesar undevicesimum 
annum ingressus, mira ausus ac summa consecutus 
privato consiUo maiorem senatu pro re pubUca ani- 

^ sibi added by Lipsius. 
2 civitatibus inmunitatibusque Ellis; civitatibusque AP. 

" From the period of his adoption Octavius is regularly 
spoken of as Gaius Caesar, and Julius Caesar, who was 
really his great-uncle, as his father. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ix. 2— Ixi. 1 

unworthy of the name of wliich Caesar had thought 
him worthy. On his arrival, Antony, the consul, 
received him haughtily — out of fear, however, 
rather than contempt — and grudgingly gave him, 
after he had secured admission to Pompey's gardens, 
a few moments' conversation -w-ith himself ; and it 
was not long before Antony began wickedly to 
insinuate that an attempt had been made upon his 
life through plots fostered by Octa^ius. In this 
matter, however, the untrustworthiness of the 
character of Antony was disclosed, to his discredit. 
Later the mad ambition of Antony and Dolabella, 
the consuls, for the attainment of an unholy despotism, 
burst into ^-iew. The seven hundred thousand 
sestcrtia deposited by Gaius Caesar in the temple 
of Ops were seized by Antony ; the records of his 
acts were tampered ^\ith by the insertion of forged 
grants of citizenship and immunity ; and all his 
documents were garbled for money considerations, 
the consul bartering away the public interests. 
Antony resolved to seize the proxince of Gaul, 
wliich had been assigned by decree to Decimus 
Brutus, the consul designate, while Dolabella had the 
pro^-inces beyond the sea assigned to himself. 
Between men by nature so unUke and with such 
different aims there grew up a feehng of hatred, 
and in consequence, the young Gaius Caesar was 
the object of daily plots on the part of Antony, 

LXI. The state languished, oppressed by the 
tyranny of Antony. AU felt resentment and indigna- 
tion, but no one had the power to resist, until Gaius 
Caesar/' who had just entered his nineteenth year, 
with marvellous daring and supreme success, showed 
by his individual sagacity a courage in the state's 



2 mum habuit primumque a Calatia, mox a Casilino 
veteranos excivit paternos ; quorum exemplum secuti 
alii brevi in formam iusti coiere exercitus. Mox cum 
Antonius occurrisset exercitui, quem ex transmarinis 
provinciis Brundusium venire iusserat, legio Martia 
et quarta cognita et senatus voluntate et tanti iuvenis 
indole sublatis signis ad Caesarem se contulerunt. 

3 Eum senatus honoratum equestri statua, quae 
hodieque in rostris posita aetatem eius scriptura 
indicat (qui honor non ahi per trecentos annos quam 
L. Sullae et Cn. Pompeio et C. Caesari contigerat), 
pro praetore una cum consuHbus designatis Hirtio 
et Pansa bellum cum Antonio gerere iussit. Id^ 

4 ab eo annum agente vicesimum fortissime circa 
Mutinam administratum est et D. Brutus obsidione 
Uberatus. Antonius turpi ac nuda fuga coactus 
deserere ItaHam, consulum autem alter in acie, alter 
post paucos dies ex volnere mortem obiit. 

1 LXII. Omnia ante quam fugaretur Antonius 
honorifice a senatu in Caesarem exercitumque eius 
decreta sunt maxime auctore Cicerone ; sed ut 
recessit metus, erupit voluntas protinusque Pom- 

2 peianis partibus rediit animus. Bruto Cassioque 
provinciae, quas iam ipsi sine uUo senatus consulto 

^ id added hy Gelenius. 

• March 43 b.c. Pansa was mortally wounded at Forum 
Gallorum. Hirtius fell a few days later in an assault upon 
Antony's camp. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixi. 2— Ixii. 2 

behalf which exceeded that of the senate. He 
summoned his father's veterans first from Calatia 
then from Casihnum ; other veterans followed their 
example, and in a short time they united to form a 
regular army. Not long after^vards, when Antony 
had met the army which he had ordered to assemble 
at Brundisium from the provinces beyond the sea, 
two legions, the Martian and the fourth, leaming 
of the feehng of the senate and the spirit shown 
by this courageous youth, took up their standards 
and went over to Caesar. The senate honoured y 
him with an equestrian statue, which is stiU 
standing upon the rostra and testifies to his years 
by its inscription. This is an honour which in three ^ 
hundred years had fallen to the lot of Lucius SuUa, ^ 
Gnaeus Pompeius, and Gaius Caesar, and to these 
alone. The senate commissioned him, with the 
rank of propraetor, to carry on the war against 
Antony in conjunction ^vith Hirtius and Pansa, the 
consuls designate. Now in his twentieth year, he 
conducted the war at Mutina ^Wth great bravery, 
and the siege of Decimus Brutus there was raised. 
Antony was compelled to abandon Italy in undis- 
guised and disgraceful flight. Of the two consuls, 
the one died upon the field of battle, and the other 
of his wound a few days afterwards." 

LXII. Before the defeat of Antony the senate, 
chiefly on the motion of Cicero, passed all manner 
of resolutions compHmentar)- to Caesar and his army. 
But, now that their fears had vanished, their real 
feeUngs broke through their disguise, and the 
Pompeian party once more took heart. By vote 
of the senate, Brutus and Cassius were now con- 
firmed in possession of the provinces which they 



occupaverant, decretae, laudati quicumque se iis 
exercitus tradidissent, omnia transmarina imperia 

3 eorum commissa arbitrio.^ Quippe M. Brutus et 
C. Cassius, nunc metuentes arma Antonii, nunc ad 
augendam eius invidiam simulantes se metuere, 
testati edictis libenter se vel in perpetuo exilio vic- 
turos, dum rei publicae^ constaret concordia, nec 
uUam belli civilis praebituros materiam, plurimum 
sibi lionoris esse in conscientia facti sui, profecti 
urbe atque Italia, intento ac pari^ animo sine auctori- 
tate publica provincias exercitusque occupaverant et, 
ubicumque ipsi essent, praetexentes esse rem pub- 
licam,pecunias etiam, quae ex transmarinis provinciis 
Romam ab quaestoribus deportabantur, a volentibus 

4 acceperant. Quae omnia senatus decretis comprensa 
et comprobata sunt et D. Bruto, quod alieno beneficio 
viveret, decretus triumphus, Pansae atque Hirtii 

5 corpora publica sepultura honorata, Caesaris adeo 

nulla habita mentio, ut legati, qui ad exercitum 

eius missi erant, iuberentur summoto eo milites 

adloqui. Non fuit tam ingratus exercitus, quam 

fuerat senatus ; nam cum eam iniuriam dissimulando 

Caesar ipse* ferret, negavere mihtes sine imperatore 

' arbitrio A ; imperio P. 
"^ rei publicae Gelenius ; resp. AP. 
' ac pari AP; ac parato Burman. 
* Caesar ipse Halm ; Caesari AP, 



had seized upon their own authority Mithout any 
decree of the senate ; the armies which had gone 
over to them were formally commended ; and Brutus 
and Cassius were given all authority and jurisdiction 
beyond the sea. It is true that these two men had 
issued manifestoes — at first in real fear of armed 
violence at the hands of Antony, and later to 
increase Antony's unpopularity, ■\vith the pretence 
of fear — manifestos in wliich they declared that 
for the sake of ensuring harmony in the republic 
they were even ready to Uve in perpetual exile, that 
they would furnish no grounds for civil war, and that 
the consciousness of the service they had rendered 
by their act was ample reward. But, when they had 
once left Rome and Italy behind them, by deUberate 
agreement and ^vithout govemment sanction they 
had taken possession of pro\inces and armies, and 
imder the pretence that the repubUc existed wherever 
they were, they had gone so far as to receive from 
the quaestors, -with their own consent, it is true, the 
moneys which these men were conveying to Rome 
from the pro\inces across the sea. AU these acts 
were now included in the decrees of the senate and 
formally ratified. Decimus Brutus was voted a 
triumph, presumably because, thanks to another's 
services, he had escaped wiih his Ufe. Hirtius and 
Pansa were honoured ■\vith a pubUc funeral. Of 
Caesar not a word was said. The senate even went 
so far as to instruct its envoys, who had been sent 
to Caesar's army, to confer \rith the soldiers alone, 
without the presence of their general. But the 
ingratitude of the senate was not shared by the 
army ; for, though Caesar himself pretended not 
to see the sUght, the soldiers refused to Usten to 



6 suo ulla se audituros mandata. Hoc est illud tempus, 
quo Cicero insito amore Pompeianarum partium 
Caesarem laudandum et toUendum censebat, cum 
aliud diceret, aliud intellegi vellet. 

1 LXIII. Interim Antonius fuga transgressus Alpes, 
primo per conloquia repulsus a M. Lepido, qui pontifex 
maximus in C. Caesaris locum furto creatus decreta 
sibi Hispania adhuc in Gallia morabatur, mox saepius 
in conspectum veniens militum (cum et Lepido 
omnes imperatores forent meliores et multis Antonius, 
dum erat sobrius), per aversa castrorum proruto vallo 
a^ militibus receptus est. Qui titulo imperii cedebat 

2 Lepido, cum summa virium penes eum foret. Sub 
Antonii ingressum in castra luventius Laterensis, 
vir vita ac morte consentaneus, cum acerrime 
suasisset Lepido, ne se cum Antonio hoste iudicato 
iungeret, inritus consiUi gladio se ipse transfixit. 

3 Plancus deinde dubia, id est sua, fide, diu quarum 
esset partium secum luctatus ac sibi difficile con- 
sentiens, et nunc adiutor D. Bruti designati consulis, 
collegae sui, senatuique se htteris venditans, mox 
eiusdem proditor, Asinius autem PolUo firmus pro- 

^ a added by Heinsms. 

' The equivocation is on the verb tollere wliich means, on 
the one haud, to "Uft up " or "extol," and on the other to 
" remove." 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixii. 6— Ixiii. 3 

any orders without the presenee of their commander. 
It was at this time that Cicero, with his deep-seated 
attachment for the Pompeian party, expressed the 
opinion, which said one thing and meant another, 
to the effect that Caesar " should be commended 
and then — elevated." " 

LXIII. Meanwhile Antony in his flight had crossed 
the Alps, and at first made overtures to Marcus 
Lepidus which were rejected. Now Lepidus had 
surreptitiously been made pontifex in Caesar's place, 
and, though the province of Spain had been assigned 
to him, was still Ungering in Gauh Later, however, 
Antony showed himself several times to the soldiers 
of Lepidus, and being, when sober, better than most 
commanders, whereas none could be worse than 
Lepidus, he was admitted by the soldiers through 
a breach which they made in the fortifications in the 
rear of the camp. Antony still permitted Lepidus 
to hold the nominal command, while he himself held 
the real authority. At the time when Antony 
entered the camp, Juventius Laterensis, who had 
strongly urged Lepidus not to ally himself with 
Antony now that he had been declared an enemy of 
the state, finding his advice of no avail ran himself 
through with his own sword, consistent unto death. 
Later Plancus and PolUo both handed over their 
armies to Antony. Plancus, ^vith his usual loose 
ideas of loyalty, after a long debate •wdth himself as 
to which party to follow, and much difficulty in 
sticking to his resolutions when formed, now pre- 
tended to co-operate with his coUeague, Decimus 
Brutus, the consul designate, thus seeking to in- 
gratiate himself with the senate in his dispatches, 
and again betrayed him. But Asinius Pollio, stead- 



posito et lulianis partibus fidus, Pompeianis adversus, 
uterque exercitus tradidere Antonio. 

1 LXIV. D. Brutus desertus primo a Planco, postea 
etiam insidiis eiusdem petitus, paulatim reUnquente 
eum exercitu fugiens in hospitis cuiusdam nobilis 
viri, nomine CameU, domo ab iis, quos miserat 
Antonius, iugulatus est iustissimasque optime de se 
merito viro C. Caesari poenas dedit, cuius cum primus 

2 omnium amicorum fuisset, interfector fuit et fortunae, 
ex qua fructum tulerat, invidiam in auctorem rele- 
gabat censebatque aequum, quae acceperat a Caesare 
retinere, Caesarem, qui illa dederat, perire. 

3 Haec^ sunt tempora, quibus M. Tullius continuis 
actionibus aeternas Antonii memoriae inussit notas, 
sed hic fulgentissimo et caelesti ore, at tribunus 
Cannutius canina^ rabie lacerabat Antonium. Utri- 

4 que vindicta libertatis morte stetit ; sed tribuni san- 
guine commissa proscriptio, Ciceronis velut^ satiato 
Antonio paene finita. Lepidus deinde a senatu hostis 
iudicatus est, ut ante fuerat Antonius. 

1 LXV. Tum inter eum Caesaremque et Antonium 
commercia epistularum et condicionum facta* mentio, 
cum Antonius subinde Caesarem admoneret, quam^ 
inimicae ipsi Pompeianae partes forent et in quod 
iam emersissent fastigium et quanto Ciceronis studio 

' peristhaec A ; peris. Haec P; perire vel perisse Rhenanus 
in marg. 

2 canina Ruhnken ; continna A ; continua P. 

' velut Puteanus ; vel ^P; ut Halm. 

* facta Burer; iacta AP. 

^ Antonius subinde Caesarem admoueret, et quam Bipont.i 
et subinde . . . quam AP. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixiii. 3— Ixv. 1 

fast in liis resolution, remained loyal to the Julian 
party and continued to be an adversary of the 

LXIV. Decimus Brutus, first abandoned by 
Plancus, and later actually the object of his plots, 
deserted little by little by his army,and now a fugitive, 
was slain by the emissaries of Antony in the house 
of a noble named Camelus with whom he had taken 
refuge. He thus met his just deserts and paid the 
penalty of his treason to Gaius Caesar by whom 
he had been treated so well. He who had been the 
foremost of all Caesar's friends became his assassin, 
and while lie threw upon Caesar the odious responsi- 
bihty for the fortune of which he himself had reaped 
the benefits, he thought it fair to retain what he 
had received at Caesar's hands, and for Caesar, who 
had given it all, to perish. 

This is the period when Cicero in a series of speeches 
branded the memory of Antony for all time to come. 
Cicero assailed Antony with his brilliant and god- 
given tongue, whereas Cannutius the tribune tore 
him to pieces vrith the ravening of a mad dog. Each 
paid with his Hfe for his defence of liberty. The 
proscription was usliered in by the slaying of the 
tribune ; it practically ended with the death of 
Cicero, as though Antony were now sated ^vith 
blood. Lepidus was now declared by the senate 
an enemy of the state, as Antony had been before 

LXV. Then began an interchange of letters 
between Lepidus, Caesar, and Antony, and terms 
of agreement were suggested. Antony reminded 
Caesar how hostile to him the Pompeian party was, 
to what a height they had now risen, and how 



Brutus Cassiusque attollerentur, denuntiaretque se 
cum Bruto Cassioque, qui iam decem et septem 
legionum potentes erant, iuncturum vires suas, si 
Caesar eius aspemaretur concordiam, diceretque plus 
Caesarem patris quam se amici ultioni debere. Tum'^ 

2 inita potentiae societas et hortantibus orantibus- 
que exercitibus inter Antonium etiam et Caesarem 
facta adfinitas, cum esset privigna Antonii despon- 
sata Caesari. Consulatumque iniit Caesar pridie 
quam viginti annos impleret decimo Kal. Octobres 
cum coUega Q. Pedio post urbem conditam^ annis 
septingentis et novem,^ ante duos et septuaginta, 
quam tu, M. Vinici, consulatum inires. 

3 Vidit hic annus Ventidium, per quam urbem inter 
captivos Picentium in triumpho ductus erat, in ea 
consularem praetextam iungentem praetoria. Idem 
hic postea triumphavit. 

1 LXVI. Furente deinde Antonio simulque Lepido, 
quorum uterque, ut praediximus, hostes iudicati 
erant, cum ambo mallent sibi nuntiari, quid passi 
essent,* quam quid meruissent, repugnante Caesare, 
sed frustra adversus duos, instauratum Sullani 

2 exempli malum, proscriptio. Nihil tam indignum 
illo tempore fuit, quam quod aut Caesar aliquem 
proscribere coactus est aut ab ullo Cicero proscriptus 

* tum or tunc Burer; tur AP; tum igitur Halm. 
2 abhinc after conditam deleted hy Gelenitis. 

' Dccvim Gel&nius; accviiii AP; dccxi Aldus. 

* cum . . . essent] the passage is clearly corrupt, but as 
yet no satisfactory emendation has been offered. 

« 43 B.c. 

* Consul suffectus in 43 b.c, after Octavianus resigned 
the office. Ventidius and his mother had been made 
prisoners in the Social War, and had been led in triumph by 


HISTORY OF ROME, 11. Ixv. 1— Ixvi. 2 

zealously Cicero was extolling Brutus and Cassius. 
Antony threatened to join forces with Brutus and 
Cassius, who had now control of seventeen legions, 
if Caesar rejected this friendly overture, and said 
that Caesar was under greater obligations to avenge 
a father than he to avenge a friend. Tlien began 
their partnership in political power, and, on the 
urgent advice and entreaty of the armies, a marriage 
alhance was also made between Antony and Caesar, 
in which Antony's stepdaughter was betrothed to 
Caesar. Caesar, with Quintus Pedius as coUeague, 
entered on the consulship " one day before the 
completion of his twentieth year on the twenty- 
second of September, seven hundred and nine 
years after the founding of the city and seventy-two, 
Marcus Vinicius, before the beginning of your 

This year saw Ventidius * joining the robes of the 
consular office to those of praetor in the very city 
in which he had been led in triumph among the 
Picentine captives. He also lived to celebrate a 
triumph of his o^vti. 

LXVI. Then the vengeful resentment of Antony 
and Lepidus — for each of tliem had been declared 
public enemies, as has already been stated, and 
both preferred to hear accounts of what they had 
suffered, rather than of what they had deserved, at 
the hands of tlie senate — renewed the liorror of the 
SuUan proscription. Caesar protested, but without 
avail, being but one against two. The climax of 
the shame of this time was that Caesar should be 
forced to proscribe any one, or that any one should 

Pompeius Strabo in 89 b.c. Ventidius celebrated his own 
triumph in 38 b.c. 



est. Abscisaque scelere Antonii vox publica est, 
cum eius salutem nemo defendisset, qui per tot annos 
et publicam civitatis et privatam civium defenderat. 

3 Nihil tamen egisti, M. Antoni (cogit enim excedere 
propositi formam operis erumpens animo ac pectore 
indignatio) nihil, inquam, egisti mercedem caele- 
stissimi oris et clarissimi capitis abscisi numerando 
auctoramentoque funebri ad conservatoris quondam 
rei pubhcae tantique consulis inritando necem. 

4 Rapuisti tu M.^ Ciceroni lucem soUicitam et aetatem 
senilem et vitam miseriorem te principe quam sub 
te triumviro mortem, famam vero gloriamque fac- 
torum atque dictorum adeo non abstuhsti, ut auxeris. 

5 Vivit vivetque per omnem saeculorum memoriam, 
dumque hoc vel forte vel providentia vel utcumque 
constitutum rerum naturae corpus, quod ille paene 
solus Romanorum animo vidit, ingenio complexus 
est, eloquentia inluminavit, manebit incolume, 
comitem aevi sui laudem Ciceronis trahet omnisque 
posteritas ilhus in te scripta mirabitur, tuum in eum 
factum execrabitur citiusque e mundo genus hominum 
quam Ciceronis nomen ^ cedet. 

1 LXVIL Huius totius temporis fortunam ne deflere 
quidem quisquam satis digne potuit, adeo nemo 

^ tu M. Geleniun; tum AP. 
* Ciceronis nomen supplied hy Laurent. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixvi. 2— Ixvii. 1 

proscribe the name of Cicero. By the crime of 
Antony, when Cicero was beheaded the voice of 
the people was severed, nor did anyone raise a 
hand in defence of the man who for so many vears 
had protected the interests both of the state and of 
the private citizen. But you accomphshed nothing, 
Mark Antony — for the indignation that surges in 
my breast compels me to exceed the bounds I have 
set for my narrative — you accomphshed nothing, I 
say, by ofFering a reward for the sealing of those 
divine hps and the severing of that illustrious head, 
and by encompassing ^rith a death-fee the murder 
of so great a consul and of the man who once 
had saved the state, You took from Marcus 
Cicero a few anxious days, a few senile years, a Ufe 
which would have been more wretched under your 
domination than was his death in your triumvirate ; 
but you did not rob him of his fame, the glory of his 
deeds and words, nay you but enhanced them. He 
Hves and ■srill continue to Uve in the memory of the 
ages, and so long as this universe shall endure — this 
universe which, whether created by chance, or bv 
divine pro\idence, or by whatever cause, he, aknost 
alone of all the Romans, saw with the eye of his 
mind, grasped with his intellect, illumined with his 
eloquence — so long shall it be accompanied through- 
out the ages by the fame of Cicero. AU posterity 
\vill admire the speeches that he wTote against you, 
while your deed to him will call forth their execra- 
tions, and the race of man shall sooner pass from the 
world than the name of Cicero be forgotten 

LXVII. No one has even been able to deplore the 
fortunes of this whole period \vith such tears as the 
theme deserves, much less can one now describe it 



exprimere verbis potest. Id tamen notandum est, 

2 fuisse in proscriptos uxorum fidem summam, liber- 
torum mediam, servorum aliquam, filiorum nullam ; 
adeo difficilis est hominibus utcumque conceptae 

3 spei mora. Ne quid uUi sanctum relinqueretur, 
velut^ in dotem invitamentumque sceleris Antonius 
L. Caesarem avunculum, Lepidus Paulum fratrem 
proscripserant ; nec Planco gratia defuit ad im- 
petrandum, ut frater eius Plancus Plotius pro- 

4 scriberetur. Eoque inter iocos militaris, qui currum 
Lepidi Plancique secuti erant, inter execrationem 
civium usurpabant hunc versum : 

De germanis, non de Gallis duo triumphant 

1 LXVIII. Suo praeteritum loco referatur ; neque 
enim persona umbram actae rei capit. Dum in acie 
Pharsalica acriter^ de summa rerum Caesar dimicat, 
M. CaeUus, vir eloquio animoque Curiom similUmus, 
sed in utroque perfectior nec minus ingeniose 
nequam, cum ne modica quidem solvere ac servari 
posset^ (quippe peior illi res famiUaris quam mens 

2 erat), in praetura novarum tabularum auctor extitit 
nequiitque senatus et consuUs auctoritate* deterreri ; 

* velut Gelenius ; vel ^P ; ut Halm. 

* acriter Haupt ; Africaque AP. 

* ne raodica quidem solvere ac servari posset Ellis ; im- 
modica (in modica P) quidem servari posset AP\ ne 
modica quidem re servari posset Halm. 

* et consulis {after Lipsius) auctoritate Cludius; et 
auctoritate COSS. AP. 

* Oermanus means " full-brother " as opposed to half- 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixvii. l— Ixviii. 2 

in words. One thing, hovvever, demands eomment, 
that toward the proscribed their wives showed the 
greatest loyalty, their freedmen not a little, their 
slaves some, their sons none. So hard is it for men 
to brook delays in the realization of their ambitions, 
whatever they may be. That no sacred tie might 
escape inviolate, and, as it were, as an inducement 
and invitation to such atrocities, Antony had 
Lucius Caesar, his uncle, placed upon the list, and 
Lepidus his own brother Paulus. Plancus also had 
sufficient influence to cause his brother Plancus 
Plotius to be enroUed among the proscribed. And 
so the troops who foUowed the triumphal car of 
Lepidus and Plancus kept repeating among the 
soldiers' jests, but amid the execrations of the 
citizens, the foUovving hne : 

Brothers-german our two consuk triimiph over, not 
the Gauls." 

LXVIII. Let me now relate a matter which I 
omitted in its proper place, for the person involved 
does not permit the deed to rest in obsciuity. This 
person is Marcus Caelius, a man closely resembhng 
Curio in eloquence and in spirit, though more than 
his peer in either, and quite as clever in his worth- 
lessness. Being quite as bankrupt in property as in 
character and unable to save himself by paying even 
a reasonable proportion of his debts, he came for- 
ward in his praetorship, at the time when Caesar 
was fighting for the control of affairs on the field of 
Pharsalus,* as the author of a law for the cancellation 
of debts, nor could he be deterred from his course 
by the authority of either the senate or the consul. 

brother. The sarae pun is found in Quint. iii. 8. 29 
•* Germanum Cimber occidit." * 48 b.c. 



accito etiam Milone Annio, qui non impetrato reditu 
lulianis partibus infestus erat, in urbe seditionem, 
in agris haud'^ occulte bellicum tumultum movens, 
primo summotus a re publica, mox consularibus 

3 armis auctore senatu circa Thurios oppressus est. In- 
incepto pari simiUs fortuna Milonis fuit, qui Comp- 
sam in Hirpinis oppugnans ictusque lapide cum^ 
P. Clodio, tum pati-iae, quam armis petebat, poenas 
dedit, vir inquies et ultra fortem temerarius. 

4 Quatenus autem aUquid ex omissis peto, notetur 
immodica et intempestiva Hbertate usos adversus 
C. Caesarem MaruUum Epidium Flavumque Caese- 
tium tribunos plebis, dum arguunt in eo regni 
voluntatem, paene vim dominationis expertos. In 

5 hoc tamen saepe lacessiti principis ira excessit, ut 
censoria potius contentus nota quam animadversione 
dictatoria summoveret eos a re pubUca testaretur- 
que esse sibi miserrimum, quod aut natura sua ei 
excedendum foret aut minuenda dignitas. Sed ad 
ordinem revertendum est. 

1 LXIX. lam et DolabeUa in Asia C. Trebonium 
consularem, cui succedebat, fraude deceptum Zmyr- 
nae occiderat, virum adversus merita Caesaris 
ingratissimum participemque caedis eius, a quo 

2 ipse in consulare provectus fastigium fuerat ; et 

^ iu agris haud Mommiien ; haud magis AP ; at in agris 

^ in added hy Madvig. ' cura Orelli ; tura AP. 

» For his conviction for the slaying of Clodius see 
Chap. XLVII. » 44 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixviii. 2— Ixix. 2 

Calling to his aid Milo Annius,*» who was hostile to 
the Caesarian party because he had failed to secure 
from them liis recall, he stirred up a sedition in the 
city, and openly raised armed bands in the country. 
He was first banished from the state and was later 
overcome at Thurii by the army of the consul, on 
the order of the senate. A hke fortune attended 
a similar attempt by Milo. While besieging Compsa, 
a city of the Hirpini, he was struck by a stone, and 
thus the restless man, too reckless to be called 
brave, paid the penalty he owed to Publius Clodius 
and to his country, against which he was bearing arms. 

While engaged in supplying omissions I should 
note the intemperate and untimely display of 
independence shown towards Caesar by Marullus 
Epidius and Flavus Caesetius, tribunes of the 
people,^ who in charging him with the desire for 
the kingship, came near feeUng the efFects of his 
absolute power. Though Caesar was constantly 
provoked by them, the only outcome of his wrath 
was that he was satisfied to brand them through the 
employment of his power as censor, and refrained 
from punishing them as dictator by banishing them 
from the state ; and he expressed his great regret 
that he had no alternative but to depart from his 
customary clemency or sufFer loss of dignity. But 
I must now return to the regular order of my 

LXIX. Meanwhile in Asia, Dolabella, who suc- 
ceeded Gaius Trebonius as governor, had surprised 
the latter at Smyma and put him to death, a man 
who had showed the basest ingratitude in retum 
for Caesar's kindness, and had shared in the 
murder of him to whom he owed his advancement 



C. Cassius acceptis a Statio Murco et Crispo Marcio, 
praetoriis viris imperatoribusque, praevalidis in 
Syria legionibus, inclusum Dolabellam, qui praeoccu- 
pata Asia in Syriam pervenerat, Laodiciae expugnata 
ea urbe interfecerat^ (ita tamen, ut ad ictum^ servi 
sui Dolabella non segniter cervicem daret) et decem 
legiones in eo tractu sui iuris fecerat ; et M. Brutus 

3 C. Antonio, fratri M. Antonii, in Macedonia Vatinio- 
que circa Dyrrachium volentis legiones extorserat 
(sed Antonium bello lacessierat, Vatinium dignatione 
obruerat, cum et Brutus cuilibet ducum praeferendus 
videretur et Vatinius nulli non esset postferendus, 

4 in quo deformitas corporis cum turpitudine certabat 
ingenii, adeo ut animus eius dignissimo domicilio 
inclusus videretur) eratque septem legionibus validus. 

6 At^ lege Pedia, quam consul Pedius collega 
Caesaris tulerat, omnibus, qui Caesarem patreni 
interfecerant, aqua ignique* interdictum erat. Quo 
tempore Capito, patruus meus, vir ordinis senatorii, 

6 Agrippae subscripsit in C. Cassium. Dumque ea in 
Italia geruntur, acri atque prosperrimo bello Cassius 
Rliodum, rem inmanis operis, ceperat, Brutus Lycios 
devicerat, et inde in Macedoniam exercitus tra- 
iecerant, cum per omnia repugnans naturae suae 
Cassius etiam Bruti clementiam vinceret. Neque re- 

* interfecerat Bhenanits (or confecerat) ; fecerat AP. 

^* ad ictum Rhenanus ; adiectum AP. 

' at Lipsius ; et ^P ; sed Kreyssig. 

* damnatis after ignique deleted hy Delbenius. 



to the consulship. Dolabella had aheady occupied 
Asia and had passed over into Syria when Gaius 
Cassius, taking over their strong legions from Statius 
Murcus and Crispus Marcius, both praetorians who 
had been saluted as imperator by their troops, shut 
him up in Laodicea and by taking that city had 
caused his death ; for Dolabella had promptly 
ofFered his neck to the sword of his own slave. 
Cassius also gained control of ten legions in that 
part of the empire. Marcus Brutus had raised his 
strength to seven legions by wresting their troops, 
by voluntary transfer of allegiance, from Gaius 
Antonius, the brother of Marcus Antonius, in 
Macedonia, and from Vatinius in the vicinity of 
Dyrrachium. Brutus had been obhged to offer 
battle to Antony, but Vatinius he had over^vhehned 
by the weight of his o^ra reputation, since Brutus 
was preferable to any general, while no man could 
rank lower than Vatinius, whose deformity of body 
was rivalled to such an extent by the baseness 
of his character, that his spirit seemed to be housed 
in an abode that was thoroughly worthy of it. 

By the Pedian law, proposed by Pedius, Caesar's 
colleague in the consulship, a decree of banishment 
was passed upon all the assassins of Caesar. At 
this time Capito, my uncle, a man of senatorial rank, 
assisted Agripp a in securing the condemnation of 
Gaius Cassius. While all this was taking place in 
Italy, Cassius in a vigorous and successful campaign 
had taken Rhodes, an undertaking of great difficulty. 
Brutus had meanwhile conquered the Lycians. The 
armies of both then crossed into Macedonia, where 
Cassius, contrary to his nature, uniformly outdid 
even Brutus in clemency. One will hardly find men 



perias, quos aut pronior fortuna comitata sit aut 
veluti fatigata maturius destituerit quam Brutimi 
et Cassium. 

1 LXX. Tum Caesar et Antonius traiecerunt exer- 
citus in Macedoniam et apud urbem Philippos cum 
Bruto Cassioque acie concurrerunt. Cornu, cui 
Brutus praeerat, impulsis hostibus castra Caesaris 
cepit (nam ipse Caesar, etiamsi infirmissimus vale- 
tudine erat, obibat munia ducis, oratus etiam ab 
Artorio medico, ne in castris remaneret, manifesta 
denuntiatione quietis territo), id autem, in quo 
Cassius fuerat, fugatum ac male mulcatum in altiora 

2 se^ receperat loca. Tum Cassius ex sua fortuna 
eventum collegae aestimans, cum dimisisset evo- 
catum iussissetque nuntiare sibi, quae esset multitudo 
ac vis hominum, quae ad se tenderet, tardius eo 
nuntiante, cum in vicino esset agmen cursu ad eum 
tendentium neque pulvere facies aut signa denotari 
possent, existimans hostes esse, qui irruerent, 
lacerna caput circumdedit extentamque cervicem 

3 interritus liberto praebuit. Deciderat Cassii caput, 
cum evocatus advenit nuntians Brutum esse victorem. 
Qui cum imperatorem prostratum videret, sequar, 
inquit, eum, quem mea occidit tarditas, et ita in 
gladium incubuit. 

4 Post paucos deinde dies Brutus conflixit cum 
hostibus et victus acie cum in tumulum nocte ex 
fuga se recepisset, impetravit a Stratone Aegeate, 

1 se added hy Gelenius. 

• 42 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixix. 6— Ixx. 4 

who were ever attended by a more favourable fortune 
than Brutus and Cassius, or who were more quickly 
deserted by her, as though she were weary. 

LXX. Then Caesar and Antonius transported 
their armies to Macedonia, and met Brutus and 
Cassius in battle " near the city of Philippi. The 
•wing under the command of Brutus, after defeating 
the enemy, captured Caesar's camp ; for Caesar was 
performing his duties as commander although he was 
in the poorest of health, and had been urged not to re- 
main in camp by Artorius his physician, who had been 
frightened by a waming which had appeared to him 
in his sleep. On the other hand, the yving commanded 
by Cassius had been routed and roughly handled, 
and had retreated with much loss to higher ground. 
Then Cassius, judging his colleague's success by his 
own fortune, sent a veteran with instructions to 
report to him what was the large force of men 
which was now bearing down in his direction. As 
the orderly was slow in reporting, and the force 
approaching at a run was now close, while their 
identity and their standards could not be recognized 
for the dust, imagining that the troops rushing on 
him were those of the enemy, he covered his head 
with his military cloak and undismayed presented 
his neck to the sword of his freedman. The head of 
Cassius had scarcely fallen when the orderly arrived 
with the report that Brutus was ^ictorious. But 
when he saw his commander lying prostrate, he 
uttered the words, " I shall follow him whose death 
my tardiness has caused," and fell upon his sword. 

A few days later Brutus met the enemy, and was 
beaten in battle. In retreat he withdrew at nightfall 
to a hill, and there prevailed up>on Strato of Aegaeae, 



familiari suo. ut manum morituro commodaret sibi ; 
6 reiectoque laevo super caput brachio, cum mucro- 
nem gladii eius dextera tenens sinistrae admovisset 
mammillae ad eum ipsum locum, qua cor emicat, 
impellens se in vulnus uno ictu transfixus expiravit 

1 LXXL Messalla,! fulgentissimus iuvenis, proxi- 
mus in illis castris Bruti Cassiique auctoritati, cum 
essent qui eum ducem poscerent, servari beneficio 
Caesaris maluit quam dubiam spem armorum temp- 
tare amplius ; nec aut Caesari quidquam ex victoriis 
suis fuit laetius quam servasse Corvinum aut maius 
exemplum hominis grati ac pii, quam Corvinus^ in 
Caesarem fuit. Non aliud bellum cruentlus caede 
clarissimorum virorum fuit. Tum Catonis filius 

2 cecidit ; eadem Lucullum Hortensiumque, eminen- 
tissimorum civium filios, fortuna abstulit ; nam 
Varro ad ludibrium moriturus Antonii digna illo ac 
vera de exitu eius magna cum libertate ominatus est. 
Drusus Livius, luliae Augustae pater, et Varus 
Quintihus ne temptata quidem hostis misericordia 
alter se ipse in tabernaculo interemit, Varus autem 
liberti, quem id facere coegerat, manu, cum se 
insignibus honorum velasset, iugulatus est. 

1 LXXII. Hunc exitum M. Bruti partium septimum 
et tricesimum annum agentis fortuna esse voluit, 
incorrupto^ animo eius in diem, quae illi omnes 

2 virtutes unius temeritate facti* abstulit. Fuit autem 

^ Halm supplied Corvinus before Messalla. 

* Corvinus AP ; Corvini Botlie and Halm. 

• incorrupto Tollius ; corrupto AP. 

* facti Rhmanus ; fecit AP. 


HISTORY OF ROxME, II. Ixx. 4— Ixxii. 2 

one of his household, to lend him his hand in his 
resolve to die. Raising his left arra above his head, 
and with his right holding the point of Strato's sword 
he brought it close to the left nipple, at the place 
where the heart beats, and throwing himself upon 
the sword he died at once, transfixed by the stroke. 

LXXI. Messalla, a young man of brilliant parts, 
was next in authority to Brutus and Cassius in their 
camp. Although there were those who urged him 
to take command, he preferred to owe his safety to 
the kindness of Caesar than to try once again the 
doubtful hope of arms. Caesar, on his side, found 
no greater pleasure in his ^ictories than in granting 
Ufe to Cor\inus, nor was there ever a better example 
of loyal gratitude than that shown by Corvinus to 
Caesar. No other war cost the blood of so many 
illustrious men. In that battle the son of Cato fell ; 
the same fortune carried ofF Lucullus and Hortensius, 
the sons of eminent citizens. Varro, when about 
to die, in mockery of Antony, with the utmost 
freedom of speech prophesied for Antony the death 
he deserv^ed, a prophecy which came true. Drusus^ 
Livius, the father of Julia Augusta, and Quintilius' 
Varus, without making any appeal for mercy, ended 
their lives. Li\ius died by his ovm hand in his 
tent ; Varus first covered himself with the insignia 
of his ofl^ces and then forced his freedman to commit 
the deed. 

LXXII. This was the end reserved by fortune for 
the party of Marcus Brutus. He was in his thirty- 
seventh year, and had kept his soul free from 
corruption until this day, which, through the rashness 
of a single act, bereft him, together with his life, of 
all his virtuous quaUties. Cassius was as much the 



dux Cassius melior, quanto vir Brutus : e quibus 
Brutum amicum habere malles, inimicum magis 
timeres Cassium ; in altero maior vis, in altero 
virtus : qui si vicissent, quantum rei publicae inter- 
fuit Caesarem potius habere quam Antonium prin- 
cipem, tantum retulisset habere Brutum quam Cas- 

3 Cn. Domitius, pater L. Domitii nuper a nobis visi, 
eminentissimae ac nobilissimae simplicitatis viri, 
avus huius Cn. Domitii, clarissimi iuvenis, occupatis 
navibus cum magno sequentium consilia sua comitatu 
fugae fortunaeque se commisit, semet ipso contentus 

4 duce partium, Statius Murcus, qui classi et custodiae 
maris praefuerat, cum omni commissa sibi parte 
exercitus naviumque Sex. Pompeium, Cn. Magni 
filium, qui ex Hispania revertens Siciliam armis 

5 occupaverat, petiit. Ad quem et e Brutianis castris 
et ex Italia ahisque terrarum partibus, quos prae- 
senti periculo fortuna subduxerat, proscripti con- 
fluebant : quippe nullum habentibus statum quiUbet 
dux erat idoneus, cum fortuna non electionem daret, 
sed^ perfugium ostenderet exitialemque tempesta- 
tem fugientibus statio pro portu foret. 

1 LXXIII. Hic adulescens eratstudiisrudis,sermone 
barbarus, impetu strenuus, manu promptus, cogi- 
tatu^ eeler, fide patri dissimillimus, Hbertorum 
suorum libertus servorumque servus, speciosis in- 

^ sed added hy Gelenius. 
* cogitatu Scheffer ; cogitator AP. 

" Literally " whom we lately saw." 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxii 2— Ixxiii. 1 

better general as Brutus was the better man. Of 
the t^vo, one would rather have Brutus as a friend, 
but would stand more in fear of Cassius as an enemy. 
The one had more \-igour, the other more ^irtue. 
As it was better for the state to have Caesar rather 
than Antony as emperor, so, had Brutus and Cassius 
been the conquerors, it would have been better for 
it to be ruled by Brutus rather than by Cassius. 

Gnaeus Domitius, father of Lucius Domitius our . 
late contemporary," a man of eminent and noble 
simplicity, and grandfather of Gnaeus Domitius, a [ 
young man of distinction in our own day, seized a.^ 
number of ships, and relying on himself to lead his 
party, accompanied by a large number of companions 
who followed his lead, entrusted himself to the 
fortunes o£jflight. Statius_Murcus, who had had 
charge of the fleet and the patrolling of the seas, 
sought Sextus P.ompey, son of Pompey the Great, 
witn that portion of the army and of the fleet which 
had been entrusted to him. Pornpey had returned 
from Spain and seized Si^ily. The proscribed whom 
fortune had spared, at least from immediate peril, 
now flocked to him from the camp of Brutus, from 
Italy, and from other parts of the world. For men 
who had now no legal status any leader would do, 
since fortune gave them no choice, but held out a 
place of refuge, and as they fled from the storm of 
death any shelter served as a harbour. 

LXXIII. Sextus was a young man without educa- 
tion, barbarous in his speech, vigorous in initiative, 
energetic and prompt in action as he was swift in 
expedients, in loyalty a marked contrast to his 
father, the freedman of his own freedmen and slave 
of his own slaves, envying those in high places only 



2 videns, ut pareret humillimis. Quem senatus paene 
totus adhuc e Pompeianis constans partibus post 
Antonii a Mutina fugam eodem illo tempore, quo 
Bruto Cassioque transmarinas provincias decreverat, 
revocatum ex Hispania, ubi adversus eum clarissimum 
bellum Pollio Asinius praetorius gesserat, in paterna 
bona restituerat et orae maritimae praefecerat. 

3 Is tum, ut praediximus, occupata Sicilia servitia 
fugitivosque in numerum exercitus sui recipiens 
magnum modum legionum effecerat perque Menam 
et Menecraten paternos libertos, praefectos classium, 
latrociniis ac praedationibus infestato mari ad se 
exercitumque tuendum rapto utebatur, cum eum 
non depuderet vindicatum armis ac ductu patris sui 
mare infestare piraticis sceleribus. 

1 LXXIV, Fractis Brutianis Cassianisque partibus 
Antonius transmarinas obiturus provincias substitit. 
Caesar in Italiam se recepit eamque longe quam 
speraverat tumultuosiorem repperit. Quippe L. 

2 Antonius consul, vitiorum fratris sui consors, sed 
virtutum, quae interdum in illo erant, expers, modo 
apud veteranos criminatus Caesarem, modo eos, qui 
iussa^ divisione praediorum nominatisque coloniis 
agros amiserant, ad arma conciens magnum exer- 
citum conflaverat. Ex altera parte uxor Antonii 

* iussa Heinsitis ; iuste AP ; iniusta (or iniuste) Lipsius. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxiii. 2— Ixxiv. 2 

to obey those in the lowest. The senate, which 
still consisted almost entirely of Pompeians, in the 
period which followed the flight of Antony from 
Mutina, and at the very time at which it had / 
assigned to Brutus and Cassius the pro\inces across 
the sea, had recalled Sextus from Spain — where 
Polho Asinius the praetorian had distinguished 
himself in his campaigns against him — restored hira 
to his father's property, and had entrusted to him 
the guarding of the coast. Seizing Sicily, as we 
have said, and admitting into his army slaves and 
runaways, he had raised his legions to their fuU 
complement. He supported himself and his army 
on plunder, and through the agency of Menas and 
Menecrates, his father's freedmen, who were in 
charge of his fleet, he infested the seas by predatory 
and piratical expeditions ; nor was he ashamed thus 
to inifest with piracy and its atrocities the sea which 
had been freed from it by his father's arms and 

LXXIV. After the defeat of the party of Brutus 
and Cassius, Antony remained behind with the 
intention of visiting the pro^inces beyond the sea. 
Caesar retumed to Italy, which he found in a much 
more troubled condition than he had expected. 
Lucius Antonius, the consul, who shared the faults 
of his brother but possessed none of the virtues 
which he occasionally showed, by making charges 
against Caesar before the veterans at one moment, 
and at the next inciting to arms those who had lost 
their farms when the diWsion of lands was ordered 
and colonists assigned, had collected a large army." 
In another quarter Fulvia, the wife of Antony, who 

• 41 B.C. 



Fulvia, nihil muliebre praeter corpus gerens, omnia 

3 armis tumultuqiie miscebat. Haec belli sedem Prae- 
neste ceperat ; Antonius pulsus undique viribus 
Caesaris Perusiara se contulerat : Plancus, Antoniana- 
rum adiutor partium, spem magis ostenderat auxilii, 

4 quam opem ferebat Antonio. Usus Caesar virtute 
et fortuna sua Perusiam expugnavit. Antonium 
inviolatum dimisit, in Perusinos magis ira militum 
quam voluntate saevitum ducis : urbs incensa, cuius 
initium incendii princeps eius loci fecit Macedonicus, 
qui subiecto rebus ac penatibus suis igni transfixum 
se gladio flammae intulit. 

1 LXXV. Per eadem tempora exarserat in Cam- 
pania bellum, quod professus eorum, qui perdiderant 
agros, patrocinium ciebat T. Claudius Nero prae- 
torius et pontifex, Ti. Caesaris pater, magni vir^ 
animi doctissimique^ et ingenii. Id quoque adventu 
Caesaris sepultura atque discussum est. 

2 Quis fortunae mutationes, quis dubios rerum 
humanarum casus satis mirari queat ? Quis non 
diversa praesentibus contrariaque expectatis aut 

3 speret aut timeat ? Livia, nobilissimi et fortissirai 
viri Drusi Claudiani filia, genere, probitate, forma 
Romanarura erainentissima, quara postea coniugera 
Augusti vidiraus, quam transgressi ad deos sacer- 

^ vir P ; viri BA. 

* doctissimique AP; rectissimique Madvig; promptis- 
simique Ruhnken. 


HISTORY OF ROME, Ixxiv. 2— Ixxv. 3 

had nothing of the woman in her except her sex, 
was creating general confusion by armed violence. 
She had taken Praeneste as her base of operaHons ; 
Antonius, beaten on all sides by the forces of Caesar, 
had taken refuge in Perusia ; Plancus, who abetted 
the faction of Antony, ofFered the hope of assist- 
ance, rather than gave actual help. Thanks to 
his own valour and his usual good fortune, Caesar 
succeeded in storming Perxisia. He released Antonius 
unharmed ; and the cruel treatment of the people 
of Perusia was due rather to the fury of the soldiery 
than to the ^vish of their commander. The city was 
burned. The fire was begun by Macedonicus, a 
leading man of the place who, after setting fire to 
his house and contents, ran himself through with 
his sword and threw himself into the flames. 

LXXV. At the same period war broke out in 
Campania at the instigation of the ex-praetor and 
pontifF, Tiberius Claudius Nero, father of Tiberius 
Caesar, and a man of noble character and high 
intellectual training, who now came forward as the 
protector of those who had lost their lands. This 
war also was quickly extinguished and its embers 
scattered by the arrival of Caesar. 

Who can adequately express his astonishment at 
the changes of fortune, and the mysterious vicissi- 
tudes in human affairs ? Who can refrain from hoping 
for a lot different from that which he now has, or 
from dreading one that is the opposite^of what he 
expects ? Take for example - LLvia. - She, the 
daughter of the brave and noble Drusus Claudianus, 
most eminent of Roman women in birth, in sincerity, 
and in beauty, she, whom we later saw as the 
wife of Augustus, and as his priestess and daughter 



dotem ac filiam, tum fugiens mox futuri sui Caesaris 
arma ac manus^ bimum hunc Tiberium Caesarem, 
vindicem Romani imperii futurumque eiusdem 
Caesaris filium, gestans sinu, per avia itinerum vitatis 
militum gladiis uno comitante, quo facilius occul- 
taretur fuga, pervenit ad mare et cum viro Nerone 
pervecta in Sieiliam est. 

1 LXXVI. Quod alieno testimonium redderem, eo 
non fraudabo avum meum. Quippe C. Velleius, 
honoratissimo inter illos trecentos et sexaginta 
iudices loco a Cn. Pompeio lectus, eiusdem Marcique 
Bruti ac Ti. Neronis^ praefectus fabrum, vir nuUi 
secundus, in Campania digressu Neronis a Neapoli, 
cuius ob singularem cum eo amicitiam partium 
adiutor fuerat, gravis iam aetate et corpore cum 

2 comes^ esse non posset, gladio se ipse transfixit. 

Inviolatam excedere Italia Caesar passus est* 
Fulviam Plancumque, muliebris fugae comitem. 
Nam Pollio Asinius cum septem legionibus, diu 
retenta in potestate Antonii Venetia, magnis spe- 
ciosisque rebus circa Altinum aliasque eius regionis 
urbes editis, Antonium petens, vagum adhuc Domi- 
tium, quem digressum e Brutianis castris post caedem 

^ arma ac manus Ellis ; arma A ; arma nus P ; arma 
minus Voss followed hy ITaJm. 

" Ti. Neronis Aldiis ; Tironis A ; Tyronis P. 
' cum comes Aldus ; comes B; cum AP. 
* est added by Cludius. 

• By legal adoption. 

* In Pompey's time the iudices were chosen from the 
senators, knights, and trilmni aerarii, in equal proportion. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxv. 3— Ixxvi. 2 

after his deification, was then a fugitive before the 
anns and forces of the very Caesar who was soon 
to be her husband, carrying in her bosom her infant 
of two years, the present emperor Tiberius Caesar, 
destined to be the detender of the Roman empire 
and the son " of this same Caesar. Pursuing by-paths 
that she might avoid the swords of the soldiers, and 
accompanied by but one attendant, so as the more 
readily to escape detection in her flight, she finally 
reached the sea, and with her husband Nero made 
her escape by ship to Sicily. 

LXXVI. I shall not deprive my own grandfather 
of the honourable mention which I should give to a 
stranger. Gaius Velleius, chosen to a most honourable 
jKJsition among the three hundred and sixty judges ^* 
by Gnaeus Pompey, prefect of engineers under 
Pompey, Marcus Brutus, and Tiberius Nero, and a 
man second to none, on the departure from Naples 
of Nero, whose partisan he had been on account of 
his close friendship, finding himself unable to 
accompany him on account of his age and infirmities, 
ran himself through \vith his sword in Campania. 

Caesar allowed Fuhia to depart from Italy un- 
harmed, and with her Plancus who accompanied the 
woman in her flight. As for Polho Asinius, after he 
with his seven legions had long kept Venetia under the 
control of Antony, and after he had accomplished 
several brilHant exploits in the vicinity of Altinxmi 
and other cities of that region, when he was on his 
way to join Antony with these legions he won 
Domitius over to the cause of Antony by his counsel 
and by the pledge of immunity. Up to this time 
Domitius, who, as we have ah-eady said, had quitted 
the camp of Brutus after that leader's death and 



eius praediximus et propriae classis factum ducem, 
consiliis suis inlectum^ ac fide data iunxit Antonio : 

3 quo facto, quisquis aequum se praestiterit, sciat non 
minus a Pollione in Antonium quam ab Antonio in 
Pollionem esse conlatum. Adventus deinde in Italiam 
Antonii apparatusque^ contra eum Caesaris habuit 
belli metum, sed pax circa Brundusium composita. 

4 Per quae tempora Rufi Salvidieni scelesta consilia 
patefacta sunt. Qui natus obscurissimis initiis parum 
habebat summa accepisse et proximus a Cn. Pompeio 
ipsoque Caesare equestris ordinis consul creatus esse, 
nisi in id^ ascendisset, e quo infra se et Caesarem 
videret et rem publicam. 

1 LXXVII. Tum expostulante consensu populi, 
quem gravis urebat infesto mari annona, cum Pom- 
peio quoque circa Misenum pax inita, qui haud 
absurde, cum in navi Caesaremque et Antonium 
cena exciperet, dixit in carinis suis se cenam dare, 
referens hoc dictum ad loci nomen, in quo paterna 
domus ab Antonio possidebatur. In hoc pacis 

2 foedere placuit Siciliam Achaiamque Pompeio con- 
cedere, in quo tamen animus inquies manere non 
potuit. Id unum tantummodo salutare adventu suo 
patriae attuUt, quod omnibus proscriptis aliisque, 
qui ad eum ex diversis causis fugerant, reditum 

^ iiilectum GeUnius ; electura AP. 

2 apparatusque SyJburg ; praeparatusque AP; paratusque 

* in id Puteanus ; in is BA ; simul P. 

' 40 B.c. ' i.e. Octavianus. • 39 b.c. 

"* Carinae, which also means " keels," was a residential 
quarter in Rome between the Caelian and Esquiline Hills, 
now (S. Pietro in Vincoli. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. lxx\-i. 2— IxxA-ii. 2 

had established himself in command of a fleet of his 
own, had remained at large. In view of this act of 
PolUo any fair judge will see that he rendered as 
great a serWce to Antony as Antony rendered to 
him. The return of Antony to Italy and Caesar's 
preparations against him gave rise to fears of war, 
but a peace was arranged at Brundisium." 

It was at this time that the criminal designs of 
Rufus Sahidienus were revealed. This man, sprung 
from the most obscure origin, was not satisfied ^^ith 
having received the highest honours in the state, 
and to have been the first man of equestrian rank 
after Gnaeus Pompey and Caesar * himself to be 
elected consul, but aspired to mount to a height 
where he might see both Caesar and the repubUc 
at his feet. 

LXXVII. Then in response to a unanimous demand 
on the part of the people, who were now pinched by 
the high price of grain because the sea was infested 
by pirates, a peace was arranged ' •with Pompey also, 
in the neighbourhood of Misemmi. Pompey enter- 
tained Caesar and Antony at dinner on board his 
ship, on which occasion he remarked, not without 
point, that he was giving the dinner on " his oasti 
keels," •* thereby recalUng the name of the quarter 
in which stood his father's house, now in the 
possession of Antony. By the terms of this treaty 
it was agreed that Sicily and Achaea should be con- 
ceded to Pompey, but his restless soul would not 
let him abide by the agreement. There was only 
one benefit which he rendered to his country by 
attending the conference, namely, the stipulation 
that all those who bad been proscribed, or who 
for any other reason had taken refuge with him, 



3 salutemque paetus est : quae res et alios clarissimos 
viros et Neronem Claudium et M. Silanum Sentium- 
que Saturninum et Arruntium ac Titium restituit rei 
publicae. Statium autem Murcum, qui adventu suo 
classisque celeberrimae vires eius duplicaverat, in- 
simulatum falsis criminationibus, quia talem virum 
collegam officii Mena et Menecrates fastidierant, 
Pompeius in Sicilia interfecerat. 

1 LXXVin. Hoc tractu temporum Octaviam, soro- 
rem Caesaris, M. Antonius duxit uxorem. Redierat 
Pompeius in Siciliam, Antonius in transmarinas 
provincias, quas magnis momentis^ Labienus, ex 
Brutianis castris profectus ad Parthos, perducto 
eorum exercitu in Syriam interfectoque legato 
Antonii concusserat ; qui virtute et ductu Ventidii 
una cum Parthorum copiis celeberrimoque iuvenum 
Pacoro, regis filio, extinctus est. 

2 Caesar- per haec tempora, ne res discipUnae ini- 
micissima, otium, corrumperet militem, crebris in 
lllyrico Delmatiaque expeditionibus patientia peri- 
culorum belUque experientia durabat exercitum. 

3 Eadem tempestate Calvinus Domitius, cum ex con- 
sulatu obtineret Hispaniam, gravissimi comparandi- 
que antiquis exempU auctor fuit : quippe primi pili 

^ molimentis Ruhnken ; momentis AP. 
* interim hefore Caesar deleted by Ellis as a gloss. 

" Statius Murcus had been made prefect of the fleet by 
Cassius. After the defeat of the repubHcans at Phiiippi, he 
carried his fleet over to Sextus Pompey in Sicily. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxvii. 3— Ixxviii. 3 

should be granted a safe retum. Among other 
illustrlous men, Nero Claudius, Marcus Silanus, 
Sentius Satuminus, Arruntius and Titius were 
thereby restored to the state. As to Statius 
Murcus, however, who had doubled Pompey's 
forces by joining him with his strong fleet,"* 
Pompey had already put him to death in Sicily 
as the result of false accusations which had been 
brought against him, Menas and Menecrates 
having expressed a distaste for such a man as 
their colleague. 

LXXVIII. It was during this period that Marcus | 
Antonius espoused Octavia, the sister of Caesar. ' 
Pompey had now returned to Sicily, and Antony to 
the pro\T.nces across the sea, which Labienus had 
thrown into a panic in consequence of the great 
movements he had set on foot ; for he had gone 
from the camp of Brutus to the Partliians, had led 
a Parthian army into Syria, and had slain a Ueutenant 
of Antony. Thanks to the courageous generalship 
of Ventidius, Labienus perished in the battle * and 
with him the forces of the Parthians, including the 
most distinguished of their young men, Pacorus, son 
of the Parthian king 

During this time Caesar, wishing to keep his soldiers 
from being spoiled by idleness, the great enemy of 
discipUne, was making frequent expeditions in 
m^Ticum and Dalmatia and thus hardening his army i 
by endurance of danger and experience in warfare. 
At this time also Cahinus Domitius, who, after 
filUng the consulship, was now goveraor of Spain, 
executed a rigorous act of discipUne comparable 
with the severity of the older days, in that he caused 
» 38B.C 



centurionem nomine Vibillium ob turpem ex acie 
fugam fusti percussit. 

1 LXXIX. Crescente in dies et classe et fama 
Pompei Caesar molem belli eius suscipere statuit. 
Aedificandis navibus contrahendoque militi ac remigi 
navalibusque adsuescendo certaminibus atque exer- 
citationibus praefectus est M. Agrippa, virtutis 
nobilissimae, labore, vigilia, periculo invictus paren- 
dique, sed uni, scientissimus, aliis sane imperandi 
cupidus et per omnia extra dilationes positus con- 

2 sultisque facta coniungens. Hic in Averno ac Lucrino 
lacu speciosissima classe fabricata cotidianis exer- 
citationibus militem remigemque ad summam et 
militaris et maritimae rei perduxit scientiam. Hac 
classi Caesar, cum prius despondente ei Nerone, cui 
ante nupta fuerat Liviam, auspicatis rei publicae 
ominibus duxisset eam uxorem, Pompeio Siciliaeque 

3 bellum intulit. Sed virum humana ope invictum 
graviter eo tempore fortuna concussit : quippe longe 
maiorem partem classis circa Veliam Palinurique 
promontorium adorta vis Africi laceravit ac distulit. 
Ea patrando bello mora fuit, quod postea dubia et 

4 interdum ancipiti fortuna gestum est. Nam et 
classis eodem loco vexata est tempestate, et ut 
navali primo proelio apud Mylas ductu Agrippae 

<" This punishment was called fustuarium and was inflicted 
on Roman soldiers for desertion. When a soldier was con- 
demned, the tribune touched hira shghtly with a stick, upon 
which all the soldiers of the legion fell upon him wlth sticks 
and stones and generally killed him on the spot (Sraith, 
Dict. Ant.). * 38 b.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxviii. 3— Ixxix. 4 

a chief centurion by the name of Vibillius to be 
beaten to death " for cowardly flight from the Une 
of battle. 

LXXIX. As Pompey's fleet was growing daily, 
and his reputation as well, Caesar resolved to take 
up the burden of this new war. Marcus Agrippa 
was charged with constructing the ships, coUecting 
soldiers and rowers, and famiUarizing them with 
naval contests and manceuvres. He was a man of 
distinguished character, unconquerable by toil, loss 
of sleep or danger, well discipUned in obedience, 
but to one man alone, yet eager to command others ; 
in whatever he did he knew no such thing as delay, 
but -with him action went hand in hand with concep- 
tion. Building an imposing fleet in lakes Avernus 
and Lucrinus, by daily driUs he brought the soldiers 
and the oarsmen to a thorough knowledge of fight- 
ing on land and at sea. With this fleet Caesar 
made war on Pompey in Sicily,'' after he had 
espoused Livia, who was given to him in marriage 
by her former husband «^ under circumstances which 
augured weU for the state. But this man, uncon- 
querable by human power, received at this time a 
heavy blow at the hands of fortune, since the greater 
part of his fleet was wrecked and scattered in the 
vicinity of VeUa and Cape PaUnurus by a violent 
scirocco. This delayed finishing the war, which, 
however, was subsequently carried on with shifting 
and sometimes doubtful fortune. For Caesar's 
fleet was again buff"eted by a storm in the same 
locaUty, and although the issue was favourable 
in the first naval battle, at Mylae, under the leader- 

« Tiberiiis Claudius Neio, to whom she had akeady borne 
a son, the future Emperor Tiberius. 



pugnatum prospere, ita inopinato Pompeianae* 
classis adventu gravis sub ipsius Caesaris oculis circa 
Tauromenium accepta clades ; neque ab ipso peri- 
culum abfuit. Legiones, quae cum Cornificio erant, 
legato Caesaris, expositae in terram paene a Pom- 

6 peio oppressae sunt. Sed ancipitis fortuna temporis 
mature^ virtute correcta : explicatis quippe utriusque 
partis classibus paene omnibus exutus navibus Pom- 
peius Asiam fuga petivit iussuque M. Antonii, cuius 
opem petierat, dum inter ducem et supplicem 
tumultuatur et nunc dignitatem retinet, nunc vitam 

6 precatur, a Titio iugulatus est. Cui in tantum duravit 
hoc facinore contractum odium, ut mox ludos in 
theatro Pompei faciens execratione populi specta- 
culo, quod praebebat, pelleretur. 

1 LXXX. Acciverat gerens contra Pompeium bellum 
ex Africa Caesar Lepidum cum duodecim semiplenis 
legionibus. Hic vir omnium vanissimus neque uUa 
virtute tam longam fortunae indulgentiam meritus 
exercitum Pompei, quia propior fuerat, sequentem 
non ipsius, sed Caesaris auctoritatem ac fidem, sibi 

2 iunxerat inflatusque amplius viginti legionum numero 
in id furoris processerat, ut inutilis alienae victoriae^ 
comes, quam diu moratus erat, dissidendo in consiliis 
Caesari* et semper diversa iis, quae aliis placebant, 
dicendo, totam victoriam ut suam interpretabatur 

* Pompeianae added by Heinsius. 

* mature liuhnken ; matura AP. 

^ alienae victoriae P ; in alienae victoriae AB ; in aliena 
victoria Burer. 

* Caesari Acidalius ; Caesaris AP. 

• Battle of Naulochus, 36 b.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxix. 4— Ixxx. 2 

ship of Agrippa, a serious defeat was received near 
Tauromenium beneath the very eyes of Caesar, in 
consequence of the unexpected arrival of Pompey's 
fleet, and Caesar's o^vn person was endangered.t 
The legions which were with Comificius, Caesar's 
lieutenant, came near being crushed by Pompey as 
soon as they landed. But fortune's caprice at this 
critical period was soon amended by bravery in action ; 
when the fleets on both sides had been drawn up for 
battle," Pompey lost ahnost all his ships, and fled to 
Asia, where, wavering between the role of general 
and supphant, now endeavouring to retain his dignity 
and now pleading for his hfe, he was slain by Titius 
on the orders of Marcus Antonius, whose aid he had 
sought. The hatred which Titius brought upon him- 
self by this act lasted for a long time ; indeed, after- 
wards, when he was celebrating games in Pompey's 
theatre, he was driven amid the execrations of the 
people from the spectacle which he himseh"was giving. 
LXXX. While engaged in his war with Pompey, 
Caesar had summoned Lepidus from Africa with 
twelve legions of half the usual strength. This man, 
the most fickle of mankind, who had not eamed the 
long-continued kindness of fortune through any 
quaUties of his own, being nearer to the army of 
Pompey, annexed it to his own, though it was 
foUowing not his orders but Caesar's, and owned 
loyalty to him. His numbers now swoUen to twenty 
legions, he went to such lengths of madness that, 
though but a useless partner in another's victory, a 
victory which he had long delayed by refusing to 
agree to Caesar's plans and ahvays insisting upon 
something different from that which suited others, 
he claimed the victory as entirely his own and had 



3 audebatque^ denuntiare Caesari, excederet Sicilia. 
Non ab Scipionibus aliisque veteribus Romanorum 
ducum quidquam ausum patratumque fortius quam 
tunc a Caesare. Quippe cum inermis et lacernatus 
esset, praeter nomen nihil trahens, ingressus castra 
Lepidi, evitatis tehs,- quae iussu hominis pravissimi 
in eum iacta erant, cum lacerna eius perforata esset 

4 lancea, aquilam legionis rapere ausus est. Scires, 
quid interesset inter duces : armati inermem secuti 
sunt decimoque anno quam ad indignissimam^ vita 
sua potentiam pervenerat, Lepidus et a militibus 
et a fortuna desertus pulloque velatus amiculo inter 
ultimam coniiuentium ad Caesarem turbam latens 
genibus eius advolutus est. Vita rerumque suarum 
dominium concessa ei sunt, spoliata, quam tueri non 
poterat, dignitas. 

1 LXXXL Subita deinde exercitus seditio, qui 
plerumque contemplatus frequentiam suam a disci- 
plina desciscit et, quod cogere se putat posse, rogare 
non sustinet, partim severitate, partim liberaUtate 

2 discussa principis, speciosumque per idem tempus 
adiectum supplementum Campanae coloniae * ** 

^ interpretabatur audebatque AF ; interpretaretur aude- 
batque Gelmius ; interpretaretur auderetque Ruhnken. 

* telis added by Orelli. 

* indignissimam Ruhnken ; in dissimillimam AP. 

* Halm suggests to fill the lacuna: veteranis in agros 
deductis qui coloniae. 

" Octavianus was not princeps formally until 27 b.c. 

» Tiie statement of Dio xiix. 14 is the basis for supplying 
the missing words : " In this way Caesar calmed the soldiers 
temporarily. The money he gave them at once and the 
lands not rauch later. And since what was still held by 
the governracnt at the time did not suffice he bought more 
in addition, especially considerable from the Campanians 
dwelling in Capua since their city needed a number of 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxx. 3— Ixxxi. 2 

the effrontery to order Caesar out of Sicily. The 
Scipios and the other Roman generals of the olden 
time never dared or carried out a braver act than 
did Caesar at this juncture. For although he was 
unarmed and dressed in his travelhng cloak, carrying 
nothing except his name, he entered the camp of 
Lepidus, and, avoiding the weapons which were 
hurted at him by the orders of that scoundrel, 
though his cloak was pierced by a lance, he had 
the courage to carry off the eagle of a legion. Then 
could one know the difference between the two com- 
manders. Though armed, the soldiers followed Caesar 
who was unarmed, while Lepidus, in the tenth year 
after arri\ang at a position of power which his hfe had 
done nothing to deserve, now deserted both by his 
soldiers and by fortune, wTapping himself in a dark 
cloak and lurking in the rear of the crowd that 
thronged to Caesar, thus threw himself at Caesar's 
feet. He was granted his hfe and the control of his 
own property, but was shorn of the high position 
which he had shown himself unable to maintain. 

LXXXI. There foUowed a sudden mutiny of the 
army ; for it happens not infrequently that when 
soldiers observe their o^vn numbers they break 
disciphne and do not endure to ask for what they 
think they can exact. The mutiny was broken up 
partly by severity, partly by hberaUty on the part 
of the emperor," and considerable additions were 
at the same time made to the Campanian colony 
[by placing veterans on the lands of that colony]^ 

settlers. To them he also jrave in retum the so-called 
Julian supply of water, one of their chief sources of pride at 
all tiraes, and the Gnosian territorj' from which they still 
gather harvests." (Tr. by H. B. Foster.) 



eius relicti erant publici : pro his longe uberiores 
reditus duodecies sestertium in Creta insula redditi 
et aqua promissa, quae hodieque singulare et salu- 
britatis instrumentum^ et amoenitatis omamentum 
3 Insigne coronae classicae, quo nemo umquam 
Romanorum donatus erat, hoc bello Agrippa singulari 
virtute meruit. Victor deinde Caesar reversus in 
urbem contractas emptionibus complures domos per 
procuratores, quo laxior fieret ipsius, publicis se 
usibus destinare professus est, templumque ApoUinis 
et circa porticus facturum promisit, quod ab eo singu- 
lari exstructum munificentia est. 

1 LXXXII. Qua aestate Caesar tam prospere sepe- 
Hvit in SiciUa bellum,'^ fortuna, in Caesare et in^ re 
publica mitis, saeviit* ad Orientem. Quippe Antonius 
cum tredecim legionibus egressus^ Armeniam ac 
deinde Mediam et per eas regiones Parthos petens 

2 habuit regem eorum obvium. Primoque duas legiones 
cum omnibus impedimentis tormentisque et Statiano 
legato amisit, mox saepius ipse cum summo totius 
exercitus discrimine ea adiit pericula, a^ quibus 
servari se posse desperaret,' amissaque non minus 

^ instruraentum Cluditis ; instar AP. _ 

* sepelivit in Sicilia bellum Ruhnken ; libium in Sicilia Bn 
(bene A) AP. 

' et in ^ ; in P. 

* mitis saeviit Haupt ; railitavit AP. 
' egressus AP ; ingressiis Gelenius. 

* a added hy Kreyssig. 

' desperaret Haupt ; desperaverat AP. 

At Gnosos. See previous note. 

About £10,000 or $50,000. _ 

Corona classica or navalis : a chaplet of gold witli 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxi. 2— Ixxxii. 2 

•which had been left pubhc. Lands in Crete * were 
given in retiim for these, which yielded a richer 
revenue of a million two hundred thousand sesterces,* 
and an aqueduct _was promised which is to-day a 
remarkable agency of heaTtiras well as an omament 
to the landscape. 

In this war Agrippa by his remarkable services 
eamed the distinction of a naval crown,<' with which 
no Roman had as yet been decoratedr Caesar, on 
his victorious return to the city, made the announce- 
ment that he meant to set apart for pubhc use 
certain houses which he had secured by purchase 
through his agents in order that there might be a 
free area about his own residence. He further 
promised to build a temple of Apollo with a portico 
about it, a work which he constructed with rare 

LXXXII. In the simimer in which Caesar so 
successfuUy ended the war in Sicily, fortune, though 
kind in the case of Caesar and the repubhc, vented 
her anger in the east. For Antony with thirteen 
legions after passing through Armenia and then 
through Media, in an endeavour to reach Parthia 
by this route, found himself confronted by their 
king.<^ First of all he lost two legions with all their 
baggage and engines, and Statianus his heutenant ; 
later he himself with the greatest risk to his entire 
army, on several occasions encountered perils from 
which he dared not hope that escape was possible. 
After losing not less than a fourth part of his soldiers, 

beaks of ships worked into the design, presented to the 
admiral who had destroyed a hostile fleet. Agrippa is 
represented on a bronze medaliion wearing such a chaplet. 
* 36-3o B.c. 



quarta parte militum captivi cuiusdam, sed Romani, 
consilio ac fide servatus est,^ qui clade Crassiani exer- 
citus captus, cum fortuna non animum mutasset, 
accessit nocte ad stationem Romanam praedixitque, 
ne destinatum iter peterent, sed diverso silvestrique 

3 pervaderent. Hoc M. Antonio ac tot- illis^ legionibus 
saluti fuit ; de quibus tamen totoque exercitu haud 
minus pars quarta, ut praediximus, militum, calonum 
servitiique desiderata tertia est ; impedimentorum 
vix ulla superfuit. Hanc tamen Antonius fugam 
suam, quia vivus exierat, victoriam vocabat. Qui 
tertia aestate reversus in Armeniam regem eius 
Artavasden fraude deceptum catenis, sed, ne quid 
honori deesset, aureis vinxit. Crescente deinde et 

4 amoris in Cleopatram incendio et vitiorum, quae 
semper facultatibus licentiaque et adsentationibus 
aluntur, magnitudine, bellum patriae inferre con- 
stituit, cum ante novum se Liberum Patrem appellari 
iussisset, cum redimitus hederis crocotaque* velatus 
aurea et thyrsum tenens cothurnisque succinctus 
curru velut Liber Pater vectus esset Alexandriae. 

1 LXXXni. Inter hunc apparatum belli Plancus, 
non iudicio recta legendi neque amore rei publicae 
aut Caesaris, quippe haec semper impugnabat, sed 

^ est added hy Orelli. 

• ac tot Salmasius and Lipsius ; acto AP. 

^ illius Voss ; illis AP. 

* crocota liuhnken ; corona AP. 

• 34 B.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxii. 2— Ixxxiii. 1 

he was saved through the fidehty and by the 
suggestion of a captive, who was nevertheless a 
Roman. This man had been made prisoner in the 
disaster to the army of Crassus, but had not changed 
his allegiance ^viih his fortune. He came by night 
to a Roman outpost and warned tliem not to pursue 
their intended course but to proceed by a detour 
through the forest. It was this that saved Marcus 
Antonius and his many legions ; and yet, even so, 
not less than a fourth part of these soldiers and of his 
entire army was lost, as we have aheady stated, 
and of the canip-followers and slaves a third, while 
hardly anything of the baggage was saved. Yet 
Antonius called this flight of his a victorj', because 
he had escaped with his hfe ! Three summers later " 
he retumed to Armenia, obtained possession of the 
person of Artavasdes its king by deceit, and bound 
him with chains, which, however, out of regard for 
the station of his captive, were of gold. Then as 
his love for Cleopatra became more ardent and his 
vices grew upon him — for these are always nourished 
by power and Hcence and flattery — he resoh-ed to 
make war upon his country. He had previously 
given orders that he should be called the new Father 
Liber, and indeed in a procession at Alexandria he 
had impersonated Father Liber, his head bound 
with the ivy ^^Tcath, his person enveloped in the 
saffron robe of gold, holding in his hand the thyrsus, 
wearing the buskins, and riding in the Bacchie 

LXXXIII. In the midst of these preparations for 
war Plancus went over to Caesar, not through any 
comiction that he was choosing the right, nor from 
any love of the repubhc or of Caesar, for he was 



morbo proditor, cum fuisset humillimus adsentator 
reginae et infra servos cliens, cum Antonii librarius, 
cum obscenissimarum rerum et auctor et minister, 

2 cum in omnia et omnibus venalis, cum caeruleatus 
et nudus caputque redimitus arundine et caudam 
trahens, genibus innixus Glaucum saltasset in con- 
vivio, refrigeratus ab Antonio ob manifestarimi 
rapinarum indicia transfugit ad Caesarem. Et idem 
postea clementiam victoris pro sua virtute inter- 
pretabatur, dictitans id probatum a Caesare, cui 
ille ignoverat ; mox autem hunc avunculum Titius 

3 imitatus est. Haud absurde Coponius, vir e prae- 
toriis gravissimus, P. Silii^ socer, cum recens transfuga 
multa ac nefanda Plancus absenti Antonio in senatu 
obiceret, multa, inquit, mehercules fecit Antonius 
pridie quam tu illum relinqueres. 

1 LXXXIV. Caesare deinde et Messala Corvino con- 
suUbus debellatum apud Actium, ubi longe ante quam 
dimicaretur exploratissima lulianarum partium fuit 
victoria. Vigebat in hac parte miles atque imperator, 
in^ illa marcebant omnia ; hinc remiges^ firmissimi, 
illinc inopia adfectissimi ; navium haec magnitudo 

^ P. Silii Gelenim ; Patersilii A ; pater Silii A. 

* in {before illa) added by Vascosanus. 

* remiges Idpsius ; reges AP. 

" Clients were freemen who were nevertheless dependent 
upon the rich or powerfui. Velleius' point seems to be that 
the only difference between the status of Plancus and that 
of the slave is that Plancus was born free. 

* See note on Chap. LXXIX. 

« 31 B.C. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxiii. 1— Ixxxiv. 1 

always hostile to both, but because treachery was a 
disease with him. He had been the most grovelling 
flatterer of the queen, a client " with less self-respect 
than a slave ; he had also been secretary to Antony 
and was the author or the abettor of his \-ilest acts ; 
for money he was ready to do all things for all men ; 
and at a banquet he had played the role of Glaucus 
the Nereid, performing a dance in which his naked 
body was painted blue, his head encircled with reeds, 
at the same time wearing a fish's tail and crawling 
upon his knees. Now, inasmuch as he had been 
coldly treated by Antony because of unmistakable 
evidence of his venal rapacity, he deserted to Caesar. 
Afterwards he even went so far as to interpret the 
victor's clemency as a proof of his ovra merit, claim- 
ing that Caesar had approved that which he had 
merely pardoned. It was the example of this man, 
his uncle, that Titius soon afterwards foUowed.* 
The retort of Coponius, who was the father-in-law of 
PubUus Silius and a dignified praetorian, was not 
so far from the mark when he said, as Plancus in 
the senate fresh from his desertion was heaping 
upon the absent Antony many unspeakable charges, 
" By Hercules, Antony must have done a great 
many things before you left him." 

LXXXIW Then, in the consulship of Caesar and 
Messala Corvinus," the decisive battle took place 
at Actium. The victory of the Caesarian party was 
a certainty long before the battle. On the one side 
commander and soldiers aUke were fuU of ardour, 
on the other was general dejection ; on the one 
side the rowers were strong and sturdy, on the othe • 
weakened by privations ; on the one side ships of 
moderate size, not too large for speed, on the other 




modica nec celeritati adversa, illa specie^ terribilior ; 
hinc ad Antonium nemo, illinc ad Caesarem cotidie 
2 aliquis^ transfugiebat ; rex^ Amyntas meliora et 
utiliora secutus ; nam Dellius* exempli sui tenax 
ut a^ Dolabella ad Cassium, a Cassio ad Antonium, 
ita ab Antonio transiit® ad Caesarem ; virque cla- 
rissimus Cn. Domitius, qui solus Antonianarum 
partium numquam reginam nisi nomine salutavit, 
maximo et praecipiti periculo transmisit ad Caesarem. 
Denique in ore atque oculis Antonianae classis per 
M. Agrippam Leucas expugnata, Patrae captae, 
Corinthus occupata, bis ante ultimum discrimen 
classis hostium superata. 

1 LXXXV. Advenit deinde maximi discriminis dies, 
quo Caesar Antoniusque productis classibus pro 
salute alter, in ruinam alter terrarum orbis dimi- 

2 cavere. Dextrum navium luHanarum comu M. 
Lurio commissum, laevum Arruntio, Agrippae omne 
classici certaminis arbitrium ; Caesar ei parti des- 
tinatus, in quam a fortuna vocaretur, ubique aderat. 
Classis Antonii regimen PubUcolae Sosioque commis- 
sum. At in terra locatum exercitum Taurus Caesaris, 

3 Antonii regebat Canidius. Ubi initum certamen est, 
omnia in altera parte fuere, dux, remiges, mihtes, 
in altera nihil praeter milites. Prima occupat fugam 
Cleopatra. Antonius fugientis reginae quam pug- 

^ specie Gdenius; specie et ^P. 

* aliquis Ileinsim i aliquid^Z?; aliqui transfugiebant P. 

* The clause rex . . . transmisit ad Caesarera found in 
AP after superata, at the end oj the faragraph, was trans- 
posed to its present position hy Haase. 

* Dellius Kritz ; de illius AP. 

' exempli sui tenax ut a Lipsius ; exemplis uitae naxuta 

* ad Cassium . . . transiit supplied by Ruhnken. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxiv. 1— Ixxxv. 3 

vessels of a size that made them more formidable 
in appearance only ; no one was deserting from 
Caesar to Antony, while from Antony to Caesar 
someone or other was deserting daily ; and King 
Amyntas had embraced the better and more 
advantageous side. As for Dellius, consistent to 
his habit, he now went over from Antony to Caesar 
as he had deserted from Dolabella to Cassius and 
from Cassius to Antony. The illustrious Gnaeus 
Domitius, who was the only one of the party of 
Antony who refused to salute the queen except by 
name, went over to Caesar at great and imminent 
risk to himself. Finally, before the eyes of Antony 
and his fleet, Marcus Agrippa had stormed Leucas, 
had captured Patrae, had seized Corinth, and before 
the final conflict had twice defeated the fleet of the 

LXXXV. Then came the day of the great conflict, 
on which Caesar and Antony led out their fleets and 
fought, the one for the safety, the other for the ruin, 
of the world. The command of the right wing of 
Caesar's fleet was entrusted to Marcus Lurius, of 
the left to Arruntius, while Agrippa had full charge 
of the entire conflict at sea. Caesar, reser\-ing 
himself for that part of the battle to which fortune 
might summon him, was present everywhere. The 
command of Antony's fleet was entrusted to Publicola 
and Sosius. On the land, moreover, the army of 
Caesar was commanded by Taurus, that of Antony 
by Canidius. When the conflict began, on the 
one side was everj-thing — commander, rowers, and 
soldiers ; on the other, soldiers alone. Cleopatra 
took the initiative in the flight ; Antony chose 
to be the companion of the fleeing queen rather 



nantis militis sui comes esse maluit, et imperator, 
qui in desertores saevire debuerat, desertor exer- 
citus sui factus est. Illis etiam detracto^ capite in 

4 longum fortissime pugnandi duravit constantia et 
desperata victoria in mortem dimicabatur. Caesar, 
quos ferro poterat interimere, verbis mulcere cupiens 
clamitansque et ostendens fugisse Antonium, quae- 

5 rebat, pro quo et cum quo pugnarent. At illi cum 
diu pro absente dimicassent duce, aegre summissis 
armis cessere victoriam, citiusque vitam veniamque 
Caesar promisit, quam illis ut eam precarentur per- 
suasum est ; fuitque in confesso milites optimi 
imperatoris, imperatorem fugacissimi militis func- 

6 tum officio, ut dubites, suone- an Cleopatrae arbitrio 
victoriam temperaturus fuerit, qui ad eius arbitrium 
direxerit^ fugam. Idem locatus in terra fecit exer- 
citus, cum se Canidius praecipiti fuga rapuisset ad 

1 LXXXVI. Quid ille dies terrarum orbi praestiterit, 
ex quo in quem statum pervenerit fortuna publica, 
quis in hoc transcursu tam artati operis exprimere 

2 audeat ? Victoria vero fuit clementissima, nec quis- 
quam interemptus est, paucissimi summoti,^ qui 
ne deprecari quidem pro se sustinerent.^ Ex qua 
lenitate ducis colligi potuit, quem aut initio trium- 
viratus sui aut in campis Philippiis, si ei® licuisset, 

^ detracto Vascosanus ; detrectato AP. 
^ ut dubites, suone Burer; videbites ne A; videbit e 
suo P. 

^ direxerit Halm ; direxit AP. 

* paucissimi summoti Baiter ; paucissimi et hi AP. 

^ qui ne deprecari quidem pro se sustinerent Heinsitis ; 
qui deprecari quidem pro se non sustinerent AP. 

• si ei Halm ; sic -4 ; si sic P ; si Burer. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxv. 3— Ixxxvi. 2 

than of his fighting soldiers, and the commander 
whose duty it would have been to deal severely ^^ith 
deserters, now became a deserter from his own army. 
Even without their chief his men long continued to 
fight bravely, and despairing of ^ictory they fought 
to the death. Caesar, desiring to iftin over by words 
those whom he might have slain with the sword, 
kept shouting and pointing out to them that Antony 
had fled, and kept asking them for whom and with 
whom they were fighting. But they, after fighting 
long for their truant commander, reluctantly 
surrendered their arms and yielded the N^ictor}-, 
Caesar ha\ing promised them pardon and their Hves 
before they could bring themselves to sue for them. 
It was e\ident that the soldiers had played the part 
of the good commander while the commander had 
played that of the cowardly soldier, so that one 
might question whether in case of \ictory he would 
have acted according to Cleopatra's will or his own, 
since it was by her will that he had resorted to flight. 
The land army likewise surrendered when Canidius 
had hurried after Antony in precipitate flight. 

LXXX\T. Who is there who, in the compass of 
so brief a work, would attempt to state what 
blessings this day conferred upon the world, or to 
describe the change which took place in the fortunes 
of the state ? Great clemency was shown in the 
^ictory ; no one was put to death, and but few 
banished who could not bring themselves even to 
become suppliants. From this display of mercy on 
the part of the commander it may be inferred how 
moderate a use Caesar would have made of his 
victory, had he been allowed to do so, whether at 
the beginning of his triumvirate or on the plain of 



victoriae suae facturus fuerit modum.^ At Sosium 
L. Arruntii prisca gravitate celeberrimi fides, mox, 
diu cum clementia luctatus^ sua, Caesar servavit 
3 incolumem. Non praetereatur Asinii Pollionis factum 
et dictum memorabile : namque cum se post Brun- 
dusinam pacem continuisset in Italia neque aut 
vidisset umquam reginam aut post enervatum amorc 
eius Antonii animum partibus eius se miscuisset, 
rogante Caesare, ut secum ad bellum proficisceretur 
Actiacum : mea, inquit, in Antonium maiora merita 
sunt, illius in me beneficia notiora ; itaque dis- 
crimini vestro me subtraham et ero praeda victoris. 

1 LXXXVII. Proximo deinde anno persecutus re- 
ginam Antoniumque Alexandream, ultimam bellis 
civilibus imposuit manum. Antonius se ipse non 
segniter interemit, adeo ut multa desidiae crimina 
morte redimeret. At Cleopatra frustratis custodibm- 
inlata aspide in^ morsu et sanie eius* expers mu- 

2 liebris metus spiritum reddidit. Fuitque et fortuna 
et clementia Caesaris dignum, quod nemo ex iis, 
qui contra eum arma tulerant, ab eo iussuve eius 
interemptus est.^ D. Brutum Antonii interemit 
crudelitas. Sextum Pompeium ab eo devictum^ 
idem Antonius, cum dignitatis quoque servandae 

^ modum added by Rhenauus. 

* diu . . . luctatus AP; odium . . . eluctatus Madvig 
and Halm. 

' aspide in B ; aspidera A ; aspide P. 

* et sanie eius Burman ; sanie eius BAP ; eius sane 
Acidalius and Ilalm. 

* est added by Orelli. 

* ab eo devictum Acidalius; ab (ob P) eodem victum 

' 30 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxvi. 2— Ixxxvii. 2 

Philippi. But, in the case of Sosius, it was the 
pledged word of Lucius Arruntius, a man famous 
ibr his old-time dignity, that saved him ; later, 
Caesar preserved him unharmed, but only after 
long resisting his general inchnation to clemency. 
The remarkable conduct of Asinius PolHo should not 
be passed by nor the words which he uttered. For 
although he had remained in Italy after the peace 
of Brundisium, and had never seen the queen nor 
taken any active part in Antony's faction after this 
leader had become demorahzed by his passion for 
her, when Caesar asked him to go with him to 
the war at Actium he rephed : " My services to 
Antony are too great, and his kindness to me 
too well known ; accordingly I shall hold aloof 
from your quarrel and shall be the prize of the 

LXXXVII. The foUowing year Caesar followed 
Cleopatra and Antony to Alexandria and there put 
the finishing touch upon the civil wars. Antony 
promptly ended his hfe," thus by his deatli 
redeeming himself from the many charges of lack 
of manhood. As for Cleopatra, baffling the vigilance 
of her guards she caused an asp to be smuggled 
in to her, and ended her hfe by its venomous 
sting untouched by a woman's fears. It was in 
keeping with Caesar's fortune and his clemency 
that not one of those who had bome arms against 
him was put to death by him, or by his order. It 
was the cruelty of Antony that ended the hfe of 
Decimus Brutus. In the case of Sextus Pompey, 
though Caesar was his conqueror, it was hkewise 
Antony who deprived him of his hfe, even though 
he had given his word that he would not degrade 



3 dedisset fidem, etiam spiritu privavit. Brutus et 
Cassius ante, quam victorum experirentur animum, 
voluntaria morte obierunt. Antonii Cleopatraeque 
quis fuisset exitus narravimus. Canidius timidius 
decessit, quam professioni ei,^ qua semper usus 
erat, congruebat. Ultimus autem ex interfectoribus 
Caesaris Parmensis Cassius morte poenas dedit, ut 
dederat Trebonius primus.^ 

1 LXXXVIIL Dum ultimam bello Actiaco Alexan- 
drinoque Caesar imponit manum, M. Lepidus. iuvenis 
forma quam mente melior, Lepidi eius, qui triumvir 
fuerat rei publicae constituendae, filius, lunia Bruti 
sorore natus, interficiendi, simul in urbem revertisset, 

2 Caesaris consilia inierat. Erat^ tunc urbis custodiis 
praepositus C. Maecenas equestri, sed splendido 
genere natus, vir, ubi res vigiliam exigeret, sane 
exsomnis, providens atque agendi sciens, simul vero 
aliquid ex negotio remitti posset, otio ac mollitiis 
paene ultra feminam fluens, non minus Agrippa 
Caesari carus, sed minus honoratus — quippe vixit 
angusti clavi plene* contentus — , nec minora con- 

3 sequi potuit, sed non tam concupivit. Hic specu- 
latus est per summam quietem ac dissimulationem 
praecipitis consiUa iuvenis et mira celeritate nullaque 

^ ei Cludius ; eius AP. 

* primus aclded hy Aldus, hut hefore Trebonius. 
' erat added hy Madvig. 

* paene A ; peue P ; the most satisfactory emendation is 
that of Salmasius angusticlavio plene contentus. 

" His boasts that he did not fear death. 
* With Antony and Octavi|p. 

« As contrasted with the broad purple band of the 
senatoriai order. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxvii. 3— Ixxxviii. 3 

him from his rank. Brutus and Cassius, without 
waiting to discover the attitude of their conquerors, 
died voluntary deaths. Of the end of Antony and 
Cleopatra we have already told. As for Canidius, 
he showed more fear in the face of death than was 
consistent with his Ufelong utterances.* The last 
of Caesar's assassins to pay the penalty of death 
was Cassius of Parma, as Trebonius had been the 

LXXXVIII. While Caesar was engaged in giving 
the finishing touch to the war at Actium and Alex- 
andria, Marcus Lepidus, a young man whose good 
looks exceeded his prudence — son of the Lepidus who 
had been one of the triumvirs ^ for the re-establish- 
ment of order in the state and of Junia the sister 
of Brutus — had formed plans for the assassination 
of Caesar as soon as he should return to the city. 
The guards of the city were at that time under the 
charge of Gaius Maecenas, of equestrian rank, but 
none the less of illustrious Uneage, a man who was 
UteraUy sleepless when occasion demanded, and 
quick to foresee what was to be done and skilful 
in doing it, but when any relaxation was aUowed 
him from business cares would aUnost outdo a woman 
in giving himself up to indolence and soft luxury. 
He was not less loved by Caesar than Agrippa, 
though he had fewer honours heaped upon him, 
since he Uved thoroughly content with the narrow 
stripe of the equestrian order." He might have 
achieved a position no less high than Agrippa, but 
had not the same ambition for it. Quietly and 
carefuUy conceaUng his activity he unearthed the 
plans of the hot-headed youth, and by crushing 
Lepidus with wonderfiil swiftness and without 



cum perturbatione aut rerum aut hominum oppresso 
Lepido inmane novi ac resurrecturi belli civilis 
restinxit initium. Et ille quidem male consultorum 
poenas exsolvit. Aequetur praedictae iam Antistii' 
Servilia Lepidi uxor, quae vivo igni devorato prae- 
matura morte"^ immortalem nominis sui pensavit 

1 LXXXIX. Caesar autem reversus in Italiam atque 
urbem quo occursu,^ quo favore hominum omnium 
generum,^ aetatium, ordinum exceptus sit, quae 
magnificentia triumphorum eius, quae fuerit mune- 
rum, ne in operis quidem^ iusti materia, nedum huius 
tam recisi digne exprimi potest. Nihil deinde optare 

2 a dis homines, nihil dii hominibus praestare possunt, 
nihil voto concipi, nihil fehcitate consummari, quod 
non Augustus post reditum in urbem rei publicae 
populoque Romano terrarumque orbi repraesen- 

3 taverit. Finita vicesimo anno bella civilia, sepulta 
externa, revocata pax, sopitus ubique armorum 
furor, restituta vis legibus, iudiciis auctoritas, senatui 
maiestas, imperium magistratuum ad pristinum 
redactum modum, tantummodo octo praetoribus 
adlecti duo. Prisca illa et antiqua rei publicae 

4 forma revocata. Rediit cultus agris, sacris honos, 
securitas hominibus, certa cuique rerum suarum 
possessio ; leges emendatae utiliter, latae salubriter ; 

^ Antistii Vossius ; Antistiae AP. 

2 praematiira morte Burer ; praematuram mortem AB. 

' qiio occursu Lipshis ; occursus AP. 

* mvore omnium hominum aetatium AP ; generum 
added hy Halm. 

° ne in operis quidem Gelenitis ; nedum in operis siquidem 

" Chap. XXVI. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxviii. 3— Ixxxix. 4 

causing disturbance to either men or things he 
extinguished the portentous beginnings of a new 
and reviving ci\il war. Lepidus himself paid the 
penalty for his ill-advised plot. Ser\iKa his wife 
must be placed on a parity with the wife of Antistius 
ah*eady mentioned," for by swallowing live coals 
she compensated for her untimely death by the 
lasting memory of her name. 

LXXXIX. As for Caesar's retum to Italy and to 
Rome — the procession which met him, the enthusiasm 
of his reception by men of all classes, ages, and ranks, 
and the magnificence of his triumphs and of the 
spectacles which he gave — all this it would be 
impossible adequately to describe even within the 
compass of a formal history, to say nothing of a 
work so circumscribed as this. There is nothing that 
man can desire from the gods, nothing that the 
gods can grant to a man, nothing that wish can 
conceive or good fortune bring to pass, which 
Augustus on his return to the city did not bestow 
upon the republic, the Roman people, and the world. ^ 
The civil wars were ended after twenty years, ^ 
foreign wars suppressed, peace restored, the frenzy 
of arms everywhere lulled to rest ; validity was 
restored to the laws, authority to the courts, and 
dignity to the senate ; the power of the magistrates 
was reduced to its former limits, with the soie 
exception that two were added to the^eight existing 
praetors. The old traditional form of the repubhc 
was restored. Agriculture returned. to the fieTds, 
respect to feligion, to mankind freedom from 
anxiety, and to each citizen his property rights were 
now assured ;- old laws were usefuUy emended, <^ 
and new laws passed for the general good ; the y 

I 237 


senatus sine asperitate nec sine severitate lectus. 
Principes viri triumphisque et amplissimis honoribus 
functi adhortatu principis ad ornandam urbem inlecti 
sunt. Consulatus tantummodo usque ad undecimum 

5 quin^ continuaret Caesar, cum saepe obnitens repug- 
nasset, impetrare non^ potuit : nam dictaturam quam 
pertinaciter ei deferebat populus, tam constanter 
repulit. Bella sub imperatore gesta pacatusque 

6 victoriis terrarum orbis et tot extra Italiam domique 
opera omne aevi sui spatium impensurum m id 
solum opus scriptorem fatigarent^ : nos memores 
professionis universam imaginem principatus eius 
oculis animisque subiecimus. 

1 XC. Sepultis, ut praediximus, bellis civihbus co- 
alescentibusque rei publicae membris, et coaluere* 
quae tam longa armorum series laceraverat. Dal- 
matia, annos^ viginti et ducentos rebelHs, ad certam 
confessionem pacata est imperii. Alpes feris incul- 
tisque^ nationibus celebres perdomitae. Hispaniae 
nunc ipsius praesentia, nunc Agrippae, quem usque 
in tertium consulatum et mox collegium tribuniciae 
potestatis amicitia principis evexerat, multo varioque 

2 Marte pacatae. In quas provincias cum initio 
Scipione et Sempronio Longo consulibus primo anno 

^ quin Madvig ; quem AP. 

^ non added hy Madvig. 

' fatigarent Vossitui ; fatigant AP. 

• et {or etiam) coaluere Bergk ; et coram aliero AP, 

^ annos added by Orelli. 

• incultisque Heinsius ; multisque AP. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. Ixxxix. 4— xc. 2 

revision of the senate, while not too drastic, was -y 
not lacking in severity. The chief men of the state 
who had won trinmphs and had held high office were 
^t j^e invitation oFAugustus induced to adom the 
city. In the case of the consulship only, Caesar was 
not able to have his way, but was obliged to hold 
that office consecutively until the eleventh time in 
spite_Qf_his frequent efforts to prevent it \ bptthe 
mctatoKhip . which the people persistently oHered 
him, he as stubbomly refused. To tell of the wars 
waged imder his command, of the pacification of the 
world by his ^ictories, of his many works at home 
and outside of Italy would weary a ■m-iter intending 
to devote his whole hfe to this one task. As for 
myself, remembering the proposed scope of my work, 
I have confined myself to setting before the eyes 
and minds of my readers a general pictiire of his 

XC. When the civil wars had been extinguished, 
as we have already told, and the rent limbs of the '_. ^ 
state itself began to heal, the pro\-inces, also, . 
tom asunder by the long series of wars began tof 
knit together. Dalmatia, in rebellion for one=- 
hundred and twenty years, was pacified to the 
extent of definitely recognizing the sovereignty of 
Rome. The Alps, filled with wild and barbarous 
tribes, were subdued. The pro\inces of Spain were 
pacified after heavy campaigns conducted with 
varied success now by Caesar in person, now by 
Agrippa, whom the friendship of the emperor had 
raised to a third consulship and soon after wards t o 
a sharejn the e mperor^s Trlbunician p ower. Roman 
iSmies nad been sent into these provinces for the 
first time in the consulship of Scipio and Sempronius 



secundi belli^ Punici abhinc annos quinquaginta et 
ducentos Romani exercitus missi essent duce Cn. 
Scipione, Africani patruo, per annos ducentos in iis 
multo mutuoque ita certatum est sanguine, ut 
amissis populi Romani imperatoribus exercitibusque 
saepe contumelia, nonnumquam etiam periculum 

3 Romano inferretur imperio. Illae enim provinciae 
Scipiones consumpserunt ; illae contumelioso decem^ 
annorum bello sub duce Viriatho maiores nostros 
exercuerunt ; illae terrore Numantini belli populum 
Romanum concusserunt ; in illis turpe Q. Pompei 
foedus turpiusque Mancini senatus cum ignominia 
dediti imperatoris rescidit ; illa tot consulares, tot 
praetorios absumpsit duces, patrumque aetate in 
tantum Sertorium armis extuKt, ut per quinquennium 
diiudicari non potuerit, Hispanis Romanisne in armis 
plus esset roboris et uter populus alteri pariturus 

4 foret. Has igitur provincias tam difFusas, tam fre- 
quentis, tam feras ad eam pacem abhinc annos ferme 
quinquaginta perduxit Caesar Augustus, ut quae 
maximis bellis numquam vacaverant, eae sub C. 
Antistio ac deinde P. Silio legato ceterisque postea 
etiam latrociniis vacarent. 

1 XCI. Dum pacatur occidens, ab oriente ac rege 
Parthorum signa Romana, quae Crasso oppresso^ 

^ belli added hy Ileivsius. 

2 XLIpsius;'XXAP. 

* oppresso Gelenius ; presso P ; praesso A. 

' 218 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xc. 2— xci. 1 

Longus,*» in the first year of the Second Punic war, 
two hundred and fifty years ago, under the command 
of Gnaeus Scipio, the uncle of Africanus. For a period 
of tvvo hundred years the struggle was kept up with 
so much bloodshed on both sides that the Roman 
people, by the loss of its commanders and armies, 
often sufFered disgrace, and sometimes its empire 
was really endangered. These, namely, were the 
provinces that brought death to the Scipios ; that 
taxed the endurance of our ancestors in the dis- 
graceful ten years' war under Viriathus ; that shook 
the Roman people with the panic of the Numantine 
war ; here occurred the disgraceful surrender of 
Quintus Pompeius, whose terms the senate disavowed, 
and the more shameful capitulation of Mancinus, 
which was also disavowed, and its maker ignomini- 
ously handed over to the enemy ; it was Spain that 
destroyed so many commanders who were consulars 
or praetorians, and which in the days of our fathers 
raised Sertorius to such a height of power that for a 
period of five years it was not possible to decide 
whether there was greater strength in the arms of 
the Spaniard or the Roman, and which of the two 
peoples was destined to obey the other. These, 
then, were the provinces, so extensive, so populous, 
and so warhke, which Caesar Augustus, about 
fifty years ago, brought to such a condition of 
peace, that whereas they had never before been 
free from serious wars, they were now, under the 
governorship of Gaius Antistius and then of Pubhus 
Sihus and of their successors, exempt even from 

XCI. While the pacification ofthe west was going 
on, in the east the Parthian king restored to 



Orodes, quae Antonio pulso filius eius Phraates 
ceperant, Augusto remissa sunt. Quod cognomen 
illi iure^ Planci sententia consensus universi senatus 

2 populique Romani indidit. Erant tamen qui hunc 
felicissimum statum odissent : quippe L. Murena 
et Fannius Caepio diversis moribus (nam Murena 
sine hoc facinore potuit videri bonus, Caepio et ante 
hoc erat pessimus) cum iniissent occidendi Caesaris 
consilia, oppressi auctoritate publica, quod vi facere 

3 voluerant, iure passi sunt. Neque multo post Rufus 
Egnatius, per omnia gladiatori quam senatori pro- 
pior, collecto in aedilitate favore populi, quem extin- 
guendis pi-ivata familia incendiis in dies auxerat, 
in tantum quidem, ut ei praeturam continuaret, mox 
etiam consulatum petere ausus, cum esset omni 
flagitiorum scelerumque conscientia mersus nec 
mehor illi res familiaris quam mens foret, adgregatis 
simillimis sibi interimere Caesarem statuit, ut quo 
salvo salvus esse non poterat, eo sublato moreretur. 

4 Quippe ita se mores habent, ut^ publica quisque ruina 
malit occidere quam sua proteri et ^ idem passurus 

^ iure Orelli ; viro AP. 
* ut added by Burer. 
* et om. A. 

« Referred to in Chap. XLVI. 
» 27 B.c. « 23 B.c. ' 19 B.c. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xci. 1-4 

AugustTis the Roman standards which Orodes had 
taken at the time of Crassus' disaster," and those 
which his son Phraates had captured on the defeat 
of Antony. This title of Augustus was deservedly 
given him * on the motion of Plancus ^vith the 
unanimous acclaim of the entire senate and the 
Roman people. Yet there were those who did not 
hke this prosperous state of afFairs. For example, 
Lucius Nlurena and Fannius Caepio had entered 
into a plot to assassinate Caesar, but were seized by 
state authority and themselves suffered by law what 
they had wished to accomplish by Wolence." They 
were two men quite diverse in character, for Murena, 
apart from this act, might have passed as a man of 
good character, while Caepio, even before this, had 
been of the worst. Shortly afterwards a similar 
attempt was made by Rufus Egnatius,'' a man who 
in all respects resembled a gladiator rather than a 
senator. Securing the favour of the people in his 
aedileship by putting out fires with his o^vti gang 
of slaves, he increased it daily to sucli an extent that 
the people gave him the praetorship immediately 
after the aedileship. It was not long before he 
dared to become a candidate for the consulship, but 
he was overwhelmed by the general knowledge of 
his shameless deeds and crimes, and the state of 
his property came to be as desperate as his mind. 
Therefore, collecting about him men of his own kind, 
he resolved to assassinate Caesar in order that he 
might die after getting rid of him whose existence 
was not compatible with his own. Such men are 
so constituted that each would prefer to fall in 
a general cataclysm than to perish alone, and, 
though suffering the same fate in the end, to be 



minus conspici. Neque hic prioribus in occultando 
felicior fuit, abditusque carceri cum consciis facinoris 
mortem dignissimam vita sua obiit. 

1 XCII. Praeclarum excellentis viri factum C. Sentii 
Saturnini circa ea tempora consulis ne fraudetur 
memoria. Aberat^ ordinandis Asiae Orientisque 

2 rebus Caesar, circumferens terrarum orbi praesentia 
sua pacis suae bona. Tum Sentius, forte et solus et 
absente Caesare consul, cum alia prisca severitate, 
summaque constantia, vetere consulum more ac 
severitate, gessisset, protraxisset publicanorum 
fraudes, punisset avaritiam, regessisset in aerarium 
pecunias publicas, tum in comitiis habendis prae- 

3 cipuum egit consulem : nam et quaesturam petentes, 
quos indignos iudicavit, profiteri vetuit, et, cum id 
facturos se perseverarent, consularem, si in campum 

4 descendissent, vindictam minatus est, et Egnatium 
florentem favore publico sperantemque ut praeturam 
aedilitati, ita consulatum praeturae se iuncturum, 
profiteri vetuit, et cum id non obtinuisset, iuravit, 
etiam si factus esset consul sufFragiis populi, tamen 

5 se eimi non renuntiaturum. Quod ego factum cuilibet 
veterum consulum gloriae comparandum reor, nisi 

^ in after aberat deleted by Krause. 

" Consul 19 B.c. 
* Where the elections took place. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xci. 4— xcii. 5 

less conspicuous in dying. He, however, was not 
more successful than the rest in concealing his 
designs, and after being thrust into prison with 
his fellow conspirators, died the death his life f 
richly deserved. — -^ 

XCII. The remarkable conduct of an excellent 
man, Gaius Sentius Saturninus, who was consul about 
this time,'' must not be cheated of its due record. 
Caesar was absent from the city engaged in regulating 
the afFairs of Asia and of the orient, and in bringing 
to the countries of the world by his personal presence 
the blessings of Augustan peace. On this occasion 
Sentius, chancing thus to be sole consul ^\ith Caesar 
absent, adopting the rigorous regime of the older 
consuls, pursued a general policy of old-fashioned 
severity and great firniness, bringing to hght the 
fraudulent tricks of the tax-collectors, punishing 
their avarice, and getting the pubhc moneys into 
the treasury. But it was particularly in holding the 
elections that he played the consul. For in the case 
of candidates for the quaestorship whom he thought 
unworthy, he forbade them to offer their names, 
and when they insisted upon doing so, he threatened 
them ^vith the exercise of his consular authority if 
they came down to the Campus Martius.' Egnatius, 
who was now at the height of popular favour, and was 
expecting to have his consulship follow his praetor- 
ship as his praetorship had foUowed his aedileship, he 
forbade to become a candidate, and faiUng in this, he 
swore that, even if Egnatius were elected consul by 
the votes of the people, he would refuse to report 
his election. This conduct I consider as comparable 
with any of the celebrated acts of the consuls of the 
olden days. But we are naturally more inclined to 



quod naturaliter audita visis laudamus libentius 
et praesentia invidia, praeterita veneratione pro- 
sequimur et his nos obrui, illis instrui credimus. 

1 XCIIL Ante triennium fere, quam Egnatianum 
scelus erumperet, circa Murenae Caepionisque coniu- 
rationis tempus, abhinc annos quinquaginta, M. Mar- 
cellus, sororis Augusti Octaviae fihus, quem homines 
ita, si quid accidisset Caesari, successorem potentiae 
eius arbitrabantur futurum, ut tamen id per M. 
Agrippam securo ei posse contingere non existi- 
marent, magnificentissimo munere aedilitatis edito 
decessit admodum iuvenis, sane, ut aiunt, ingenua- 
rum virtutum laetusque animi et ingenii fortunae- 

2 que, in quam alebatur, capax. Post cuius obitum 
Agrippa, qui sub specie ministeriorum principalium 
profectus in Asiam, ut fama loquitur, ob tacitas cum 
Marcello ofFensiones praesenti se subduxerat tempori, 
reversus inde filiam Caesaris luliam, quam in matri- 
monio Marcellus habuerat, duxit uxorem, feminam 
neque sibi neque rei pubUcae fehcis uteri. 

1 XCIV. Hoc tractu temporum Ti. Claudius Nero, 
quo trimo,^ ut praediximus, Livia, Drusi Claudiani 

* trimo Aldtis ; primo AP. 

' 23 B.c. 

* Daughter of Augustus and his first wife Scribonia. 

" The children of Julia and Agrippa were : Juha, who 
became the wife of Aemihus Paullus, banished by Augustus, 
her grandfather, to the island of Tremerus for adulterous 
intercourse with C. Silanus ; Agrippina, the wife of 
Germanicus, banished by Tiberius to the island of Panda- 
teria ; Gaius and Lucius, adopted by Augustus, with the 
intention that they should succeed him (their untimely 
deaths are narrated in Chap. CII.) ; and Agrippa Postumus, 
adopted by Augustus in a.d. 4, but later banished by him to 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xcu. 5— xciv. 1 

praise what we have heard than what has occurred 
before oixr eyes ; we regard the present with envy, 
the past >\ith veneration, and believe that we are 
echpsed by the former, but derive instruction from 
the latter. 

XCIII. Some three years before the plot of 
Egnatius was exposed, about the time of the con- 
spiracy of Murena and Caepio, fifty years from the 
present date, Marcus Marcellus died," the son of 
Octavia, sister of Augustus, after giving a magnificent 
spectacle to commemorate his aedileship and while 
still quite a youth. People thought that, if anything 
should happen to Caesar, Marcellus would be his 
successor in power, at the same time believing, 
however, that this would not fall to his lot without 
opposition from Marcus Agrippa. He was, we are 
told, a young man of noble qualities, cheerful in 
mind and disposition, and equal to the station for 
which he was being reared. After his death Agrippa, 
who had set out for Asia on the pretext of com- 
missions from the emperor, but who, according to 
current gossip, had withdrawn, for the time being, 
on account of his secret animosity for Marcellus, now 
returned from Asia and married Julia the daughter 
of Caesar,^ who had been the wife of Marcellus, a 
woman whose many children '^ were to be blessings 
neither to herself nor to the state. 

XCIV. At this period Tiberius Claudius Nero, in 
his nineteenth year, began his pubUc life as quaestor. 
I have already told how, when he was three years of 
age, his mother Li^ia, the daughter of Drusus 
Claudianus, had become the wife of Caesar, her 

the island of Planasia where he was murdered by a centurion 
on the succession of Tiberius. 



filia, despondente^ Ti. Nerone, cui ante nupta fuerat, 

2 Caesari nupserat, innutritus caelestium praeceptorum 
disciplinis, iuvenis genere, forma, celsitudine cor- 
poris, optimis studiis maximoque ingenio instructis- 
siraus, qui protinus quantus est, sperari potuerat 

3 visuque praetulerat principem, quaestor undevice- 
simum annum agens capessere coepit rem publicam 
maximamque difficultatem annonae ac rei frumen- 
tariae inopiam ita Ostiae atque- in urbe mandatu 
vitrici moderatus est, ut per id, quod agebat, quantus 

4 evasurus esset, eluceret. Nec multo post missus ab 
eodem vitrico cum exercitu ad visendas ordinandas- 
que, quae sub Oriente sunt, provincias, praecipuis 
omnium virtutum experimentis in eo tractu^ editis, 
cum legionibus ingressus Armeniam, redacta ea in 
potestatem populi Romani regnum eius Artavasdi 
dedit. Quin'* rex quoque Parthorum tanti nominis 
fama territus liberos suos ad Caesarem misit obsides. 

1 XCV. Reversum inde Neronem Caesar haud medio- 
cris belli mole^ experiri statuit, adiutore operis dato 
fratre ipsius Druso Claudio, quem intra Caesaris 
penates enixa erat Livia. Quippe uterque e diversis^ 

2 partibus Raetos Vindelicosque adgressi, multis urbium 
et castellorum oppugnationibus nec non derecta 
quoque acie feliciter functi gentes locis tutissimas, 

^ despondente Gelenius ; respondente AP. 

' ostiae atque lihenamis ; ostia eratque AP, 

** tractu Gelenius ; tractatu AP. 

* quin Ruhnken ; cuius AP. 

■ mole Heinsius ; molera P ; morem A. 

® e diversis Stanger ; divisis AP. 

• See Chap. LXXI. 19. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xciv. 1— xcv. 2 

former husband, Tiberius Nero, himself giving her 
in marriage to him.'» Nurtured by the teaching of 
eminent praeceptors, a youth equipped in the 
highest degree ^^ith the advantages of birth, personal 
beauty, commanding presence, an excellent educa- 
tion combined M-ith native talents, Tiberius gave 
early promise of becoming the great man he now 
is, and already by his look revealed the prince. 
Now, acting on the orders of his stepfather, he so 
skilfully regulated the difficulties of the grain supply 
and relieved the scarcity of com at Ostia and in the 
city that it was apparent from his execution of this 
commission how great he was destined to become. 
Shortly afterwards he was sent by his stepfather 
with an army to visit the eastern provinces and 
restore them to order, and in that part of the world 
gave splendid illustration of all his strong qualities. 
Entering Armenia with his legions, he brought it 
once more under the sovereignty of the Roman 
people, and gave the kingship to Artavasdes. Even 
the king of the Parthians, awed by the reputation 
of so great a name, sent his own children as hostages 
to Caesar. 

XCV. On Nero's retmn Caesar resolved to test 
his powers in a war of no slight magnitude. In this 
work he gave him as a collaborator his o^^ti brother 
Drusus Claudius, to whom Livia gave birth when 
already in the house of Caesar. The two brothers 
attacked the Raeti and Vindehci from different 
directions, and after storming many towns and 
strongholds, as well as engaging successfully in 
pitched battles, with more danger than real loss to 
the Roman army, though with much bloodshed on 
the part of the enemy, they thoroughly subdued 



aditu difficillimas, numero frequentes, feritate truces 
maiore cum periculo quam damno Romani exercitus 
plurimo cum earum sanguine perdomuerunt. 
3 Ante quae tempora censura Planci et Pauli acta 
inter discordiam neque ipsis honori neque rei pub- 
licae usui fuerat,^ cum alteri vis censoria, alteri vita 
deesset, Paulus vix posset implere censorem, Plancus 
timere deberet, nec quidquam obiicere posset adule- 
scentibus aut obiicientes audire, quod non agnosceret 

1 XCVL Mors deinde Agrippae, qui novitatem suam 
multis rebus nobilitaveret atque in hoc perduxerat, 
ut et Neronis esset socer, cuiusque Uberos nepotes 
suos divus Augustus praepositis Gai ac Lucii nomini- 
bus adoptaverat, admovit propius Neronem Caesari : 
quippe filia lulia- eius, quae fuerat Agrippae nupta, 
Neroni nupsit. 

2 Subinde bellum Pannonicum, quod inchoatum ab^ 
Agrippa, Marco Vinicio, avo tuo consule,* magnum 
atroxque et perquam vicinum imminebat Italiae, per 
Neronem gestum est. Gentes Pannoniorum Delma- 
tarumque nationes situmque regionum ac flumi- 

3 num numerumque et modum virium excelsissimasque 

et multiplices eo bello victorias tanti imperatoris 

^ f uerat Orelli ; foret AP. 
^ lulia filia Ilaase. 

* ab added by Lipsius. 

* consule Lipsius ; COS. A ; consulari Kritz foUowed hy 

« 15 B.C. » 12 B.C. 

" Tiberius had married Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa 
and Pomponia. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xcv. 2— xcvi. 3 

these races," protected as they were by the nature 
of the country, difficult of access, strong in numbers, 
and fiercely warhke. 

Before this had occurred the censorship of Plancus 
and Paulus, which, exercised as it was ■with mutual 
discord, was httle credit to themselves or httle 
benefit to the state, for the one lacked the force, 
the other the character, in keeping with the office ; 
Pauluswas scarcely capable of fillingthe censor's office, 
while Plancus had only too much reason to fear it, 
nor was there any charge which he could make against 
yoimg men, or hear others make, of which he, old 
though he was, could not recognize himself as guilty. • 

XCVI. Then occurred the death of Agrippa.* 
Though a " new man " he had by his many achieve- 
ments brought distinction upon his obscure birth, 
even to the extent of becoming the father-in-law "^ 
of Nero ** ; and his sons, the grandsons of the emperor, 
had been adopted by Augustus under the names of 
Gaius and Lucius. His death brought Nero closer 
to Caesar, since his daughter JuUa, who had been 
the wife of Agrippa, now married Nero. 

Shortly after, the Pannonian war, which had been 
begun by Agrippa in the consulate of your grand- 
father, Marcus \'inicius, was conducted by Nero, a 
war which was important and formidable enough, 
and on account of its proximity a menace to Italy. 
In another place I shall describe the tribes of the 
Pannonians and the races of Dahnatians, the situa- 
tion of their country and its rivers, the number and 
extent of their forces, and the many glorious 
victories won in the course of this war by this great 

' Nero is throughout these chapters the later emperor 



alio loco explicabimus : hoc opus servet formam 
suam. Huius victoriae compos Nero ovans trium- 

1 XCVII. Sed dum in hac parte imperii omnia 
geruntur prosperrime, accepta in Germania clades 
sub legato M. Lollio, homine in omnia pecuniae quam 
recte faciendi cupidiore et inter summam vitiorum 
dissimulationem vitiosissimo, amissaque legionis quin- 
tae aquila vocavit ab urbe in Gallias Caesarem. 

2 Cura deinde atque onus Germanici belli delegata 
Druso Claudio, fratri Neronis, adulescenti tot tanta- 
rumque virtutum, quot et quantas natura mortalis 
recipit vel industria perficit.^ Cuius ingenium utrum 
bellicis magis operibus an civilibus sufFecerit artibus, 
in incerto est : morum certe dulcedo ac suavitas et 

3 adversus amicos aequa ac par sui aestimatio inimita- 
biUs fuisse dicitur ; nam pulchritudo corporis proxima 
fraternae fuit. Sed illum magna ex parte domitorem 
Germaniae, plurimo eius gentis variis in locis profuso 
sanguine, fatorum iniquitas consulem, agentem annum 

4 tricesimum, rapuit. Moles deinde eius belli translata 
in Neronem est : quod is sua et virtute et fortuna 
administravit peragratusque victor omnis partis 
Germaniae sine ullo detrimento commissi exercitus, 
quod praecipue huic duci semper curae fuit, sic 
perdomuit eam, ut in formam paene stipendiariae 

^ perficit Lipsitis ; percipit AP. 

" An ovation was a lesser triumph. This distinction 
between ovation and triumph is given by Gell. v. 6. 

* 12-9 B.c. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xc\a. 3— xcvii. 4 

commander ; my present work must keep to its 
design. After achieving this victory Nero cele- 
brated an ovation." 

XCVII. But while everything was being success- 
fully managed in this quarter of the empire, a 
disaster received in Germany under Marcus LolUus 
the legate — he was a man who was ever more eager 
for money than for honest action, and of ^'icious 
habits in spite of his excessive efforts at conceal- 
ment — and the loss of the eagle of the fifth legion, 
summoned Caesar from the city to the pro\-inces 
of Gaul. The burden of responsibiHty for this war* 
was then entrusted to Drusus Claudius, the brother 
of Nero, a young man endowed ^^-ith as many great 
quahties as men's nature is capable of receiving or 
application developing. It would be hard to say 
whether his talents were the better adapted to a 
military career or the duties of civil Hfe ; at any 
rate, the charm and the sweetness of his character 
are said to have been inimitable, and also his modest 
attitude of equality towards his friends. As for his 
personal beauty, it was second only to that of his 
brother. But, after accompUshing to a great extent 
the subjection of Germany, in which much blood 
of that people was shed on various battle-fields, an 
unkind fate can-ied him ofF during his consulship, 
in his thirtieth year. The burdcn of responsibiUty 
for this war was then transferred to Nero. He 
carried it on with his customary valour and good 
fortune, and after traversing every part of Germany 
in a victorious campaign, ^Aithout any loss of the 
army entrusted to him — for he made this one of 
his chief concems — he so subdued the country 
as to reduce it almost to the status of a tributary 



redigeret provinciae. Tum alter triumphus cum 
altero consulatu ei oblatus est. 

1 XCVIIL Dum ea, quae diximus,^ in Pannonia Ger- 
maniaque geruntur, atrox in Thracia bellum ortum, 
omnibus eius gentis nationibus in arma accensis, 
L. Pisonis, quem hodieque diligentissimum atque 
eundem lenissimum securitatis urbanae custodem 

2 habemus, virtus compressit (quippe legatus Caesaris 
triennio cum iis bellavit gentesque ferocissimas 
plurimo cum earum excidio nunc acie, nunc ex- 
pugnationibus in pristinum pacis redegit modum) 
eiusque patratione Asiae securitatem, Macedoniae 
pacem reddidit. De quo viro hoc omnibus sentien- 
dum ac praedicandum est, esse mores eius vigore ac 

3 lenitate mixtissimos et vix quemquam reperiri posse, 
qui aut otium vahdius diligat aut facihus sufficiat 
negotio et magis quae agenda sunt curet sine ulla 
ostentatione agendi. 

1 XCIX. Brevi interiecto spatio Ti. Nero duobus 
consulatibus totidemque triumphis actis tribuniciae 
potestatis consortione aequatus Augusto, civium 
post unum, et hoc, quia volebat, eminentissimus, 
ducum maximus, fama fortunaque celeberrimus et 

2 vere alterum rei publicae lumen et caput, mira 
quadam et incredibili atque inenarrabili pietate, 

^ diximus A ; praedixiraus P. 

• 6 B.C. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. xc\ii. 4— xcix. 2 

province. He then received a second triumph, and 
a second consulship. 

XC\TII. While the events of which we have spoken 
were taking place in Pannonia and in Germany, a 
fierce rebelUon arose in Thrace, and all its clans were 
aroused to arms. It was terminated by the valour 
of Lucius Piso, whom we still have -vvith us to-day 
as the most vigilant and at the same time the 
gentlest guardian of the security of the city. As 
Ueutenant of Caesar he fought the Thracians for 
three years, and by a succession of battles and sieges, 
with great loss of hfe to the Thracians, he brought 
these fiercest of races to their former state of peaceful 
subjection. By putting an end to this war he restored 
security to Asia and peace to Macedonia. Of Piso 
all must think and say that his character is an 
excellent blend of firmness and gentleness, and that 
it would be hard to find anyone possessing a stronger 
love of leisure, or, on the other hand, more capable 
of action, and of taking the necessary measures 
without thrusting his acti\itv upon our notice. 

XCIX. Soon afterwards Tiberius Nero, who had 
now held two consulships and celebrated two 
triumphs ; who had been made the equal of 
Augustus by sharing with him the tribunician power ; 
the most eminent of all Roman citizens save one 
(and that because he \\ished it so) ; the greatest of 
generals, attended ahke by fame and fortune ; 
veritably the second luminary and the second head 
of the state — this man, moved by some strangely 
incredible and inexpressible feehng of affection for 
Augustus, sought leave from him who was both 
his father-in-law and stepfather to rest from the 
unbroken succession of his labours." The real 



cuius causae mox detectae sunt, cum Gaius Caesar 
sumpsisset iam vii-ilem togam, Lucius item maturus 
esset viribus,^ ne fulgor suus orientium iuvenum 
obstaret initiis, dissimulata causa consilii sui, com- 
meatum ab socero atque eodem vitrico adquiescendi 

3 a continuatione laborum petiit. Quis fuerit eo tem- 
pore civitatis habitus, qui singulorum animi, quae 
digredientium a tanto viro omnium lacrimae, quam 
paene ei patria manum iniecerit, iusto servemus 

4 operi : illud etiam in hoc transcursu dicendum est, 
ita septem annos Rhodi moratum, ut omnes, qui pro 
consuhbus legatique in transmarinas sunt^ profecti 
provincias, visendi eius gratia Rhodum deverterint^ 
atque eum* convenientes semper privato, si illa 
maiestas privata umquam fuit, fasces suos summise- 
rint fassique sint otium eius honoratius imperio suo. 

1 C. Sensit terrarum orbis digressum a custodia 
Neronem urbis : nam et Parthus desciscens a societate 
Romana adiecit Armeniae manum et Germania 
aversis domitoris sui ocuhs rebellavit. 

2 At in urbe eo ipso anno, quo magnificentissimis^ 

gladiatorii muneris naumachiaeque spectacuhs divus 

Augustus abhinc annos triginta se et Gallo Caninio 

consuhbus, dedicato Martis templo animos oculosque 

popuh Romani repleverat, foeda dictu memoriaque 

^ viribus Bipont. ; viris AP ; curis Heinsius. 
* sunt added by Halm. 
' Rhodum deverterint add. Halm. 
* atque eum Haltn ; ad quem AP. 
■ magnificentissimis Cuperus ; magnificentissimi AP. 

" 2 B.C. 

* The Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. xcix. 2— c. 2 

reasons for this were soon made plain. Inasmuch as 
Gaius Caesar had abeady assumed the toga of 
manhood, and Lucius was reaching maturity, he 
concealed his reason in order that his own glory 
might not stand in the way of the young men at the 
beginning of their careers. I must reserve for mv 
regular history a description of the attitude of the 
state at this juncture, of the feehngs of the individual 
citizens, of the tears of all at taking leave of such a 
man, and how nearly the state came to laying upon 
him its staying hand. Even in this brief epitome I 
ought to say that his stay of seven years in Rhodes 
was such that all who departed for the provinces 
across the sea, whether proconsuls or governors 
appointed by the emperor, went out of their way 
to see him at Rhodes, and on meeting him they 
lowered their fasces to him though he was but a 
private citizen — if such majesty could ever belong 
to a private citizen— thereby confessing that his 
retirement was more worthy of honour than their 
official position. 

C. The whole world felt the departure of Nero from 
his post as protector of the city . The Parthian, break- 
ing away from his alHance mth us, laid hold of 
Armenia, and Germany revolted when the eyes of 
its conqueror were no longer upon it. 

But in the city, in the vers' year in which Augustus, 
then consul Mith Gallus Caninius <* (thirty years ago), 
had sated to repletion the minds and eyes of the 
Roman people wiih the magnificent spectacle of a 
gladiatorial show and a sham naval battle on the 
occasion of the dedication of the temple of Mars.^ 
a calamity broke out in the emperor's own house- 
hold which is shameful to narrate and dreadfuJ to 



3 horrenda in ipsius domo tempestas erupit. Quippe 
filia eius lulia, per omnia tanti parentis ac viri im- 
memor, nihil, quod facere aut pati turpiter posset 
femina, luxuria hbidineve^ infectum rehquit magni- 
tudinemque fortunae suae peccandi licentia metie- 

4 batur, quidquid hberet pro hcito vindicans, Tuni 
lulus^ Antonius, singulare exemplum clementiae 
Caesaris, violator eius domus, ipse sceleris a se 
commissi ultor fuit (quem victo eius patre non tantum 
incolumitate donaverat, sed sacerdotio, praetura, 
consulatu, provinciis honoratum, etiam matrimonio 
sororis suae fihae in artissimam adfinitatem receperat), 

6 Quintiusque Crispinus, singularem nequitiam super- 
cilio truci protegens, et Appius Claudius et Sem- 
pronius Gracchus ac Scipio ahique minoris nominis 
utriusque ordinis viri, quas^ cuiushbet uxore violata 
poenas pependissent,* pependere, cum Caesaris 
fiham et Neronis violassent coniugem. luha rele- 
gata in insulam patriaeque et parentum subducta 
ocuhs, quam tamen comitata mater Scribonia volun- 
taria^ exihi permansit comes. 

1 CI. Breve ab hoc intercesserat spatium, cum C. 
Caesar ante ahis provinciis ad visendum^ obitis in 
Syriam missus, convento prius Ti. Nerone, cui 

1 libidineve Ilalm ; libidine AP. 
■* lulus Schegk; Iiilius AP. * quas Orelli; quasi AP. j 

* pependissent A ; om. P. ■ 

* voluntaria Lipsius ; voluntarii AP. i' 

* ad \isendum Lipsius; ad sidendura jB^ ; ad sedandum^. 

• By committing suicide. 

* Marcella, daughter of Octavia by her first husband, 
C. Marcellus. 

' Pandataria, off the coast of Campania. 
' He means Augustus and Livia. Her own mother was 
of course Scribonia. 


HISTORY OF ROME, 11. c. 3— ci. 1 

recall. For his daughter Julia, utterly regardless 
of her great father and her husband, left untried 
no disgraceful deed untainted vriih either extra- 
vagance or lust of which a 'vvoman could be guilty, 
either as the doer or as the object, and was in the 
habit of measuring the magnitude of her fortune 
ouly in the terms of hcence to sin, setting up 
her own caprice as a law unto itself. lulus 
Antonius, who had been a remarkable example of 
Caesars clemency, only to become the violator of 
his household, avenged •nith his own hand " the 
crime he had committed. After the defeat of Marcus 
Antonius, his father, Augustus had not only granted 
him his hfe, but after honouring him with the priest- 
hood, the praetorship, the consulship, and the 
govemorship of pro\inces, had admitted him to the 
closest ties of relationship through a marriage with 
his sister's daughter.* Quintius Crispinus also, who 
hid his extraordinary depravity behind a stem brow, 
Appius Claudius, Sempronius Gracchus, Scipio, and 
other men of both orders but of less illustrious name, 
suffered the penalty which they would have paid 
had it been the wife of an ordinary citizen they had 
debauched instead of the daughter of Caesar and 
the wife of Nero. JuHa was banished to an island* 
and removed from the eyes of her country and her 
parents,"* though her mother Scribonia accompanied 
her and remained with her as a voluntary companion 
of her exile. 

CI. Shortly after this Gaius Caesar, who had 
previously made a tour of other proWnces, but only 
as a v-isitor, was dispatched to Syria. On his way 
he first paid his respects to Tiberius Nero, whom 



omnem honorem ut superiori habuit, tam varie se 
ibi gessit, ut nec laudaturum magna nec vitupera- 
turum mediocris materia deficiat. Cum rege Par- 
thorum, iuvene excelsissimo, in insula'^ quam amnis 
Euphrates ambiebat, aequato utriusque partis numero 
coiit. Quod spectaculum stantis ex diverso hinc 

2 Romani, ilhnc Parthorum exercitus, cum duo inter 
se eminentissima imperiorum et hominum coirent 
capita, perquam clarum et memorabile sub initia 

3 stipendiorum meorum tribuno mihtum mihi visere 
contigit : quem mihtiae gradum ante sub patre tuo, 
M. Vinici, et P. Silio auspicatus in Thracia Mace- 
doniaque, mox Achaia Asiaque et omnibus ad Orien- 
tem visis provinciis et ore atque utroque maris 
Pontici latere, haud iniucunda tot rerum, locorum, 
gentium, urbium recordatione perfruor. Prior Par- 
thus apud Gaium in nostra ripa, posterior hic apud 
regem in hostih epulatus est. 

1 CII. Quo tempore M. Lolhi, quem veluti modera- 
torem iuventae fiUi sui Augustus esse voluerat, per- 
fida et plena subdoh ac versuti animi consiha, per 
Parthum indicata Caesari, fama vulgavit.^ Cuius 
mors intra paucos dies^ fortuita an voluntaria fuerit 
ignoro. Sed quam hunc decessisse laetati homines, 
tam paulo post obiisse Censorinum in iisdem provin- 
ciis graviter tuht civitas, virum demerendis homi- 

' excelsissirao in insula GeUnius; excelsissimae insulae 

2 Caesari fama vulgavit Lipsius ; Caesaris iam avulgavit 

^ after dies Halm adds secuta. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. ci. 1— cii. 1 

he treated with all honour as his superior. In his 
province he conducted himself mth such versatihty 
as to furnish much material for the panegyrist and 
not a Httle for the critic. On an island in the 
Euphrates, with an equal retinue on each side, 
Gaius had a meeting with the king of the Parthians, a 
young man of distinguished presence. This spectacle 
of the Roman army arrayed on one side, the Parthian 
on the other, while these two eminent leaders not 
only of the empires they represented but also of 
mankind thus met in confereiice — truly a notable 
and a memorable sight — it was my fortunate lot 
to see early in my career as a soldier, when I held 
the rank of tribune. I had already entered upon this 
grade of the service under your father, Marcus 
Vinicius, and Pubhus Silius in Thrace and Macedonia ; 
later I visited Achaia and Asia and all the eastern 
provinces, the outlet of the Black Sea and both its 
eoasts, and it is not without feehngs of pleasure that 
I recall the many events, places, peoples, and cities. 
As for the meeting, first the Parthian diried with 
Gaius upon the Roman bank, and later Gaius supped 
with the king on the soil of the enemy. 

CII. It was at this time that there were revealed 
to Caesar, through the Parthian king, the traitorous 
designs, reveahng a crafty and deceitful mind, of 
Marcus Lolhus, whom Augustus had desired to be 
the adviser of his still youthful son ; and gossip 
spread the report abroad. In regard to his death, 
which occurred ^vithin a few days, I do not know 
whether it was accidental or voluntary. But the 
joy which people felt at this death was equalled 
by the sorrow which the state felt long afterwards 
at the decease in the same province of Censorinus, 



2 nibus genitum. Armeniam deinde Gaius'^ ingressus 
prima parte introitus prospere rem^ gessit ; mox in 
conloquio, cui se temere crediderat, circa Artageram 
graviter a quodam, nomine Adduo, vulneratus, ex 
eo ut corpus minus habile, ita animum minus utilem 

3 rei publicae habere coepit. Nec defuit conversatio 
hominum vitia eius adsentatione alentium (etenim 
semper magnae fortunae comes adest adulatio), per 
quae eo ductus erat, ut in ultimo ac remotissimo 
terrarum orbis angulo consenescere quam Romam 
regredi mallet Diu deinde reluctatus^ invitusque 
revertens in Itahaminurbe Lyciae (Limyra nominant) 
morbo obiit, cum ante annum ferme L.* Caesar 
frater eius Hispanias petens Massiliae decessisset. 

1 CIII. Sed fortuna, quae subduxerat spem magni 
nominis, iam tum rei publicae sua praesidia reddi- 
derat : quippe ante utriusque horum obitum patre 
tuo P. Vinicio consule Ti. Nero reversus Rhodo 
incredibili laetitia patriam repleverat. Non est diu 

2 cunctatus Caesar Augustus ; neque enim quaeren- 
dus erat quem legeret, sed legendus qui eminebat. 

3 Itaque quod post Lucii mortem adhuc Gaio 
vivo facere voluerat atque^ vehementer repugnante 
Nerone erat inhibitus, post utriusque adulescentium 
obitum facere perseveravit, ut et tribuniciae po- 

1 Gaius added by Krause. 

^ rem added hy Heinsius. 

^ diu deinde reluctatus Euhnken; diu de reluctatus A; 
deinde reluctatus P. 

* L. Gelenius ; quinquagesimum AP. 

" atque P ; eoque (vel eo quod) J5 ; quae eo A ; adeoque 

• A.D. 4-. * A.D. 2. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cii. 2— ciii. 3 

a man born to win the affections of men. Then 
Gaius entered Armenia and at first conducted his 
campaign vrith success ; but later, in a parley near 
Artagera, to which he rashly entrusted his person, 
he was seriously wounded by a man named Adduus, 
so that, in consequence, his body became less active, 
and his mind of less service to the state. Nor was 
there lacking the companionship of persons who 
encouraged his defects by flattery — for flattery 
always goes hand in hand ^viih high position — as a 
result of which he -wished to spend his life in a remote 
and distant corner of the world rather than retum 
to Rome. Then, in the act of returning to Italy, 
after long resistance and still against his will, he 
died '• in a city of Lycia which they call Limyra, his 
brother Lucius having died about a year before* at 
Massilia on his way to Spain. 

CIII. But fortune, which had removed the hope 
of the great name of Caesar,' had ah-eady restored 
to the state her real protector ; for thejfituffi-ef 
T iberius Nero from Rhodes in 'the consulship of 
Publjjus ^^^iniciiis, your father, _aDd before the death 
of either of these youths, had filled his country with 
joy. Caesar Augustus did not long hesitate, for he 
had no need to search for one to choose as his 
successor but merely to choose the one who 
towered above the others. Accordingly, what he 
had vvished to do after the death of Lucius but 
while Gaius was still living, and had been prevented 
from doing by the strong opposition of Nero himself, 
he now insisted upon carrying out after the death 
of both young men, namely, to make Nero his 

• i.e. Gaius and Lucius who were grandsons of Augustus. 
Tiberius was merely a step-son. 



testatis consortionem Neroni constitueret, multum 
quidem eo cum domi tum in senatu recusante, et 
eum Aelio Cato C. Sentio consulibus V. Kal. lulias, 
post urbem conditam annis septingentis quinqua- 
ginta quattuor, abhinc annos septem et viginti ad- 
optaret. Laetitiam illius diei concursmnque civitatis 

4 et vota paene inserentium caelo manus spemque 
conceptam perpetuae securitatis aetemitatisque 
Romani imperii vix in illo iusto opere abunde per- 
sequi poterimus, nedum hic implere temptemus, 

5 contenti^ id unum dixisse quam ille omnibus faustus^ 
fuerit. Tum refulsit certa spes liberorum parentibus, 
viris matrimoniorum, dominis patrimonii, omnibus 
hominibus salutis, quietis, pacis, tranquilUtatis, adeo 
ut nec plus sperari potuerit nec spei responderi 

1 CIV. Adoptatus eadem die etiam M. Agrippa, 
quem- post mortem Agrippae lulia enixa erat, sed 
in Neronis adoptione illud adiectum his ipsis Caesaris 

2 verbis : hoc, inquit, rei publicae causa facio. Non 
diu vindicem custodemque imperii sui morata in 
urbe patria protinus in Germaniam misit, ubi ante 
triennium sub M. Vinicio, avo tuo, clarissimo viro, 
immensum exarserat bellum. Erat id^ ab eo qui- 

^ contenti added hy Rhenanus ; contenti simus Burer. 

^ faustus added by Halm. 

^ id Lipsius ; et AP. 

' A.D. 4. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. ciii. a— civ. 2 

associate in the tribunician power, in spite of his 
continued objection both in private and in the 
senate ; and in the consulship of Aelius Catus 
and Gaius Sentius," on the twenty-seventh of June, 
he adopted him, seven hundred and fifty-four years 
after the founding of the city, and twenty-seven 
years ago. The rejoicing of that day, the concourse 
of the citizens, their vows as they stretched their 
hands almost to the very heavens, and the hopes 
which they entertained for the perpetual security 
and the etemal existence of the Roman empire, I 
shall hardly be able to describe to the full even in 
my comprehensive work, much less try to do it 
justice here. I shall simply content myself ^vith 
stating what a day of good omen it was for all. On 
that day there sprang up once more in parents the 
assurance of safety for their children, in husbands 
for the sanctity of marriage, in o^vners for the 
safety of their property, and in all men the assurance 
of safety, order, peace, and tranquillity ; indeed, it 
would have been hard to entertain larger hopes, or 
to have them more happily fulfiUed. 

CIV. On the same day Marcus Agrippa, to whom 
JuUa had given birth after the death of Agrippa, 
was also adopted by Augustus ; but, in the case of 
Nero, an addition was made to the formula of / 
adoption in Caesar's ovm words : " This I do for 
reasons of state." His country did not long detain 
at Rome the champion and the guardian of her 
empire, but forthwith dispatched him to Germany, 
where, three years before, an extensive war had 
broken out in the govemorship of that illustrious 
man, Marcus Vinicius, your grandfather. Vinicius 
had carried on this war with success in some quarters, 



busdam in locis gestum, quibusdam sustentatum 
feliciter, eoque nomine decreta ei cum speciossisima 
inscriptione operum ornamenta triumphalia. 

3 Hoc tempus me, functum ante tribunatu, cas- 
trorum Ti. Caesaris militem fecit : quippe protinus 
ab adoptione missus cum eo praefectus equitum in 
Germaniam, successor officii patris mei, caelestissi- 
morum eius operum per annos continuos novem^ 
praefectus aut legatus spectator, tum^ pro captu 
mediocritatis meae adiutor fui. Neque illi spec- 
taculo, quo fructus sum, simile condicio mortalis 
recipere videtur mihi, cum per celeberrimam ItaHae 
partem tractumque omnem GalHae provinciarum 
veterem imperatorem et ante meritis ac virtutibus^ 
quam nomine Caesarem revisentes sibi quisque quam 

4 illi gratularentur plenius. At vero miUtum conspectu 
eius eUcitae gaudio lacrimae alacritasque et saluta- 
tionis nova quaedam exultatio et contingendi manum 
cupiditas non continentium protinus quin adiicerent, 
" videmus te, imperator ? Salvum recepimus ? " Ac 
deinde " ego tecum, imperator, in Armenia, ego in 
Raetia fui, ego a te in Vindehcis, ego in Pannonia, 
ego in Germania donatus sum " neque verbis exprimi 
et fortasse vix mereri fidem potest. 

> VIIII. P; VIII. ^. 

^ spectator tum Thomas ; spectaturn A ; spectatus P ; 
spectator et Gelenius folloxced hy Ilalm. 
^ virtutibus Lipsiits ; viribus AP. 

" Inasmuch as, under the empire, the emperor was 
technically commander-in-chief, he alone had a legitimate 
claim to a triumph. After 14 b.c. triumphs were rarely con- 
ceded to any but members of the imperial family. But in 
lieu of a triumph the victorious general was given ti tles 
bestowed upon the imperator of republican times, the per- 
mission to wear the triumphal robe and the right to bequeath 
triumphal statues to his descendants. 

HISTQRY OF ROME, II. civ. 2-4 

and in others had made a successful defence, and 
on this account there had been decreed to him the 
ornaments of a triumph " 'with an honorary inscription 
recording his deeds. 

It was at this time that I became a soldier in the 
camp of Tiberius Caesar, after ha\dng previously 
fiUed the duties of the tribunate. For, immediately 
after the adoption of Tiberius, I was sent ^^ith him 
to Germany as prefect of cavahy, succeeding my 
father in that position, and for nine continuous years 
as prefect of cavahy or as commander of a legion I 
"was a spectator of his superhuman achievements, 
and further assisted in them to the extent of my 
modest abihty. I do not think that mortal man 
will be permitted to behold again a sight hke that 
which I enjoyed, when, throughout the most 
populous parts of Italy and the full extent of the 
provinces of Gaul, the people as they beheld once 
more their old commander, who by virtue of his 
ser\"ices had long been a Caesar before he was such 
in name, congratulated themselves in even heartier 
terms than they congratulated him. Indeed, words 
cannot express the feeHngs of the soldiers at their 
meeting, and perhaps my account ■v^-ill scarcely be 
beheved — the tears which sprang to their eyes in 
their joy at the sight of him, their eagerness, their 
strange transports in saluting him, their longing to 
touch his hand, and their inabihty to restrain such 
cries as " Is it really you that we see, commander ? " 
" Have we received you safely back among us ? " "I 
served with you, general, in Armenia ! " " And I 
in Raetia ! " "I received my decoration from you 
in Vindehcia ! " " And I mine in Pannonia ! " " And 
I in Germany ! " 



1 CV. Intrata protinus Germania, subacti Cannine- 
fates, Attuarii, Bructeri, recepti Cherusci (gentis eius 
Arminius^ mox nostra clade nobilis),transitus Visurgis, 
penetrata ulteriora, cum omnem partem asperrimi 
et periculosissimi belli Caesar vindicaret sibi,^ iis, 
quae minoris erant discriminis, Sentium Saturninum, 
qui iam^ legatus patris eius in Germania fuerat, 

2 praefecisset, virum multiplicem virtutibus,* gnavum, 
agilem, providum militariumque officiorum patientem 
ac peritum pariter, sed eundem, ubi negotia fecissent 
locum otio, liberaliter lauteque eo abutentem, ita 
tamen, ut eum splendidum atque hilarem potius 
quam luxuriosum aut desidem diceres. De cuius 
viri claro ingenio celebrique consulatu praediximus. 

3 Anni eius aestiva usque in mensem Decembrem pro- 
ducta inmanis emolumentum fecere victoriae. Pietas 
sua Caesarem paene obstructis^ hieme Alpibus in 
urbem traxit, at tutela^ imperii eum veris initio re- 
duxit in Germaniam, in cuius mediis finibus ad caput 
Lupiae' fluminis hiberna digrediens princeps locaverat . 

1 CVI. Pro dii boni, quanti voluminis opera inse- 
quenti aestate sub duce Tiberio Caesare gessimus ! 
Perlustrata armis tota Germania est, victae gentes 

^ gentis eius Arminius Fr. Jacob; gentis (-tes P) et 
inamninus (inamminus BA) AP. 

2 sibi Cludius ; in AP. 

•' iam Gruner ; tura AP. 

^ multiplicem virtutibus Raphelenffius ; multiplicem in 
vii-tutibus AP. 

^ obstructis Gelenius ; extructis AP. _ 

® at tutela Lipsius ; ad tutelam AP. M 

' Lupiae Lipsiv^ ; luliae AP. ^ 

• A.D. 4. * Bk. II. Chap. XCII. 

" The position of princeps before the verb seeras to justify 
this interpretation in preference to taking it as a substantive. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cv. 1— cvi. 1 

CV. He at once entered Germany." The Cannine- 
fates, the Attuarii, and Bructeri were subdued, the 
Cherusci (Arminius, a member of this race, was soon 
to become famous for the disaster inflicted upon us) 
were again subjugated, the Weser crossed, and the 
regions beyond it penetrated. Caesar claimed for 
himself every part of the war that was difficult or 
dangerous, placing Sentius Saturninus, who had 
already served as legate under his father in Germany, 
in charge of expeditions of a less dangerous character : 
a man many-sided in his \irtues, a man of energy 
of action, and of foresight, alike able to endure the 
duties of a soldier as he was well trained in them, 
but who, Ukewise, when his labours left room for 
leisure, made a hberal and elegant use of it, but wdth 
this reservation, that one would call him sumptuous 
and jovial rather than extravagant or indolent. 
About the distinguished abiUty of this illustrious 
man and his famous consulship I have already 
spoken.'' The prolonging of the campaign of that 
year into the month of December increased the 
benefits derived from the great victory. Caesar 
was drawn to the city by his fihal affection, though 
the Alps were ahnost blocked by ^Wnter^s snows ; 
but the defence of the empire brought him at the 
beginning of spring back to Germany, where he had 
on his departure pitched his winter camp at the 
source of the river Lippe, in the very heart of the 
country, the first " Roman to winter there. 

CVI. Ye Heavens, how large a volume could be 
filled with the tale of our achievements in the 
following summer ^ under the generalship of Tiberius 
Caesar ! AU Germany was traversed by our armies, 

* A.D. 5. 



paene nominibus incognitae, receptae Cauchorum 
nationes : omnis eorum iuventus infinita numero, 
immensa corporibus, situ locorum tutissima, traditis 
armis una cum ducibus suis saepta fulgenti armato- 
que militum nostrorum agmine ante imperatoris 

2 procubuit tribunal. Fracti Langobardi, gens etiam 
Germana feritate ferocior ; denique quod numquam 
antea spe conceptum, nedum opere temptatum erat, 
ad quadringentesimum miliarium a Rheno usque ad 
flumen Albim, qui Semnonum Hermundurorumque 
fines praeterfluit, Romanus cum signis perductus 

3 exercitus. Et eadem^ mira felicitate et cura ducis, 
temporum quoque observantia, classis, quae Oceani 
circumnavigaverat sinus, ab inaudito atque incognito 
ante mari flumine Albi subvecta, cum plurimarum 
gentium victoria parta- cum abundantissima rerum 
omnium copia exercitui Caesarique se iunxit. 

1 CVIL Non tempero mihi quin tantae rerum magni- 
tudini hoc, qualecumque est, inseram. Cum citerio- 
rem ripam praedicti fluminis castris occupassemus 
et ulterior armata hostium virtute^ fulgeret, sub 
omnem motum conatumque* nostrarum navium pro- 
tinus refugientium, unus e barbaris aetate senior, 
corpore excellens, dignitate, quantum ostendebat 
cultus, eminens, cavatum, ut illis mos est, ex materia 

* eadem Kritz ; eodem AP. "^ parta added by Halm. 

3 virtute A ; iuventute P. 

* motum conatumque Ilalm ; motumque BA ; motum P. 

" If he means simply the North Sea, it had been already 
navigated by Drusus but not so far to the eastward. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cvi. 1— cvii. 1 

races were conquered hitherto akaost unknown, even 
by name ; and the tribes of the Cauchi were again 
subjugated. AU the flower of their youth, infinite 
in number though they were, huge of stature and 
protected by the ground they held, surrendered 
their arms, and, flanked by a gleaming line of our 
soldiers, fell ^^ith their generals upon their knees 
before the tribunal of the commander. The power 
of the Langobardi was broken, a race surpassing 
even the Germans in savagery ; and finally — and 
this is something which had never before been 
entertained even as a hope, much less actually 
attempted — a Roman army -«ith its standards was 
led foiu- hundred miles beyond the Rhine as far as 
the river Elbe, which flows past the territories of 
the Semnones and the Hermunduri. And with the 
same wonderful combination of careful planning and 
good fortune on the part of the general, and a close 
watch upon the seasons, the fleet which had skirted 
the >vindings of the sea coast sailed up the Elbe 
from a sea hitherto unheard of and unloiown,'' and 
after pro\ing ^-ictorious over many tribes effected a 
junction with Caesar and the army, bringing with 
it a great abundance of supphes of all kinds. 

CVII. Even in the midst of these great events I 
cannot refrain from inserting this little incident. \Ve 
were encamped on the nearer bank of the aforesaid 
river, while on the farther bank gUttered the arms 
of the enemies' troops, who showed an incUnation 
to flee at every movement and mancEuvre of oiu- 
vessels, when one of the barbarians, advanced in 
years, tall of stature, of high rank, to judge by his 
dress, embarked in a canoe, made as is usual with 



conscendit alveum solusque id navigii genus tem- 
perans ad medium processit fluminis et petiit, liceret 

2 sibi sine periculo in eam, quam armis tenebamus, 
egredi ripam ac videre Caesarem. Data petenti 
facultas. Tum adpulso lintre et diu tacitus contem- 
platus Caesarem, nostra quidem, inquit, furit iuven- 
tus, quae cum vestrum numen absentium colat, prae- 
sentium potius arma metuit quam sequitur fidem. 
Sed ego beneficio ac permissu tuo, Caesar, quos ante 
audiebam, hodie vidi deos, nec feliciorem ullum 
vitae meae aut optavi aut sensi diem. Impetrato- 
que ut manum contingeret, reversus in navicu- 
lam, sine fine respectans Caesarem ripae suorum 
adpulsus est. Victor omnium gentium locorumque, 

3 quos adierat Caesar,^ incolumi inviolatoque et semel 
tantummodo magna cum clade hostium fraude 
eorum temptato exercitu in hiberna legiones re- 
duxit, eadem qua priore anno festinatione urbem 

1 CVIII. Nihil erat iam in Germania, quod vinci 
posset, praeter gentem Marcomannorum, quae Maro- 
boduo duce excita sedibus suis atque in interiora 
refugiens incinctos Hercynia silva^ campos incolebat. 

2 Nulla festinatio huius viri mentionem transgredi 
debet. Maroboduus, genere nobihs, corpore prae- 
valens, animo ferox, natione magis quam ratione 
barbarus, non tumultuarium neque fortuitum neque 

^ cum after Caesar deleted by Herelius. 
^ Hercinia silva Heinsiiis ; Herciniae silvae AP. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. c\-ii. 1— cviii. 2 

them of a hoUowed log, and guiding this strange craft 
he advanced alone to the middle of the stream and 
asked permission to land without harm to himself 
on the bank occupied by our troops, and to see 
Caesar. Permission was granted. Then he beached 
his canoe, and, after gazing upon Caesar for a long 
time in silence, exclaimed : " Our young men are 
insane, for though they worship you as divine when 
absent, when you are present they fear your armies 
instead of trusting to your protection. But I, by 
your kind permission, Caesar, have to-day seen the 
gods of whom I merely used to hear ; and in my 
life have never hoped for or experienced a happier 
day." After asking for and receiWng permission to 
touch Caesar's hand, he again entered his canoe, 
and continued to gaze back upon him until he landed 
upon his own bank. Victorious over all the nations 
and countries which he approached, his army safe 
and unimpaired, ha\ing been attacked but once, 
and that too through deceit on the part of the enemy 
and with great loss on their side, Caesar led his 
legions back to winter quarters, and sought the city 
with the same haste as in the previous year. 

CVTII. Nothing remained to be conquered in 
Germany except the people of the Marcomanni, 
which, leaving its settlements at the summons of 
its leader Maroboduus, had retired into the interior 
and now dwelt in the plains surrounded by the 
Hercynian forest. No considerations of haste should 
lead us to pass over this man Maroboduus without 
mention. A man of noble family, strong in body and 
courageous in mind, a barbarian by birth but not in 
intelhgence, he achieved among his countrymen no 
mere chief 's position gained as the result of internal 



mobilem et ex voluntate parentium constantem inter 
suos occupavit principatum, sed certum imperium 
vimque regiam complexus animo statuit avocata 
procul a Romanis gente sua eo progredi, ubi cum 
propter potentiora arma refugisset, sua faceret 
potentissima. Occupatis igitur, quos^ praediximus, 
locis finitimos omnis aut bello domuit aut condicio- 
nibus iuris sui fecit. 

1 CIX. Corpus suum custodientium^ imperium, per- 
petuis exercitiis paene ad Romanae disciplinae for- 
mam redactum, brevi in eminens et nostro quoque 
imperio timendum perduxit fastigium gerebatque 
se ita adversus Romanos, ut neque bello nos laces- 
seret, et si^ lacesseretur, superesse sibi vim ac 

2 voluntatem resistendi ostenderet.* Legati, quos 
mittebat ad Caesares, interdum ut supplicem com- 
mendabant, interdum ut pro pari loquebantur. Gen- 
tibus hominibusque a nobis desciscentibus erat apud 
eum perfugium, in^ totumque ex male dissimulato 
agebat aemulum ; exercitumque, quem septuaginta 
milium peditum, quattuor equitum fecerat, adsiduis 
adversus finitimos bellis exercendo maiori quam, 

3 quod habebat, operi praeparabat : eratque etiam eo 
timendus, quod cum Germaniam ad laevam et in 
fronte, Pannoniam ad dextram, a tergo sedium suarum 
haberet Noricos, tamquam in omnes semper venturus 

* quos P; quls BA. 

• custodientium Madvig ; custodia tura AP. 

' lacesseret, at si added by Rhenanus. 

* ostenderet added hy Burman. 

* in added hy Acidalius. 

" The region was that of Bohemia. By " in front" he 
means "to the north." The "rear" is to the south, the 
"left" to the west, and the "right" to the east, although 
Pannonia really lay south-east. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. c^iii. 2— cix. 3 

disorders or chance or liable to change and dependent 
upon the caprice of his subjects, but, concei^ing in 
his mind the idea of a definite empire and royal 
powers, he resolved to remove his own race far 
away from the Romans and to migrate to a place 
where, inasmuch as he had fled before the strength 
of more powerful arms, he might make his own all 
powerful. Accordingly, after occupying the region 
we have mentioned, he proceeded to reduce all the 
neighbouring races by war, or to bring them under 
his sovereignty by treaty. 

CIX. The body of guards protecting the kingdom 
of Maroboduus, which by constant drill had been 
brought almost to the Roman standard of discipline, 
soon placed him in a position of power that was 
dreaded even by our empire. His pohcy toward 
Rome was to avoid provoking us by war, but at the 
same time to let us understand that, if he were 
provoked by us he had in reserve the power and the 
wiU to resist. The envoys whom he sent to the 
Caesars sometimes commended him to them as a 
supphant and sometimes spoke as though they 
represented an equal. Races and individuals who 
revolted from us found in him a refuge, and in all 
respects, with but httle concealment, he played the 
part of a rival. His army, which he had brought up 
to the number of seventy thousand foot and four 
thousand horse, he was steadily preparing, by 
exercising it in constant wars against his neighbours, 
for some greater task than that which he had in 
hand. He was also to be feared on this account, that, 
having Germany at the left and in front of his 
settlements, Pannonia on the right, and Noricum in 
the rear " of them, he was dreaded by all as one who 



4 ab omnibus timebatur. Nec securam incrementi sui 
patiebatur esse Italiam, quippe cum a summis Alpium 
iugis, quae finem Italiae terminant, initium eius^ 
finium haud multo plus ducentis milibus passuum 

5 abesset. Hunc virum et hanc regionem proximo 
anno diversis e partibus Ti. Caesar adgredi statuit. 
Sentio Saturnino mandatum, ut per Cattos excisis 
continentibus Hercyniae silvis legiones Boiohaemum 
(id regioni, quam incolebat Maroboduus, nomen est) 
duceret,^ ipse a Carnunto, qui locus Norici regni 
proximus ab hac parte erat, exercitum, qui in 
Illyrico merebat, ducere in Marcomannos orsus est. 

1 CX. Rumpit interdum, interdum^ moratur pro- 
posita hominum fortuna. Praeparaverat iam hiberna 
Caesar ad Danubium admotoque exercitu non plus 
quam quinque dierum iter a primis hostium aberat, 

2 legionesque quas^ Saturninum admovere placuerat, 
paene aequali divisae intervallo ab hoste intra paucos 
dies in praedicto loco cum Caesare se^ iuncturae erant, 
cum universa Pannonia, insolens longae pacis bonis, 
adulta viribus, Delmatia omnibusque tractus eius genti- 
bus in societatem adductis consilii,^ arma corripuit. 

3 Tum necessaria gloriosis praeposita neque tutum 

visum abdito in interiora exercitu vacuam tam 

vicino hosti relinquere Italiam. Gentium nationum- 

^ eius P; cuius BA. 

^ duceret supplied by lApsius. 

* Tlie second interdum added by Heinsius ; iter dum AP. 

* aberat legionesque quas supplied hy Haupt. 

* se added by Kranse. 

* consilii jProA/Jr/j ; constitit ^P. 

" Pannonian War, a.d. 6-9. 


might at any moment descend upon aU. Nor did 
he permit Italy to be free from concern as regards 
his gro\\"ing power, since the summits of the Alps 
which mark her boundary were not more than two 
hundred miles distant from his boundary line. Such 
was the man and such the region that Tiberius Caesar 
resolved to attack from opposite directions in the 
course of the coming year. Sentius Saturninus had 
instructions to lead his legions through the country 
of the Catti into Boiohaemum, for that is the name 
of the region occupied by Maroboduus, cutting a 
passage through the Hercynian forest which bounded 
the region,while from Camuntum, the nearest point of 
the kingdom of Noricum in this direction, he himself 
undertook to lead against the Marcomanni the army 
which was ser\-ing in Illyricum. 

CX. Fortune sometimes breaks off completely, 
sometimes merely delays, the execution of men's 
plans. Caesar had already arranged his \Alnter 
quarters on the Danube, and had brought up his 
army to mthin five days' march of the advanced 
posts of the enemy ; and the legions which he had 
ordered Saturninus to bring up, separated from the 
enemy by an almost equal distance, were on the point 
of effecting a junction wlth Caesar at a predetermined 
rendezvous within a few days, wlien all Pannonia, 
gro\vn arrogant through the blessings of a long peace 
and now at the maturity of her power, suddenly took 
up arms," bringing Dalmatia and all the races of 
that region into her alliance. Thereupon glory was 
sacrificed to necessity ; and it did not seem to 
Tiberius a safe course to keep his army buried in 
the interior of the country and thus leave Italy 
unprotected from an enemy so near at hand. The 



que, quae rebellaverant, omnis numerus amplius 
octingentis milibus explebat ; ducenta fere peditum 
colligebantur armis habilia, equitum novem. Cuius 

4 immensae multitudinis, parentis acerrimis ac peri- 
tissimis ducibus, pars petere Italiam decreverat 
iunctam sibi Nauporti ac Tergestis confinio, pars in 
Macedoniam se effuderat,^ pars suis sedibus prae- 
sidium esse destinaverat. Maxima^ duobus Batoni- 

6 bus^ ac Pinneti ducibus auctoritas erat.* Omnibus 
autem Pannoniis non disciplinae tantummodo, sed 
linguae quoque notitia Romanae, plerisque etiam 
litterarum usus et familiaris animorum^ erat exer- 
citatio. Itaque hercules nulla umquam natio tam 

6 mature consilio belli bellum iunxit ac decreta patravit. 
Oppressi cives Romani, trucidati negotiatores, magnus 
vexillariorum numerus ad internecionem ea in 
regione, quae plurimum ab imperatore aberat, 
caesus, occupata armis Macedonia, omnia et in 
omnibus locis igni ferroque vastata. Quin* etiam 
tantus huius belli metus fuit, ut stabilera illum et 
firmatum' tantorum bellorum experientia Caesaris 
Augusti animum quateret atque terreret. 

1 CXI. Habiti itaque dilectus, revocati undique et 
omnes veterani, viri feminaeque ex censu libertinum 

* se effuderat Ursinus ; effugerat AP. 

2 maxima Ileinsius ; proxima AP. 

• duobus Batonibus AP ; Batoni Halm. 

* in after erat deleted by Heinsius. 

■ animorum AP ; armorum Bothe followed hy Halm, 

^ quin Vascosanus ; quia AP. 
' firmatum Burer ; formatum BA ; fortunatum P, 



HISTORY OF ROME, II. cx. 3— cxi. 1 

fiill number of the races and tribes which had 
rebelled reached a total of more than eight hundred 
thousand. About two hundred thousand infantry 
trained to arms, and nine thousand cavaby were 
being assembled. Of this immense number, which 
acted under the orders of energetic and capable 
generals, one portion had decided to make Italy its 
goal, which was connected with them by the hne of 
Nauportum and Tergeste, a second had abready 
poured into Macedonia, while a third had set itself 
the task of protecting their owti territories. The 
chief authority rested with the two Batones and 
Pinnes as generals. Now all the Pannonians possessed 
not only a knowledge of Roman discipUne but also 
of the Roman tongue, many also had some measure 
of Uterary culture, and the exercise of the inteUect 
was not uncommon among them. And so it came 
to pass, by Hercules, that no nation ever displayed 
such swiftness in foUowing up with war its own 
plans for war, and in putting its resolves into execu- 
tion. Roman citizens were overpowered, traders were 
massacred, a considerable detachment of veterans, 
stationed in the region which was most remote from 
the commander, was exterminated to a man, Mace- 
donia was seized by armed forces, everywhere was 
wholesale devastation by fire and sword. Moreover, 
such a panic did this war inspire that even the 
courage of Caesar Augustus, rendered steady and 
firm by experience in so many wars, was shaken 
with fear. 

CXI. Accordingly levies were held, from every 
quarter aU the veterans were recaUed to the 
standards, men and women were compeUed, in 
proportion to their income, to fumish fireedmen as 



coactae dare militem. Audita in senatu vox prin- 
cipis, decimo die, ni caveretur, posse hostem in urbis 
Romae venire conspectum. Senatorum equitumque 

2 Romanorum exactae ad id bellum operae, pollicitati.^ 
Omnia haec frustra praeparassemus, nisi qui illa rege- 
ret fuisset. Itaque ut praesidium ultimum"'' res pub- 
lica ab Augusto ducem in bellum poposcit Tiberium. 

3 Habuit in hoc quoque bello mediocritas nostra 
speciosi ministerii^ locum. Finita equestri militia 
designatus quaestor necdum senator aequatus sena- 
toribus, etiam designatis tribunis plebei, partem 
exercitus ab urbe traditi ab Augusto perduxi ad 

4 filium eius. In quaestura deinde remissa sorte pro- 
vinciae legatus eiusdem ad eundem missus sum.* 

Quas nos primo anno acies hostium vidimus ! 
Quantis prudentia ducis opportunitatibus furentes^ 
eorum vires universas elusimus,® fudimus^ partibus ! 
Quanto cum temperamento simul civilitatis^ res 
auctoritate imperatoria^ agi vidimus ! Qua prudentia 
hiberna disposita sunt ! Quanto opere inclusus 
custodiis exercitus nostri, ne qua posset erumpere 
inopsque copiarum et intra se furens viribus hostis 
elanguesceret ! 
1 CXII. Fehx eventu, forte conatu prima aestate 

^ Before pollicitati Halm supplies prompte. 

2 ultimum Lipsius ; militum AP. 

8 ministerii Lipsius ; ministri AP. 

* missus sum Halm ; missum A ; missus P. 
' furentes BAP ; fruentes Orelli. 

" elusimus suggested by a reviewer in Bihl. phil. i. 42, 
eius imus 
euasimus A ; evasimus P. "^ fudiraus added hy Haase. 

* civilitatis Madcig after Ruhnken ; utilitatis AP. 

^ imperatoria Madvig ; imperatoris AP. 

" Legatus Atu/usti : as staff officer appointed by Augustus 

and attached to the army of Tlberius. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxi. 1— cxii. 1 

soldiers. Men heard Augustus say in the senate, 
that, unless precautions were taken, the enemy 
might appear in sight of Rome \\"ithin ten days. 
The ser^ices of senators and knights were demanded 
for this war, and promised. AU these oiu" prepara- 
tions would have been vain had we not had the man 
to take command. And so, as a final measure of 
protection, the state demanded from Augustus that 
Tiberius should conduct the war. 

In this war also my modest abiUties had an op- 
portunity for glorious ser\ice. I was now, at the 
end of my service in the cavalr}-, quaestor designate, 
and though not yet a senator I was placed upon a 
parity vrith senators and even tribunes elect, and 
led from the city to Tiberius a portion of the army 
which was entrusted to me by Augustus. Then 
in my quaestorship, giWng up my right to have a 
province allotted me, I was sent to Tiberius as legatus 

What armies of the enemy did we see drawn up 
for battle in that first year ! What opportunities did 
we avail ourselves of through the foresight of the 
general to evade their united forces and rout them 
in separate di\-isions ! With what moderation and 
kindness did we see all the business of warfare 
conducted, though under the authority of a miUtary 
commander ! With what judgement did he place 
our \\-inter camps ! How carefuUy was the enemy 
so blockaded by the outposts of our army that he 
could nowhere break through, and that, through 
lack of suppHes and by disaffection ^Wthin his own 
ranks, he might graduaUy be weakened in strength ! 

CXII. An exploit of Messahnus in the first summer 
of the war, fortunate in its issue as it was bold in 



2 belli Messalini opus mandandum est memoriae. Qui 
vir animo etiam quam gente nobilior dignissimusque,^ 
qui et patrem Corvinum habuisset et cognomen suum 
Cottae fratri relinqueret, praepositus Illyrico subita 
rebellione cum semiplena legione vicesima circum- 
datus hostili exercitu amplius viginti milia^ fudit 
fugavitque et ob id ornamentis triumphaUbus hono- 
ratus est. 

3 Ita placebat barbaris numerus suus, ita fiducia 
virium, ut ubicumque Caesar esset, nihil in se 
reponerent. Pars exercitus eorum, proposita ipsi duci 
et ad arbitrium utilitatemque nostram macerata per- 
ductaque ad exitiabilem famem, neque instantem 
sustinere neque cum^ facientibus copiam pugnandi 
derigentibusque aciem ausa congredi occupato monte 

4 Claudio munitione se defendit. At ea pars, quae 
obviam se effuderat exercitui, quem A. Caecina et 
Silvanus Plautius consulares ex transmarinis adduce- 
bant provinciis, circumfusa quinque legionibus nostris 
auxiliaribusque et equitatui regio (quippe magnam 
Thracum manum iunctus praedictis ducibus Rhoe- 
metalces,^ Thraciae rex, in adiutorium eius belli 
secum trahebat) paene exitiabilem omnibus cladem 

6 intulit : fusa^ regiorum equestris acies, fugatae alae, 

^ que added by Heinsitts. 

' hostiura after railia deleted by Orelli. 

* cum Ruhnken ; ut AP, 

* Rhoeraetalces Rhenanus ; Rhomo et Alces BAP. 

* fusa Voss. ; fuga BA ; fugata P. 

" A mountain range in Pannonia near the modern 
Warasdin on the river Drave. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxii. 2-5 

undertaking, must here be recorded for posterity. 
This man, who was even more noble in heart than in 
birth, and thoroughly worthy of ha\ang had Corvinus 
as his father, and of leaving his cognomen to 
his brother Cotta, was in command in IUyricum, 
and, at the sudden outbreak of the rebellion, finding 
himself surrounded by the army of the enemy and 
supported by only the twentieth legion, and that 
at but half its normal strength, he routed and put 
to flight more than twenty thousand, and for this 
was honoured with the omaments of a triumph. 

The barbarians were so httle satisfied ^^ith their 
numbers and had so httle confidence in their own 
strength that they had no faith in themselves where 
Caesar was. The part of their army which faced 
the commander himseh", worn down according as it 
suited our pleasure or advantage, and reduced to 
the verge of destruction by famine, not daring to 
withstand him when he took the offensive, nor to 
meet our men when they gave them an opportunity 
for fighting and drew up their hne of battle, 
occupied the Claudian mountain " and defended itself 
behind fortifications. But the division of their forces 
which had swarmed out to meet the army which 
the consulars Aulus Caecina and Silvanus Plautius 
were bringing up from the provinces across the sea, 
surrounded five of our legions, together with the 
troops of our alUes and the cavalry of the king (for 
Rhoemetalces, king of Thrace, in conjunction with 
the aforesaid generals was bringing with him a 
large body of Thracians as reinforcements for the 
war), and inflicted a disaster that came near being 
fatal to all. The horsemen of the king were routed, 
the cavah-y of the alhes put to flight, the cohorts 



conversae cohortes sunt, apud signa quoque legionum 
trepidatum. Sed Romani virtus militis plus eo 
tempore vindicavit gloriae quam ducibus reliquit, 
qui multum a more imperatoris sui discrepantes ante 
in hostem inciderunt, quam per exploratores, ubi 
hostis esset, cognoscerent. lam igitur in dubiis 

6 rebus semet ipsae legiones adhortatae, iugulatis ab 
hoste quibusdam tribunis militum, interempto prae- 
fecto castrorum praefectisque cohortium, non incru- 
entis centurionibus, e quibus^ etiam primi ordinis^ 
cecidere, invasere hostes nec sustinuisse contenti 
perrupta eorum acie ex insperato victoriam vindi- 

7 Hoc fere tempore Agrippa, qui eodem die quo 
Tiberius adoptatus ab avo suo naturali erat et iam 
ante biennium, qualis esset, apparere coeperat, mira 
pravitate animi atque ingenii in praecipitia con- 
versus patris atque eiusdem avi sui animum alienavit 
sibi, moxque crescentibus in dies vitiis dignum furore 
suo habuit exitum. 

1 CXIII. Accipe nunc, M. Vinici, tantum in bello 
ducem, quantum in pace vides principem. lunctis 
exercitibus, quique sub Caesare fuerant quique ad 
eum venerant, contractisque in una castra decem 
legionibus, septuaginta amplius cohortibus, decem 

^ e quihns Boecler ; quiP: quibus B^. 
^ ordinis Gelenius ; ordines AP. 

" i.e. Augustus who was his grandfather and adopted 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxii. 5— cxiii. 1 

tumed their backs to the enemy, and the panic 
extended even to the standards of the legion. But 
in this crisis the valour of the Roman soldier claimed 
for itself a greater share of glory than it left to the 
generals, who, departing far from the pohcy of their 
commander, had allowed themselves to come into 
contact with the enemy before they had leamed 
through their scouts where the enemy was. At 
this critical moment, when some tribunes of the 
soldiers had been slain by the enemy, the prefect 
of the camp and several prefects of cohorts had been 
cut off, a nimiber of centurions had been wounded,. 
and even some of the centurions of the first rank 
had fallen, the legions, shouting encouragement to 
each other, fell upon the enemy, and not con- 
tent with sustaining their onslaught, broke through 
their hne and wrested a ^ictory from a desperate 

About this time Agrippa, who had been adopted 
by his natural grandfather on the same dav as 
Tiberius, and had already, two years before, begun 
to reveal his true character, ahenated from himself 
the affection of his father and grandfather," falUng 
into reckless ways by a strange depravity of mind 
and disposition ; and soon, as his ^ices increased 
daily, he met the end which his madness deserved. 

CXIII. Listen now, Marcus Vinicius, to the proof 
that Caesar was no less great in war as a general 
than you now see him in peace as an emperor. 
When the two armies were united, that is to say 
the troops which had served under Caesar and 
those which had come to reinforce him, and there 
were now gathered together in one camp ten legions, 
more than seventy cohorts, fourteen troops of cavalry 



alis et^ pluribus quam decem veteranorum milibus, 
ad hoc magno voluntariorum numero frequentique 
equite regio, tanto denique exercitu, quantus nullo 
umquam loco post bella fuerat civilia, omnes eo 
ipso laeti erant maximamque fiduciam victoriae in 

2 numero reponebant. At imperator, optimus eorum 
quae agebat iudex et utilia speciosis praeferens 
quodque semper eum facientem vidi in omnibus 
bellis, quae probanda essent, non quae utique pro- 
barentur sequens, paucis diebus exercitum, qui 
venerat, ad refovendas ex itinere eius vires moratus, 
cum eum maiorem, quam ut temperari posset, neque 
habilem gubernaculo cerneret, dimittere statuit ; 
3 prosecutusque longo et perquam laborioso itinere, 
cuius difficultas narrari vix potest, ut neque universos 
quisquam auderet adgredi et partem digredientium, 
suorum quisque metu finium, universi temptare non 
possent, remisit eo, unde venerant, et ipse asperrimae 
hiemis initio regressus Sisciam legatos, inter quos 
ipsi fuimus, partitis praefecit hibernis. 

1 CXIV. O rem dictu non eminentem, sed solida 
veraque virtute atque utilitate maximam, experientia 
suavissimam, humanitate singularem ! Per omne 

1 X alis et Laurent. ; XIIII sed PA ; XIIII alis et 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxiii. l— cxiv. 1 

and more than ten thousand veterans, and in addition 
a large number of volunteers and the numerous 
cavahy of the king — in a word a greater army than 
had ever been assembled in one place since the 
civil wars — all were finding satisfaction in this fact 
and reposed their greatest hope of \ictory in their 
numbers. But the general, who was the best judge 
of the course he pursued, preferring efficiency to 
show, and, as we have so often seen him doing in 
all his wars, foUowing the course which deserved 
approval rather than that which was currently 
approved, after keeping the army which had newly 
arrived for only a few days in order to allow it 
to recover from the march, decided to send it 
away, since he saw that it was too large to be 
managed and was not well adapted to effective 
control. And so he sent it back whence it came, 
escorting it vrith his o\vn army a long and exceedingly 
laborious march, whose difficulty can hardly be 
described. His piu^ose in this was, on the one 
hand, that no one might dare to attack his united 
forces, and, on the other, to prevent the united forces 
of the enemy from falhng upon the departing division, 
through the apprehension of each nation for its own 
territory. Then returning himself to Siscia, at the 
beginning of a very hard \rinter, he placed his 
lieutenants, of whom I was one, in charge of the 
di\isions of his winter quarters. 

CXIV. And now for a detail which in the telling 
may lack grandeur, but is most important by reason 
of the true and substantial personal quahties it 
reveals and also of its practical ser\"ice — a thing 
most pleasant as an experience and remarkable for 
the kindness it displayed. Throughout the whole 



belli Germanici Pannonicique tempus nemo e nobis 
gradumve nostrum aut praecedentibus aut sequenti- 
bus imbecillus fuit, cuius salus ac valetudo non ita 
sustentaretur Caesaris cura, tamquam distractissi- 
mus^ ille tantorum onerum mole huic uni negotio^ 

2 vacaret animus. Erat desiderantibus j>aratum iunc- 
tum vehiculum, lectica eius publicata, cuius usum^ 
cum aUi tum ego sensi ; iam medici, iam apparatus 
cibi, iam in hoc solum uni portatum* instrumentum 
baUnei nulUus non succurrit valetudini ; domus 
tantum ac domestici deerant, ceterum nihil, quod 

3 ab iUis aut praestari aut desiderari posset. Adiciam 
iUud, quod, quisquis iUis temporibus interfuit, ut aUa, 
quae retuU, agnoscet protinus : solus semper equo 
vectus est, solus cum iis, quos invitaverat, maiore 
parte aestivarum expeditionum cenavit sedens ; 
non sequentibus discipUnam, quatenus exemplo non 
nocebatur, ignovit ; admonitio frequens, interdum^ 
et castigatio, vindicta tamen rarissima,^ agebatque 
medium plurima dissimulantis, aUqua inhibentis.' 

t Hiems emolumentum patrati belU contuUt, sed 

insequenti aestate omnis Pannonia reUquiis totius 

' distractissimus Rhenanus ; distraximus AP. 
^ negotio Gelenius ; genitio BA, om. P. 

* usum added hy Lipsius. 

* uni portatum A ; after erasing um, importatumP; una 
portatum Orelli folloioed hy HaJm. 

^ interdum an anonymous scholar ; inerat AP. 
® tamen rarissima Halm ; amarissima AP. 
"• dissimulantis . . . inhibentis AP ; dissimulans . . . 
inhibens Acidalius. 

" At formal dinners the Romans reclined on couches. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxiv. 1-4 

period of the German and Pannonian war there was 
not one of us, or of those either above or below our 
rank, who fell ill without ha\ing his health and 
welfare looked after by Caesar wiih as much 
sohcitude indeed as though this were the chief 
occupation of his mind, preoccupied though he 
was by his heavy responsibihties. There was a 
horsed vehicle ready for those who needed it, his 
own htter was at the disposal of all, and I, among 
others, have enjoyed its use. Now his physicians, 
now his kitchen, and now his bathing equipment, 
brought for this one purpose for himself alone, 
ministered to the comfort of all who were sick. 
AU they lacked was their home and domestic 
servants, but nothing else that friends at home 
could fumish or desire for them. Let me also add 
the follo^nng trait, which, hke the others I have 
described, will be immediately recognized as true 
by anyone who participated in that campaign. 
Caesar alone of commanders was in the habit of 
ahvays traveUing in the saddle, and, throughout the 
greater portion of the summer campaign, of sitting " 
at the table when dining \\-ith invited guests. Of 
those who did not imitate his own stern discipUne 
he took no notice, in so far as no harmful precedent 
was thereby created. He often admonished, some- 
times gave verbal reproof, but rarely punishment, 
and pursued the moderate course of pretending in 
most cases not to see things, and of administering 
only occasionally a reprimand. 

The winter brought the reward of our efforts 
in the termination of the war, though it was 
not until the foUowing summer that all Pannonia 
£OUght peace, the remnants of the war as a whole 



belli in Delmatia manentibus pacem petiit. Ferocem 
illam tot milium iuventutem, paulo ante servitutem 
minatam Italiae, conferentem arma, quibus usa erat, 
apud flumen nomine Bathinum prosternentemque se 
universam genibus imperatoris, Batonemque et 
Pinnetem excelsissimos duces, captum alterum, 
alterum^ a se deditum iustis voluminibus ordine nar- 
rabimus, ut spero. 
5 Autumno^ victor in hiberna reducitur exercitus, 
cuius omnibus copiis a Caesare^ M. Lepidus prae- 
fectus est, vir nomini* ac fortunae Caesarum^ proxi- 
mus, quem in quantum quisque aut cognoscere aut 
intellegere potuit, in tantum miratur ac diligit tan- 
torumque nominum, quibus ortus est, ornamentum 

1 CXV. Caesar ad alteram belH Delmatici molem 
animum atque arma contuht. In qua regione quali 
adiutore legatoque fratre meo Magio Celere Velleiano 
usus sit, ipsius patrisque eius praedicatione testatum 
est et amphssimorum donorum, quibus triumphans 
eum Caesar donavit, signat memoria. Initio aestatis 

2 Lepidus educto hibemis exercitu per gentis integras 
immunesque adhuc clade belH et eo feroces ac truces 
tendens ad Tiberium imperatorem et cum difficultate 
locorum et cum vi hostium luctatus, magna cum 

} alterum alterum Rhenanus ; alterum AP, 

2 autumno Gelenius ; autumni AP. 

• a Caesare Hhenanus ; Caesarem AP, 

* nomini Acidalius ; nominis AP. 

' Caesarura Scheffer ; eorura AP, 


HISTORY OF ROME, 11. cxiv. 4— cxv. 2 

being confined to Dalmatia. In my complete work 
I liope to describe in detail how those fierce warriors, 
many thousand in number, who had but a short 
time before threatened Italy with slavery, now 
brought the arms they had used in rebellion and 
laid them down, at a river called the Bathinus, 
prostrating themselves one and all before the knees 
of the commander ; and how of their two supreme 
commanders, Bato and Pinnes, the one was made a 
prisoner and the other gave himself up. 

In the autumn the victorious army was led back 
to winter quarters. Caesar gave the chief command 
of all the forces to Marcus Lepidus, a man who in 
name and in fortune approaches the Caesars, whom 
one admires and loves the more in proportion to his 
opportunities to know and understand him, and 
whom one regards as an omament to the great 
names from whom he springs. 

CXV. Caesar then devoted his attention and his 
arms to his second task, the war in Dahnatia. What 
assistance he had in this quarter from his aide and 
lieutenant Magius Celer Velleianus, my brother, is 
attested by the words of Tiberius himself and of 
his father, and signaHzed by the record of the high 
decorations conferred upon him by Caesar on the 
occasion of his triumph. In the beginning of summer 
Lepidus led his army out of ^^inter quarters, in an 
effort to make his way to Tiberius the commander, 
through the midst of races that were as y et unaffected 
and untouched by the disasters of war and therefore 
still fierce and warhke ; after a struggle in which he 
had to contend with the difficulties of the coimtry 
as well as the attacks of the enemy, and after 
inflicting great loss on those who barred his way, 



clade obsistentium excisis agris, exustis aedificiis, 
caesis viris, laetus victoria praedaque onustus per- 

3 venit ad Caesarem, et ob ea, quae si propriis gessisset 
auspiciis, triumphare debuerat, ornamentis trium- 
phalibus consentiente cum iudicio principum vohmtate 
senatus donatus^ est. 

4 IUa aestas maximi belli consummavit efFectus: 
quippe Perustae et Desidiates Delmatae, situ locorum 
ac montium, ingeniorum ferocia, mira etiam pug- 
nandi scientia et praecipue angustiis saltuum paene 
inexpugnabiles, non iam ductu, sed manibus atque 
armis ipsius Caesaris tum demum pacati sunt, cum 
paene funditus eversi forent. 

5 Nihil in hoc tanto bello, nihil in Germania aut 
videre maius aut mirari magis potui, quam quod 
imperatori numquam adeo ulla opportuna visa est 
victoriae occasio, quam damno amissi pensaret 
mihtis semperque visum est gloriosissimum,^ quod 
esset tutissimum, et ante conscientiae quam famae 
consultum nec umquam consiha ducis iudicio exer- 
citus, sed exercitus providentia ducis rectus est. 

1 CXVI. Magna in bello Delmatico experimenta 
virtutis in incultos^ ac difficilis locos praemissus 

' donatus added hy Rhenanus. 
2 gloriosissimum Halm ; gloriosiim AP. 
* incultos Heinsius ; multos AP. 

HISTORY OF ROME, 11. cxv. 2— cxvi. 

by the devastation of fields, buming of houses, 
and slaying of the inhabitants, he succeeded in 
reaching Caesar, rejoicing in \ictory and laden \vith 
booty. For these feats, for which, if they had been 
performed under his own auspices he would pro- 
perly have received a triumph, he was granted the 
ornaments of a triumph, the wish of the senate 
endorsing the recommendation of the Caesars. 

This campaign brought the momentous war 
to a successful conclusion ; for the Perustae and 
Desiadates, Dalmatian tribes, who were almost 
unconquerable on account of the position of their 
strongholds in the mountains, their warhke temper, 
their wonderful knowledge of fighting, and, above 
all, the narrow passes in which they hved, were 
then at last pacified, not now under the mere 
generalship, but by the armed prowess of Caesar 
himself, and then only when they were ahnost 
entirely exterminated. 

Nothing in the course of this great war, nothing 
in the campaigns in Germany, came under my 
observation that was greater, or that aroused my 
admiration more, than these traits of its general ; no 
chance of winning a victory ever seemed to him 
timely, which he would have to purchase by the 
sacrifice of his soldiers ; the safest course was always 
regarded by him as the best ; he consulted his 
conscience first and then his reputation, and, finally, 
the plans of the commander were never governed 
by the opinion of the army, but rather the army by 
the wisdom of its leader. 

CXVI. In the Dalmatian war Germanicus, who had 
been dispatched in advance of the commander to 
regions both wild and diffieult, gave great proof of 



Germanicus dedit ; celebri etiam opera diligenti- 

2 que Vibius Postumus vir consularis, praepositus 
Delmatiae, ornamenta meruit triumphalia : quem 
honorem ante paucos annos Passienus et Cossus, 
viri quamquam^ diversis virtutibus celebres, in Africa 
meruerant. Sed Cossus victoriae testimonium etiam 
in cognomen filii contulit, adulescentis in omnium 

3 virtutum exempla geniti. At Postumi operum L. 
Apronius particeps illa quoque militia eos, quos mox 
consecutus est, honores excellenti virtute meruit. 

Utinam non maioribus experimentis testatum 
esset, quantum in omni re fortuna posset ! Sed in 
hoc- quoque genere abunde agnosci vis eius potest. 
Nam et Aelius Lamia,* vir antiquissimi moris et 
priscam gravitatem semper humanitate temperans, 
in Germania Illyricoque et mox in Africa splendi- 
dissimis functus ministeriis, non merito, sed materia 

4 adipiscendi triumphalia defectus est, et A. Licinius 
Nerva Silianus, P. Silii filius, quem virum ne qui 
intellexit quidem abunde miratus est, in eo nihil 
non optimo civi simplicissimo duci superesse* prae- 
ferens, inmatura morte^ et fructu amplissimae prin- 
cipis amicitiae et consummatione evectae in altissi- 
mum paternumque fastigium imaginis defectus est. 

5 Horum virorum mentioni si quis quafesisse me dicet 

^ quamquam Halm ; quibusdem AP. 
2 hoc Gehnius ; loco AP. 

* Aelius Lamia Ruhnken ; etiam AP. 

* in eo nihil . . . superesse Ellis; ne (me A) nihil (om. 
P) optimo civi (civis A) . . . perisset BAP. 

* morte added by Orelli. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxvi. 1-a 

his valour. By his repeated services and careful 
vigilance the governor of Dalmatia, Vibius Postumus' 
the consular, also earned the ornaments of a triumph. 
A few years before this honour had been earned in 
Africa by Passienus and Cossus, both celebrated 
men, though not ahke in merit. Cossus passed on 
to his son, a young man born to exhibit every 
variety of excellence, a cognomen that still testifies 
to his victory. And Lucius Apronius, who shared 
in the achievements of Postumus, earned by the 
distingmshed valour which he displayed in this 
campaign also, the honours which he actuaUy won 
shortly afterwards. 

Would that it had not been demonstrated, by 
greater proofs, how mighty an influence fortune 
wields in all things ; yet even here her power can 
be recognized by abundant examples. For instance, 
Aehus Lamia, a man of the older type, who always 
tempered his old-fashioned dignity by a spirit of 
kindUness, had performed splendid ser\"ice in Ger- 
many and Illyricum, and was soon to do so in Africa, 
but failed to receive triumphal honours, not through 
any fault of his, but through lack of opportunity ; 
and Aulus Licinius Nerva SiHanus, the son of PubUus 
Sihus, a man who was not adequately praised even 
by the friend who knew him best, when he declared 
that there were no quahties which he did not possess 
in the highest degree, whether as an excellent 
citizen or as an honest commander, through his un- 
timely death failed not only to reap the fruit of his 
close friendship ^nth the emperor but also to reahze 
that lofty conception of his powers which had been 
inspired by his father's eminence. If anyone shall 
say that I have gone out of my way to mention these 



locum, fatentem arguet ; neque enim iustus sine 
mendacio candor apud bonos crimini est. 

1 CXVII. Tantum quod ultimam imposuerat Pan- 
nonico ac Delmatico bello Caesar manum, cum 
intra quinque consummati tanti operis dies funestae 
ex Germania epistulae nuntium attulere^ caesi Vari 
trucidatarumque legionum trium totidemque alarum 
et sex cohortium, velut in hoc saltem tantummodo 
indulgente nobis fortuna, ne occupato duce tanta 
clades inferretur.^ Sed et causa et persona^ moram 

2 Varus Quintilius inlustri magis quam nobili ortu5 
familia, vir ingenio mitis, moribus quietus, ut cor- 
pore, ita* animo immobilior, otio magis castrorum 
quam bellicae adsuetus militiae, pecuniae vero quam 
non contemptor, Syria, cui praefuerat, declaravit, 
quam pauper divitem ingressus dives pauperem 

3 reUquit ; is cum exercitui, qui erat in Germania, 
praeesset, concepit esse homines, qui nihil praeter 
vocem membraque haberent hominum, quique gladiis 
domari non poterant, posse iure mulceri. Quo pro- 

4 posito mediam ingressus Germaniam velut inter 
viros pacis gaudentes dulcedine iurisdictionibus 
agendoque pro tribunali ordine trahebat aestiva. 

^ nuntiiim attulere supplied here hy Halm, hy other editors 
after cohortium. 

2 tanta clades inferretur suppUed hy Halm. 

^ et causa et persona Orelh ; et causa persona AP. 

* ita Acidalius ; et AP. 

' A.D. 9. 


HISTORY OF ROxME, II. cxW. &— cxvii. 4 

men, his criticism will meet no denial. In the sight 
of honest men fair-minded candour without mis- 
representation is no crime. 

CXVII. Scarcely had Caesar put the finishing 
touch upon the Pannonian and Dalmatian war, 
when, within five days of the completion of this 
task, dispatches from Germany brought the baleful 
news of the death of Varus," and of the slaughter of 
three legions, of as many divisions of cavalry, and 
of six cohorts — as though fortune were granting us 
this indulgence at least, that such a disaster should 
not be brought upon us when our commander was 
occupied by other wars. The cause of this defeat 
and the personaUty of the general require of me a 
brief digression. 

Varus QuintiUus, descended from a famous rather 
than a high-born family, was a man of mild character 
and of a quiet disposition, somewhat slow in mind 
as he was in body, and more accustomed to the 
leisure of the camp than to actual ser\-ice in war. 
That he was no despiser of money is demonstrated 
by his govemorship of Syria : he entered the rich 
province a poor man, but left it a rich man and the 
province poor. When placed in charge of the army 
in Germany, he entertained the notion that the 
Germans were a people who were men only in 
limbs and voice, and that they, who could not be 
subdued by the sword, could be soothed by the 
law. With this purpose in mind he entered the heart 
of Germany as though he were going among a people 
enjoying the blessings of peace, and sitting on his 
tribunal he wasted the time of a summer campaign 
in holding court and observing the proper details of 
legal procedure. 



1 CXVIIL At illi, quod nisi expertus vix eredat,'^ 
in summa feritate versutissimi natumque mendacio 
genus, simulantes fictas litium series et nunc pro- 
vocantes alter alterum in iurgia,^ nunc agentes gratias 
quod ea Romana iustitia finiret feritasque sua novi- 
tate incognitae disciplinae mitesceret et solita armis 
discerni iure terminarentur, in summam socordiam 
perduxere Quintilium, usque eo, ut se praetorem 
urbanum in foro ius dicere, non in mediis Germaniae 

2 finibus exercitui praeesse crederet. Tum iuvenis 
genere nobilis, manu fortis, sensu celer, ultra bar- 
barum promptus ingenio, nomine Arminius, Sigimeri 
principis gentis eius filius, ardorem animi vultu 
oculisque praeferens, adsiduus militiae nostrae prioris 
comes, iure etiam civitatis Romanae decus^ equestris 
consecutus* gradus, segnitia ducis in occasionem 
sceleris usus est, haud imprudenter speculatus nemi- 
nem celerius opprimi, quam qui nihil timeret, et 
frequentissimum initium esse calamitatis securitatem. 

3 Primo igitur paucos, mox pluris in societatem con- 
siUi recepti ; opprimi posse Romanos et dicit et per- 
suadet, decretis facta iungit, tempus insidiarum 

* credat Lipsius ; credebat AP. 

"^ in iurgia Madvig ; in iuria AP. 

• Romanae decus Burman ; Romae eius (ius P) AP. 

* consecutus Heinsius ; consequens AP. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cx\iu. 1-3 

CXVIII. But the Gennans, who ^vith their great 

ferocity combine great craft, to an extent scarcely 

credible to one who has had no experience with 

them, and are a race to Ipng bom, by trumping up 

a series of fictitious lawsuits, now provoking one 

another to disputes, and now expressing their 

gratitude that Roman justice was setthng these 

disputes, that their ovm barbarous nature was being 

softened down by this new and hitherto unknown 

method, and that quarrels which were usually settled 

by arms were now being ended by law, brought 

Quintihus to such a complete degree of neghgence, 

that he came to look upon himself as a city praetor 

administering justice in the forum, and not a general 

in command of an army in the heart of Germany. 

Thereupon appeared a young man of noble birth, 

brave in action and alert in mind, possessing an 

intelligence quite beyond the ordinary barbarian ; 

he was, namely, Arminius, the son of Sigimer, a 

prince of that nation, and he showed in his counten- 

ance and in his eyes the fire of the mind within. 

He had been associated ^vith us constantly on pre\ious 

campaigns, had been granted the right of Roman 

citizenship, and had even attained the dignity 

of equestrian rank. This young man made use of 

the neghgence of the general as an opportunitj' for 

treachery, sagaciously seeing that no one could be 

more quickly overpowered than the man who feared 

nothing, and that the most common beginning of 

disaster was a sense of security. At first, then, he 

admitted but a few, later a large number, to a share 

in his design ; he told them, and convinced them too, 

that the Romans could be crushed, added execution 

to resolve, and named a day for carrying out the 



4 constituit. Id Varo per virum eius gentis fidelem 
clarique nominis, Segesten, indicatur. Postulabat 
etiam vinciri socios. Sed praevalebant iam^ fata 
consiliis omnemque animi eius aciem praestrin- 
xerant^ : quippe ita se res habet, ut plerumque cuius 
fortunam mutaturus est' deus, consilia corrumpat 
efficiatque, quod miserrimum est, ut, quod accidit, 
etiam merito accidisse videatur et casus in culpam 
transeat. Negat itaque se credere speciemque* in 
se benevolentiae ex merito aestimare profitetur. Nec 
diutius post primum indicem secundo relictus locus. 

1 CXIX. Ordinem atrocissimae calamitatis, qua nulla 
post Crassi in Parthis damnum in externis gentibus 
gravior Romanis fuit, iustis voluminibus ut alii, ita 
nos conabimur exponere : nunc summa deflenda 

2 est. Exercitus omnium fortissimus, disciplina, manu 
experientiaque bellorum inter Romanos milites prin- 
ceps, marcore ducis, perfidia hostis, iniquitate for- 
tunae circumventus, cum ne pugnandi quidem 
egrediendive^ occasio nisi inique, nec in quantum® 
voluerant, data esset immunis, castigatis etiam qui- 
busdam gravi poena, quia Romanis et armis et 
animis usi fuissent, inclusus silvis, paludibus, insidiis 
ab eo hoste ad internecionem trucidatus est, quem 

* vinciri socios. sed praevalebant iam supplied hy Ellis 
from Tac. Ann. i. 58. 

^ praestrinxerant Gelenius ; praestrinxerat AP. 
^ cuius fortunam mutaturus est ed. Bipont. ; qui fortunam 
mutaturus (imitaturus A) AF. 

* speciemque Burmanf; spenique AP. 

* egrediendive Voss. ; egredie (egredie with ad written 
ahove the g A, egregie P) aut BAP. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxviii. 4— cxix. 2 

plot. This was disclosed to Varus through Segestes, 
a loyal man of that race and of illustrious name, 
who also demanded that the conspirators be put in 
chains. But fate now dominated the plans of Varus 
and had bUndfolded the eyes of his mind. Indeed, 
it is usually the case that heaven perverts the 
judgement of the man whose fortune it means to 
reverse, and brings it to pass — and this is the 
wretched part of it — that that which happens by 
chance scems to be deserved, and accident passes 
over into culpabihty. And so Quintihus refused to 
beheve the story, and insisted upon judging the 
apparent friendship of the Germans toward him by 
the standard of his merit. And, after this first 
waming, there was no time left for a second. 

CXIX. The details of this terrible calamity, the 
hea\aest that had befallen the Romans on foreign 
soil since the disaster of Crassus in Parthia, I shall 
endeavour to set forth, as others have done, in my 
larger work. Here I can merely lament the disaster 
as a whole. An army unexcelled in bravery, the 
first of Roman armies in disciphne, in energy, and 
in experience in the field, through the neghgence 
of its general, the perfidy of the enemy, and the 
unkindness of fortune was surrounded, nor was as 
much opportunity as they had wished given to the 
soldiers either of fighting or of extricating themselves, 
except against heavy odds ; nay, some were even 
heavily chastised for using the arms and sho^ving the 
spirit of Romans. Hemmed in by forests and marshes 
and ambuscades, it was exterminated ahnost to a 
man by the very enemy whom it had always 

* occasio nisi inique, uec in quantum Ellis ; occasionis in 
quantun) APB. 



ita semper more pecudum trucidaverat, ut vitam 
aut mortem eius nunc ira nunc venia temperaret. 

3 Duci plus ad moriendum quam ad pugnandum animi 
fuit : quippe paterni avitique successor exempli se 
ipse transfixit. At e praefectis castrorum duobus 

4 quam clarum exemplum L. Eggius, tam turpe 
Ceionius prodidit, qui, cum longe maximam partem 
absumpsisset acies, auctor deditionis supplicio quam 
proelio mori maluit. At Vala Numonius, legatus 
Vari, cetera quietus ac probus, diri auctor exempli, 
spoliatum equite peditem relinquens fuga cum alis*^ 
Rhenum petere ingressus est. Quod factum eius 
fortuna ulta est ; non enim desertis superfuit, sed 

5 desertor occidit. Vari corpus semiustum hostilis- 
laceraverat feritas ; caput eius abscisum latumque 
ad Maroboduum et ab eo missum ad Caesarem 
gentihcii tamen tumuli sepultura honoratum est. 

1 CXX. His auditis revolat ad patrem Caesar ; per- 
petuus patronus Romani imperii adsuetam sibi causam 
suscipit. Mittitur ad Germaniam, Gallias confirmat, 
disponit exercitus, praesidia munit et se magnitudine 
sua, non fiducia hostis^ metiens, qui Cimbricam 
Teutonicamque militiam Itahae minabatur, ultro 

2 Rhenum cum exercitu transgreditur. Arma infert 

1 equite peditem relinquens fuga cum alis Gelenius; 
equitem peditera relinquens fugatum (fuga cum P) aliis BAP. 

2 hostilis Burer ; hosti BA ; hostium P. 
2 hostis Haupt ; hostium AP ; om. B. 


• His father Sextus Quintiiius Varus fought on the 
side of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. After the loss of 
the battle he was slain, at his own request, by one of his 
freedmen, see Bk. II. Chap. LXXI. Information is lacking 
concerning his grandfather and the manner of his death. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxix. 2— cxx. 2 

slaughtered like cattle, whose life or death had 

depended solely upon the wrath or the pity of the 

Romans. The general had more courage to die than 

to fight, for, folloAving the example of his father " and 

grandfather, he ran himself through with his sword. 

Of the two prefects of the camp, Lucius Eggius 

furnished a precedent as noble as that of Ceionius 

was base, who, after the greater part of the army 

had perished, proposed its surrender, preferring to 

die by torture at the hands of the enemy than in 

battle. Vala Numonius, lieutenant of Varus, who, 

in the rest of his Ufe, had been an inoffensive and 

an honourable man, also set a fearful example in 

that he left the infantry unprotected by the cavalry 

and in flight tried to reach the Rhine with his 

squadrons of horse. But fortune avenged his act, 

for he did not survive those whom he had abandoned, 

but died in the act of deserting them. The body 

j| of Varus, partially burned, was mangled by the enemy 

I in their barbarity ; his head was cut off and taken 

J to Maroboduus and was sent by him to Caesar ; 

1 but in spite of the disaster it was honoured by burial 

\ in the tomb of his family. 

CXX. On hearing of this disaster, Caesar flew to 
j his father's side. The constant protector of the 
t Roman empire again took up his accustomed part. 
i Dispatched to Gemiany, he reassured the pro\inces 
:i of Gaul, distributed his armies, strengthened the 
li garrison towns, and then, measuring himself by the 
(j standard of his own greatness, and not by the 
:j presumption of an enemy who threatened Italy 
^i with a war hke that of the Cimbri and Teutones, 
he took the offensive and crossed the Rhine with 
'] his army. He thus made aggressive war upon the 
"I 303 


hosti quem arcuisse^ pater et patria contenti erant ; 
penetrat interius, aperit limites, vastat agros, urit 
domos, fundit obvios maximaque cum gloria, inco- 
lumi omnium, quos transduxerat, numero in hiberna 

3 revertitur. 

Reddatur verum L. Asprenati testimonium, qui 
legatus sub avunculo suo Varo militans gnava 
virilique opera duarum legionum, quibus praeerat, 
exercitum immunem tanta calamitate servavit 
matureque ad inferiora hiberna descendendo 
vacillantium etiam cis Rhenum sitarum gentium 
animos confirmavit. Sunt tamen, qui ut vivos ab 
eo vindicatos, ita iugulatorum sub Varo occupata 
crediderint patrimonia hereditatemque occisi exer- 

4 citus, in quantum voluerit, ab eo aditam. L. etiam 
Caedicii praefecti castrorum eorumque, qui una 
circumdati Alisone immensis Germanorum copiis 
obsidebantur, laudanda virtus est, qui omnibus diffi- 
cultatibus superatis, quas inopia rerum intolerabihs. 
vis hostium faciebat inexsuperabihs, nec temerario 
consilio nec segni providentia usi speculatique oppor- 
tunitatem ferro sibi ad suos peperere reditum. 

5 Ex quo apparet Varum, sane gravem et bonae vo- 
luntatis virum, magis imperatoris defectum consilio 
quam virtute destitutum mihtum se magnificentis- 

1 arma infert (hosti Voss.) quera arcuisse Lipsius ; arma 
interfecti qui arguisse AP, 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxx. 2-5 

enemy when his father and his country would have 
been content to let hira hold them in check, he 
penetrated into the heart of the country, opened 
up military roads, devastated fields, bumed houses, 
routed those who came against him, and, without 
loss to the troops with which he had crossed, he 
retumed, covered vrith glory, to winter quarters. 

Due tribute should be paid to Lucius Asprenas, 
who was ser\"ing as Ueutenant under Varus his uncle, 
and who, backed by the brave and energetic support 
of the two legions under his command, saved his 
army from this great disaster, and by a quick 
descent to the quarters of the army in Lower Ger- 
many strengthened the allegiance of the races even 
on the hither side of the Rhine who were beginning 
to waver. There are those, however, who believed 
that, though he had saved the lives of the H\ing, 
he had appropriated to his own use the property 
of the dead who were slain \nih Varus, and that 
inheritances of the slaughtered army were claimed 
by him at pleasure. The valour of Lucius Caedicius, 
prefect of the camp, also deserves praise, and of 
those who, pent up with him at Ahso, were besieged 
by an immense force of Germans. For, overcoming 
all their difficulties which want rendered unendurable 
and the forces of the enemy almost insurmountable, 
following a design that was carefully considered, 
and using a vigilance that was ever on the alert, 
they watched their chance, and ^^dth the sword won 
their way back to their friends. From all this it is 
evident that Varus, who was, it must be confessed, 
a man of character and of good intentions, lost his 
life and his magnificent army more through lack of 
judgement in the commander than of valour in his 



6 simumque perdidisse exercitum. Cum in captivos 
saeviretur a Germanis, praeclari facinoris auctor fuit 
Caldus Caelius, adulescens^ vetustate familiae suae 
dignissimus, qui complexus catenarum, quibus vinctus 
erat, seriem, ita illas inlisit capiti suo, ut protinus 
pariter sanguinis cerebrique effluvio^ expiraret. 

1 CXXI. Eadem virtus et fortuna subsequenti tem- 
pore ingressi Germaniam^ imperatoris Tiberii fuit, 
quae initio fuerat. Qui concussis hostium viribus 
classicis peditumque expeditionibus, cum res Gal- 
liarum maximae molis accensasque plebis Viennen- 
sium dissensiones coercitione magis quam poena 
mollisset,^ senatus populusque Romanus postulante 
patre eius, ut aequum ei ius^ in omnibus provinciis 
exercitibusque esset, quam erat ipsi, decreto com- 
plexus est.^ Etenim absurdum erat non esse sub illo, 

2 quae ab illo vindicabantur, et qui ad opem ferendam 
primus erat, ad vindicandum honorem non iudicari 
parem. In urbem reversus iam pridem debitum, 
sed continuatione bellorum dilatum ex Pannoniis 
Delmatisque egit triumphum. Cuius magnificentiam 
quis miretur in Caesare ? Fortunae vero quis non 

3 miretur indulgentiam ? Quippe omnis eminentissimos 
hostium duces non occisos fama narravit, sed 
vinctos triumphus ostendit ; quem mihi' fratrique 

^ adulescens Ruhnken ; ad AP. 
2 effluvio lApsius ; influvio AP. 

^ ingressi Germaniam Bardili ; ingressa anima (animum 
P) BAP. 

* Rhenanus supplied et after mollisset. 

^ aequum ei ius lihenanus ; equum eius AP, 

• est Ellis ; esset AP. 

■^ mihi Burer ; militi AP. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxx, 6-^xxi. 3 

soldiers. \Vhen the Germans were venting their 
rage upon their captives, an heroic act was performed 
by Caldus CaeHus, a young nian worthy in every 
way of his long hne of ancestors, who, seizing a 
section of the chain with which he was bound, 
brought it down viith. such force upon his own head 
as to cause his instant death, both his brains and 
his blood gushing from the wound. 

CXXI. Tiberius showed the same valour, and was 
attended by the same fortune, when he entered 
Germany on his later campaigns as in his first. 
After he had broken the force of the enemy by 
his expeditions on sea and land, had completed his 
difficult task in Gaul, and had settled by restraint 
rather than by punishment the dissensions that had 
broken out among the Mennenses, at the request 
of his father that he should have in all the provinces 
and armies a power equal to his own, the senate 
and Roman people so decreed. For indeed it was 
incongruous that the pro\"inces which were being 
defended by him should not be under his jurisdiction, 
and that he who was foremost in bearing aid 
should not be considered an equal in the honour 
to be won. On his retum to the city he celebrated 
the triumph over the Pannonians and Dahnatians, 
long since due him, but postponed by reason of a 
succession of wars. Who can be surprised at its 
magnificence, since it was the triumph of Caesar ? 
Yet who can fail to wonder at the kindness of fortune 
to him ? For the most eminent leaders of the 
enemy were not slain in battle, that report should 
teU thereof, but were taken captive, so that in his 
triumph he exhibited them in chains. It was my 
lot and that of my brother to participate in this 



meo inter praecipuos praecipuisque donis adornatos 
viros comitari contigit. 

1 CXXIL Quis non inter reliqua, quibus singularis 
moderatio Ti. Caesaris elucet atque eminet, hoc 
quoque miretur, quod, cum sine ulla dubitatione 
septem triumphos meruerit, tribus contentus fuit^ ? 
Quis enim dubitare potest, quin ex Armenia recepta 
et ex rege praeposito ei,^ cuius capiti insigne regium 
sua manu imposuerat, ordinatisque rebus Orientis 
ovans triumphare debuerit, et Vindehcorum Rae- 

2 torumque victor curru urbem ingredi ? Fractis deinde 
post adoptionem continua triennii militia Germaniae 
viribus idem illi honor et deferendus et recipiendus 
fuerit ? Et post cladem sub Varo acceptam, ex- 
pectato^ ocius* prosperrimo rerum eventu eadem 
excisa Germania triumphus summi ducis adornari 
debuerit ? Sed in hoc viro nescias utrum magis 
mireris quod laborum periculorumque semper ex- 
cessit modum an quod honorum temperavit. 

1 CXXIII. Venitur ad tempus, in quo fuit plurimum 
metus. Quippe Caesar Augustus cum Germanicum 
nepotem suum reliqua belH patraturum misisset in 
Germaniam, Tiberium autem fihum missurus esset 
in Illyricum ad firmanda pace quae bello subegerat, 

' fuit Haase ; fuerit AP. i 

2 praeposito ei Heinsius ; praepositi (pro- P) BAP. 
3 expectato added by Halm. * ocius P; totius BAJ-\ 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxi. 3— cxxiii. 1 

triumph among the men of distinguished rank and 
those who were decorated with distingnished honours. 

CXXII. Among the other acts of Tiberius Caesar, 
wherein his remarkable moderation shines forth 
conspicuously, who does not wonder at this also, 
that, although he unquestionably eamed seven 
triumphs, he was satisfied wlth three ? For who 
can doubt that, when he had recovered Armenia, 
had placed over it a king upon whose head he had 
with his own hand set the mark of royalty, and 
had put in order the afFairs of the east, he ought 
to have received an ovation ; and that after his 
conquest of the VindeUci and the Raeti he should 
have entered the city as victor in a triumphal 
chariot ? Or that, after his adoption, when he had 
broken the power of the Germans in three consecutive 
campaigns, the same honour should have been 
bestowed upon him and should have been accepted 
by him ? And that, after the disaster received 
under Varus, when this same Germany was crushed 
by a course of events which, sooner than was 
expected, came to a happy issue, the honour of a 
triumph should have been awarded to this con- 
summate general ? But, in the case of this man, 
one does not know which to admire the more, that 
in courting toils and danger he went beyond all 
bounds or that in accepting honours he kept within 

CXXIII. We now come to the crisis which was 
awaited with the greatest foreboding. Augustus 
Caesar had dispatched his grandson Germanicus 
to Germany to put an end to such traces of the war 
as still remained, and was on the point of sending his 
son Tiberius to lUyricum to strengthen by peace the 



prosequens eum simulque interfuturus athletarum 
certaminis ludicro, quod eius honori sacratum a 
Neapolitanis est, processit in Campaniam. Quam- 
quam iam motus imbecillitatis inclinataeque in 
deterius principia valetudinis senserat, tamen obni- 
tente vi animi prosecutus filium digressusque ab eo 
Beneventi ipse Nolam petiit : et ingravescente in 
dies valetudine, cum sciret, quis volenti omnia post 
se salva remanere accersendus foret, festinanter 
revocavit filium ; ille ad patrem patriae expectato 

2 revolavit maturius. Tum securum se Augustus prae- 
dicans circumfususque amplexibus Tiberii sui, com- 
mendans illi sua atque ipsius opera nec quidquam 
iam de fine, si fata poscerent, recusans, subrefectus 
primo conspectu alloquioque carissimi sibi spiritus, 
mox, cum omnem curam fata vincerent, in sua 
resolutus initia Pompeio Apuleioque consulibus sep- 
tuagesimo et sexto anno animam caelestem caelo 

1 CXXIV. Quid tunc homines timuerint, quae 
senatus trepidatio, quae populi confusio, quis urbis 
metus, in quam arto salutis exitiique fuerimus con- 
finio, neque mihi tam festinanti exprimere vacat 
neque cui vacat potest. Id solum voce publica 
dixisse satis^ habeo : cuius orbis ruinam timueramus, 

^ satis added by liuhnken. 

• A.D. 14. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxiii. 1— cxxiv. 1 

regions he had subjugated in war. With the double 
purpose of escorting him on his way, and of being 
present at an athletic contest which the Xeapolitans 
had estabUshed in his honour, he set out for 
Campania. Although he had already experienced 
symptoms of gro^ving weakness and of a change in 
his health for the worse, his strong will resisted his 
infirmity and he accompanied his son. Parting from 
him at Beneventum he went to Nola. As his health 
grew daily worse, and he knew full well for whom 
he must send if he wished to leave everything 
secure behind him, he sent in haste for his son to 
retum. Tiberius hurried back and reached the 
side of the father of his country before he was 
even expected. Then Augustus, asserting that his 
mind was now at ease, and, \nih the arms of his 
beloved Tiberius about him, commending to him 
the continuation of their joint work, expressed his 
readiness to meet the end if the fates should call 
him. He re\ived a httle at seeing Tiberius and at 
hearing the voice of one so dear to him, but, ere 
long, since no care could withstand the fates, in his 
seventy-sixth year, in the consulship of Pompeius and 
Apuleius <• he was resolved into the elements from 
which he sprang and }ielded up to heaven his 
dixine soul. 

CXXIV. Of the misgivings of mankind at this 
time, the trepidation of the senate, the confiision 
of the people, the fears of the city, of the narrow 
margin between safety and ruin on which we then 
foxmd ourselves, I have no time to tell as I hasten 
on my way, nor could he tell who had the time. 
Suffice it for me to voice the common utterance : 
" The world whose ruin we had feared we found 



eum ne commotum quidem sensimus, tantaque unius 
viri maiestas fuit, ut nec pro^ bonis neque contra 

2 malos opus armis foret. Una tamen veluti luctatio 
civitatis fuit, pugnantis cum Caesare senatus populi- 
que Romani, ut stationi paternae succederet, illius, 
ut potius aequalem civem quam eminentem liceret 
agere principem. Tandem magis ratione quam 
honore victus est, cum quidquid tuendum non sus- 
cepisset, periturum videret, solique huic contigit 
paene diutius recusare principatum, quam, ut 
occuparent eum, alii armis pugnaverant. 

3 Post redditum caelo patrem et corpus eius humanis 
honoribus, numen divinis honoratum, primum prin- 
cipahum eius operum fuit ordinatio comitiorum, 
quam manu sua scriptam divus Augustus reliquerat. 

4 Quo tempore mihi fratrique meo, candidatis Caesaris, 
proxime a nobiUssimis ac sacerdotahbus^ viris destinari 
praetoribus contigit, consecutis quidem,^ ut neque 
post nos quemquam divus Augustus neque ante nos 
Caesar commendaret Tiberius. 

1 CXXV. TuHt protinus et voti et consiUi sui 
pretium res publica, neque diu latuit aut quid non 
impetrando passuri fuissemus aut quid impetrando 

^ pro added by Ellis ; Halm suggests nec bonis votis. 
2 sacerdotalibus Scheffer ; sacerdotibus AP. 
* consecutis quidem Ellis ; consecutisque A ; consecutis 

" This refers to his official deification. He was given the 
title of Diviis, a temple was erected in his honour, a special 
class of pricsts was created to conduct the rites, and a special 
festivah the AugustaUa, was estabUshed in his memory. 

' i.e. among the candidates nominated by Caesar. The 
emperor nominated part of the candidates, aUowing the 
people to nominate the rest, reserving, however, the right 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxiv. l— cxxv. 1 

not even disturbed, and such was the majesty of 
one man that there was no need of arms either to 
defend the good or to restrain the bad." There was, 
however, in one respect what might be called a 
struggle in the state, as, namely, the senate and 
the Roman people wrestled with Caesar to induce 
him to succeed to the position of his father, while 
he on his side strove for permission to play the part 
of a citizen on a parity with the rest rather than 
that of an emperor over all. At last he was prevailed 
upon rather by reason than by the honour, since 
he saw that whatever he did not undertake to 
protect was hkely to perish. He is the only man 
to whose lot it has fallen to refuse the principate 
for a longer time, aknost, than others had fought 
to secure it. 

After heaven had claimed his father, and human 
honours had been paid to his body as divine honours 
were paid to his soul,° the first of his tasks as emperor 
was the regulation of the comiiia, instructions for 
which Augustus had left in his owti handwriting. 
On this occasion it was my lot and that of my 
brother, as Caesar's candidates,'' to be named for 
the praetorship immediately after those of nobie 
famiUes and those who had held the priesthoods, 
and indeed to have had the distinction of being the 
last to be recommended by Augustus and the first 
to be named by Tiberius Caesar. 

CXXV. The state soon reaped the fruit of its 
wise course in desiring Tiberius, nor was it long 
before it was apparent what we should have had 
to endure had our request been refused, and what 

of veto in the case of candidates whom he deemed un- 



profecissemus. Quippe exercitus, qui in Germania 
militabat praesentisque Germanici imperio rege- 
batur, simulque legiones, quae in Illyrico erant, 
rabie quadam et profunda confundendi omnia 
cupiditate novum ducem, novum statum, novam 
quaerebant rem publicam ; quin etiam ausi sunt 

2 minari daturos se^ senatui, daturos principi leges ; 
modum stipendii, finem militiae sibi ipsi constituere 
conati sunt. Processum etiam in arma ferrumque 
strictum est et paene in ultima^ gladiorum erupit 
impunitas, defuitque, qui contra rem publicam 

3 duceret, non qui sequerentur. Sed haec omnia 
veteris imperatoris maturitas, multa inhibentis, 
aUqua cum gravitate pollicentis, et^ inter severam 
praecipue noxiorum"* ultionem mitis aliorum casti- 
gatio brevi sopiit ac sustulit. 

4 Quo quidem tempore ut pleraque non ignave^ 
Germanicus, ita Drusus,® qui a patre in id ipsum 
plurimo quidem' igne emicans incendium militaris 
tumultus missus erat, prisca antiquaque severitate 
usus ancipitia sibi maluit tenere quam exemplo 
perniciosa, et his ipsis mihtum gladiis, quibus 

5 obsessus erat, obsidentes coercuit, singulari adiutore 
in eo negotio usus lunio Blaeso, viro nescias utiliore 
in castris an meliore in toga : qui post paucos annos 

^ se ackled hy Orelli. 

2 ultima Voss ; iiltimam BA ; ultimum P. 

3 et added hij Krause. 

* noxiorum Gronovius ; nostronim AP. ^ 
" non ignave EUis ; ignave P ; ignovit Bipont. edition. 

• Drusus Gelenius ; Brutus AP. 

' in id ipsiim plurimo quidem AP ; in diversum plurimo- 
que idem Madvig. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxv. 1-5 

we had gained in having it granted. For the army 
serving in Germany, commanded by Germanicus 
in person, and the legions in Illyricmn, seized at 
the same moment by a form of madness and a deep 
desire to throw everything into confusion, wanted a 
new leader, a new order of things, and a new re- 
pubUc. Nay, they even dared to threaten to dictate 
terms to the senate and to the emperor. They tried 
to fix for themselves the amount of their pay and 
their period of ser\-ice. They even resorted to arms ; 
the sword was dra%\-n ; their comiction that thev 
would not be punished came near to breaking out 
into the worst excesses of arms. AU they needed was 
someone to lead them against the state ; there was 
no lack of followers. But all this disturbance was 
soon quelled and suppressed by the ripe experience of 
the veteran commander, who used coercion in manv 
cases, made promises where he could do so with 
dignity, and by the combination of severe punish- 
ment of the most guilty \^-ith milder chastisement of 
the others. 

In this crisis, while in many respects the conduct 
of Germanicus was not lacking in rigour, Drusus 
employed the severity of the Romans of old. Sent 
by his father into the very midst of the conflagration, 
when the flames of mutiny were ah-eady bursting 
forth, he preferred to hold to a course which 
involved danger to himself than one which might 
prove a ruinous precedent, and used the very swords 
of those by whom he had been besieged to coerce 
his besiegers. In this task he had in Junius Blaesus 
no ordinary helper, a man whom one does not know 
whether to consider more useful in the camp or 
better in the toga. A few years later, as proconsul 



proconsul in Africa ornamenta triumphalia cum 
appellatione imperatoria meruit. 

At Hispanias exercitumque in iis cum M. Lepidus, 
de cuius"^ virtutibus celeberrimaque in Illyrico militia 
praediximus, cum imperio obtineret, in summa pace 
et- quiete continuit, cum ei pietas rectissima sen- 
tiendi et auctoritas quae sentiebat obtinendi super- 
esset. Cuius curam ac fidem Dolabella quoque, vir 
simplicitatis generosissimae, in maritima parte 
Illyrici per omnia imitatus est. 

1 CXXVI. Horum sedecim annorum opera quis cum 
ingerantur-' oculis animisque omnium, partibus* 
eloquatur ? Sacravit parentem suum Caesar non 
imperio, sed religione, non appellavit eum, sed fecit 

2 deum. Revocata in forum fides, summota e foro 
seditio, ambitio campo, discordia curia, sepultaeque 
ac situ obsitae^ iustitia, aequitas, industria civitati 
redditae ; accessit magistratibus^ auctoritas, senatui 
maiestas, iudiciis gravitas ; compressa theatralis 
seditio, recte faciendi omnibus aut incussa voluntas 

3 aut imposita necessitas : honorantur recta, prava 
puniuntur, suspicit potentem humiHs,non timet, ante- 
cedit, non contemnit humihorem potens. Quando 
annona moderatior, quando pax laetior ? DifFusa in 
orientis occidentisque tractus et quidquid meridiano 

^ in iis . . . cuius supplied by Madvig. 

"^ et added by Orelli. 

• ingerantur Ellis ; insera BA ; inserta sint P. 

* partibus Voss ; in partibus AP. 

* obsitae Burer ; oppositae BAP. 

' magistratibus Gelenius ; militibus AP. 

<• Pax augusta, "Augustan peace." The expression, 
iised to characterize the contrast between the tranquillity of 
his reign and the turmoil of the Civil Wars, which preceded 
it, had become proverbial. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxv. 5— cxxvi. 3 

in AfTica, he earned the oraaments ot a trinmph, with 
the title of imperator. 

The two provinces of Spain, however, and the 
army in them were held in peace and tranquillity, 
since Marcus Lepidus, of whose virtues and dis- 
tinguished service in Illyricum I have already spoken, 
was there in command, and since he had in the 
highest degree the quahty of instinctively knowng 
the best course and the firmness to hold to his views. 
On the coast of Illyricum his \-igilance and fidelity 
was emulated in detail by Dolabella, a man of noble- 
minded candour. 

CXXVI. Who would undertake to tell in detail 
the accomplishments of the past sixteen years, since 
they are borne in upon the eyes and hearts of all ? 
Caesar deified his father, not by exercise of his 
imperial authority, but by his attitude of reverence ; 
he did not call him a god, but made him one. Credit 
has been restored in the forum, strife has been 
banished from the forum, canvassing for office from 
the Campus Martius, discord from the senate-house ; 
justice, equity, and industry, long buried in obli\ion, 
have been restored to the state ; the magistrates 
have regained their authority, the senate its majesty, 
the courts their dignity ; rioting in the theatre has 
been suppressed ; all eitizens have either been im- 
pressed with the wish to do right, or have been forced 
to do so by necessity. Right is now honoured, e\il 
is punished ; the humble man respects the great 
but does not fear him, the great has precedence 
over the lowly but does not despise him. When was 
the price of grain more reasonable, or when were the 
blessings of peace greater ? The pax augusta,'^ which 
has spread to the regions of the east and of the 



aut septentrione finitur, pax augusta omnis^ terrarum 
orbis angulos a latrociniorum metu servat immunes. 
4 Fortuita non civium tantummodo, sed urbium damna 
principis munificentia vindicat. Restitutae urbes 
Asiae, vindicatae ab iniuriis magistratuum pro- 
vinciae : honor dignis paratissimus, poena in malos 
sera, sed aliqua : superatur aequitate gratia, ambitio 
virtute ; nam facere recte civis suos princeps optimus 
faciendo docet, cumque sit imperio maximus, exemplo 
maior est. 

1 CXXVIL Raro eminentes viri non magnis adiu- 
toribus ad gubernandam fortunam suam usi sunt, ut 
duo Scipiones duobus Laeliis, quos per omnia aequa- 
verunt sibi, ut divus Augustus M. Agrippa et proxime^ 
ab eo Statilio Tauro, quibus novitas familiae haut ob- 
stititquominusad multiplicis consulatus triumphosque 
et complura eveherentur^ sacerdotia. Etenim magna 

2 negotia magnis adiutoribus egent* interestque rei 
pubHcae quod usu necessarium est,^ dignitate eminere 

3 utilitatemque auctoritate muniri. Sub his exemplis 
Ti. Caesar Seianum Aelium, principe equestris ordinis 
patre natum, matemo vero genere clarissimas veteres- 
que et insignes honoribus complexum familias, haben- 

^ ifss. have per before oranis. 

^ proxime Scheffer ; maxime AP. 

^ complura eveherentur Vascosantis ', complura enume- 
rentur (complurae numerentur A) BA ; complura enume- 
rarentur P. 

* after egent the words neque in parvo paucitas ministeria 
defecit are deleted by Halm after Vossius and Boecler. 

' est Euhnken ; e A; et P. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxvi. 3-K:xx\-ii. 3 

west and to the bounds of the north and of the 
south, preserves every corner of the world safe from 
the fear of brigandage. The munificence of the 
emperor claims for its province the losses inflicted 
by fortune not merely on private citizens, but on 
whole cities. The cities of Asia have been restored, 
the provinces have been freed from the oppression 
of their magistrates. Honour ever awaits the 
worthy ; for the wicked punishment is slow but 
sure ; fair play has now precedence over influence, 
and merit over ambition, for the best of emperors 
teaches his citizens to do right by doing it, and 
though he is greatest among us in authority, he is 
still greater in the example which he sets. 

CXXVII. It is but rarely that men of eminence 
have failed to employ great men to aid them in direct- 
ing their fortune, as the two Scipios employed the 
two Laehi, whom in all things they treated as equal 
to themselves, or as the deified Augustus employed 
Marcus Agrippa, and after him Statilius Taurus. In 
the case of these men their lack of Uneage was no 
obstacle to their elevation to successive consulships, 
triumphs, and numerous priesthoods. For great 
tasks require great helpers, and it is important to 
the state that those who are necessary to her ser\-ice 
should be given prominence in rank, and that their 
usefulness should be fortified by official authority. 
With these examples before him, Tiberius Caesar 
has had and still has as his incomparable associate 
in all the burdens of the principate Sejanus Aelius, 
son of a father who was among the foremost in the 
equestrian order, but connected, on his mother's 
side, with old and illustrious families and famihes 
distingiiished by pubUc honours, while he had 



tem consularis fratres, consobrinos, avunculum, 
ipsum vero laboris ac fidei capacissimum, sufficiente 
etiam vigori animi compage corporis, singularem 
principalium onerum adiutorem in omnia habuit 
4 atque habet, virum severitatis laetissimae, hilaritatis 
priscae, actu otiosis similUmum, nihil sibi vindican- 
tem eoque adsequentem omnia, semperque infra 
aliorum aestimationes se metientem, vultu vitaque 
tranquillum, animo exsomnem. 

1 CXXVIIL In huius virtutum aestimatione iam 
pridem iudicia civitatis cum iudiciis principis certant : 
neque novus hic mos senatus populique Romani est 
putandi, quod optimum sit, esse nobilissimum. Nam et 
ilU qui ante^ beUum Punicum abhinc annos trecentos 
Ti. Coruncanium, hominem novum, cum aUis omnibus 
honoribus tum pontificatu etiam maximo ad principale 
extulere fastigium, et qui^ equestri loco natum Sp. 

2 CarviUum et mox M. Catonem, novum etiam Tusculo 
urbis inquiUnum, Mummiumque Achaicum in con- 
sulatus, censuras et triumphos provexere, et qui C. 

3 Marium ignotae originis usque ad sextum consulatum 

sine dubitatione Romani nominis habuere principem, 

et qui M. TulUo^ tantum tribuere, ut paene 

adsentatione sua quibus veUet principatus conciUaret, 

quique nihil Asinio PoUioni negaverunt, quod nobi- 

lissimis summo cum sudore consequendum foret, 

' qui aiite Ellis ; antiqui ante P ; primi ante A ; antiqui 
qui ante Ilalm. 

'^ qui Frohlich ; eque ^ ; om. P. 
^ TuUio Lipsius ; Fulvio AP. 

' Tacitus, Annals iv. 1 , has a very different description. 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxvii. 3— cxxviii. 3 

brothers, cousins, and an uncle who had reached the 
consulship. He himself combined wiih loyalty to 
his master great capacity for labour, and possessed 
a well-knit body to match the energy of his mind ; 
stem but yet gay, cheerful but yet strict ; busy, yet 
aUvays seeming to be at leisure. He is one who 
claims no honours for himself and so acquires all 
honours, whose estimate of himself is always below 
the estimate of others, calm in expression and in his 
life, though his mind is sleeplessly alert." 

CXXVIII. In the value set upon the character 
of this man, the judgement of the whole state has 
long ^ied with that of the emperor. Nor is it a new 
fashion on the part of the senate and the Roman 
people to regard as most noble that which is best. 
For the Romans who, three centuries ago, in the 
days before the Punic war, raised Tiberius 
Coruncanius, a " new man," to the first position in 
the state, not oply bestowing on him all the other 
honours but the office of pontifex maximus as well ; 
and those who elevated to consulships, censorships, 
and triumphs Spurius Carvilius, though born of 
equestrian rank, and soon afterwards Marcus Cato, 
though a new man and not a native of the city 
but Irom Tusculum, and Mummius, who triumphed 
over Achaia ; and those who regarded Gaius Marius, 
though of obscure origin, as unquestionably the 
first man of the Roman name until his sixth 
consulship ; and those who yi^lded such honours to 
Marcus TulHus that on his recommendation he 
could secure positions of importance almost for any- 
one he chose ; and those who refused no honour 
to Asinius PolUo, honours which could only be 
eamed, even by the noblest, by sweat and toil — 



profecto hoc senserunt, in cuiuscumque animo virtus 
inesset, ei plurimum esse tribuendum. Haec naturalis 
4 exempli imitatio ad experiendum Seianum 
Caesarem, ad iuvanda vero onera principis Seianum 
propulit^ senatumque et populum Romanum eo 
perduxit, ut, quod usu optimum intellegit, id in 
tutelam securitatis suae libenter advocet. 

1 CXXIX. Sed proposita quasi universa principatus 
Ti. Caesaris forma^ singula recenseamus. Qua ille 
prudentia Rhascupolim, interemptorem fratris sui 
fihi Cotyis consortisque eiusdem imperii, Romam^ 
evocavit ! Singulari in eo negotio usus opera Flacci 
Pomponii consularis viri, nati ad omnia, quae recte 
facienda sunt, simpUcique virtute merentis semper, 

2 numquam* captantis gloriam. Cum quanta gravitate 
ut senator et iudex, non ut princeps, causam Drusi 
Libonis audivit^ ! Quam celeriter ingratum et nova 
moHentem oppressit ! Quibus praeceptis instructum 
Germanicum suum imbutumque ru^imentis militiae 
secum actae domitorem recepit Germaniae ! Quibus 
iuventam eius exaggeravit honoribus, respondente 
cultu triumphi rerum, quas gesserat, magnitudini ! 

1 propiilit Acidalius ; protulit AP. 
^ forma added by Rhenanus. 
' Romam Ursinus ; formam BAP. 
* numquam Orelli ; qiiam AP. 

" causamDruslLibonis audivit3fa<iOT^; et causas pressius 
audit AP. 

" On the death of Rhoemetalces, King of Thrace, 
Augustus divided the kingdom between Cotys, son of 
Rhoemetalces, and Rhascupohs, the king's brother. On 
the death of Augustus, Rhascupolis had invaded his 
nephew's kingdom, and subsequently, on the pretext of an 
amicable adjustment, invited him to a conference, seized his 
person, and later put him to death. When Tiberius 
summoned him to Rome he began to coUect an army. He 

HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxviii. 3— cxxix. 2 

all these assuredly felt that the highest honours 
should be paid to the man of merit. It was but the 
natural following of precedent that impelled Caesar 
to put Sejanus to the test, and that Sejanus was 
induced to assist the emperor with his burdens, and 
that brought the senate and the Roman people to 
the point where they were ready to summon for 
the preservation of its security the man whom they 
regarded as the most useful instrument. 

CXXIX. But having set before the reader a sort 
of general outline of the principate of Caesar, let 
us now review some of the details. With what 
sagacity did he draw to Rome Rhascupolis," the 
slayer of his brother's son Cotys who shared the 
throne with him ; rn this transaction Tiberius 
employed the rare services of Flaccus Pomponius, 
a consular, and a man born to carry out tasks 
requiring accurate discrimination, and who by his 
straightforward character always deserved glory 
though he never sought it. With what dignity did 
he hsten to the trial of Drusus Libo, not in the 
capacity of emperor, but as a senator and a judge ! 
How swiftly did he suppress that ingrate in his plot 
for revolution ! How well had Germanicus been 
trained under his instructions, having so thoroughly 
leamed the rudiments of mihtary science under 
him that he was later to welcome him home as 
conqueror of Germany ! What honours did he heap 
upon him, young though he was, making the 
magnificence of his triumph to correspond to the 

was enticed into the Roman carap by Pomponius Flaccus, 
propraetor of Illyria and sent to Rome. He was conderaned 
to exile at Alexandria, where an excuse was found for put- 
ting him to death. 



3 Quotiens populum congiariis honoravit senatorumque 
censum, cum id senatu auctore facere potuit, quam 
libenter explevit, ut neque luxuriam invitaret neque 
honestam paupertatem pateretur dignitate destitui ! 
Quanto cum honore Germanicum suum in trans- 
marinas misit provincias ! Qua vi consiliorum suorum, 
ministro et adiutore usus Druso fiUo suo, Marobo- 
duum inhaerentem occupati regni finibus, pace 
maiestatis eius dixerim, velut serpentem abstrusam 
terrae salubribus'^ medicamentis coegit egredi ! 
Quam illum ut honorate, sic^ secure continet ! 
Quantae molis bellum principe Galliarum ciente 
Sacroviro Floroque lulio mira celeritate ac virtute 
compressit, ut ante populus Romanus vicisse se 
quam bellare cognosceret nuntiosque periculi victoriae 

4 praecederet nuntius ! Magni etiam terroris bellum 
Africum et cotidiano auctu maius auspiciis consiliisque 
eius brevi sepultum est. 

1 CXXX. Quanta suo suorumque nomine exstruxit 
opera ! Quam pia munificentia superque humanam 
evecta fidem templum patri molitur ! Quam magnifico 
animi temperamento Cn. quoque Pompei munera 
absumpta igni restituit ! Quidquid enim umquam^ 
claritudine eminuit, id veluti cognatum censet 
tuendum. Qua liberalitate cum alias, tum proxime 

* consiliorum suorura after salubribus hracketed hy Ruhnken. 

^ sic Burman ; nec AP. 

" quicquid enim umquam Haase ; qui quidem quam AP. 

« A.D. 21. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxix. 3— cxxx. 1 

greatness of his deeds ! How often did he honour 
the people with largesses, and how gladly, whenever 
he could do so •with the senate's sanction, did he 
raise to the required rating the fortunes of senators, 
but in such a way as not to encourage extravagant 
Uving, nor yet to allow senators to lose their rank 
because of honest poverty ! With what honours 
did he send his beloved Germanicus to the pro\-inces 
across the seas ! With what efFective diplomacy, 
carried out through the help and agency of his son 
Drusus, did he force Maroboduus, who clung to the 
limits of the territories he had seized as a serpent 
to his hole, to come forth Uke the serpent under the 
speU of his salutary charms — a simile which I use 
with no disrespect to Caesar. With what honour 
does he treat him while at the same time he holds 
him securely ! With what wonderful swiftness and 
courage did he repress the formidable war, stirred 
up at the instigation of Sacrovlr and Florus JuUus," 
so that the Roman people leamed that he had con- 
quered before they knew he was engaged in war, 
and the news of victory preceded the news of the 
danger ! The African war also, which caused great 
constemation and grew more formidable every day, 
was soon extinguished under his auspices and in 
accordance with his plans. 

CXXX. What pubUc buildings did he construct 
in his own name or that of his family ! With what 
pious munificence, exceeding human beUef, does he 
now rear the temple to liis father ! With what a 
magnificent control of personal feeUng did he restore 
the works of Gnaeus Pompey when destroyed by 
fire ! For a feeUng of kinship leads him to protect 
every famous monument. With what generosity at 



2 incenso monte Caelio omnis ordinis hominum 
iacturae patrimonio succurrit suo ! Quanta cum 
quiete hominum rem perpetui praecipuique timoris, 
supplementum, sine trepidatione dilectus providet ! 

3 Si aut natura patitur aut mediocritas recipit homi- 
num, audeo cum deis^ queri : quid hic meruit, 
primum ut scelerata Drusus Libo iniret consiHa ? 
Deinde ut SiHum Pisonemque tam infestos haberet, 
quorum^ alterius dignitatem constituit, auxit alte- 
rius ? Ut ad maiora transcendam, quamquam et 
haec ille duxit^ maxima, quid, ut iuvenes amitteret 
fihos ? Quid, ut nepotem ex Druso suo ? Dolenda 

4 adhuc retuhmus : veniendum ad erubescenda est. 
Quantis hoc triennium, M. \"inici, doloribus laceravit 
animum eius ! Quam diu abstruso, quod miserrimum 
est, pectus eius flagravit incendio, quod ex nuru, 
quod ex nepote dolere, indignari, erubescere coactus 
est ! Cuius temporis aegritudinem auxit amissa 

mater, eminentissima et per omnia deis quam 
hominibus simiUor femina, cuius potentiam nemo 
sensit nisi aut levatione periculi aut accessione 

1 CXXXL Voto finiendum volumen est.* luppiter 
Capitoline, et auctor ac stator Romani nominis 
Gradive Mars, perpetuorumque custos Vesta ignium 

* audeo cum deis Heinsius ; auro deo cum de his AP. 

^ infestos haberet quorum supplied hy Burman. ' 

* duxit llhenanus ; dixit AP. 
* est Orelli ; sit AP. 

" Agrippina, the wife of Gerraanicus, adopted son of 
Tiberius, banished to Pandataria in a.d. 30, where she died, 
in A.D. 33, of voluntary starvation ; and Nero, the son of 
Germanicus and Agrippina, who was banished to the island 
of Pontia. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxx. 2— cxxxi. 1 

the time of the recent fire on the Caelian Hill, as 
well as on other occasions, did he use his private 
fortune to make good the losses of people of all 
ranks in Hfe ! And the recruiting of the army, a 
thing ordinarily looked upon ^vith great and constant 
dread, ^vith what calm on the part of the people does 
he provide for it, and without any of the usual panic 
attending conscription ! If either nature permits, 
or man's weak faculties allow, I may dare to make 
this plaint to the gods : How has this man deserved, 
in the first place, to have Drusus Libo enter upon a 
traitorous conspiracy against him, or later to eam 
the hostiUty of SiHus and Piso, though in the one 
case he created his rank, and in the other he in- 
creased it ? Passing on to greater trials — although 
he regarded these as great enough — how did he 
deserve the loss of his sons in their prime or of his 
grandson, the son of Drusus ? Thus far I have told 
of sorrows only, we must now come to the shame. 
With wliat pain, Marcus Vinicius, have the past 
three years rent his heart ! With what fire, the more 
cruel because pent up, was his soul consumed because 
of the grief, the indignation, and the shame he was 
forced to suffer through his daughter-in-law and 
his grandson ! " His sorrow at this time was crowned 
by the loss of his mother, a woman pre-eminent 
among women, and who in all things resembled the 
gods more than mankind, whose power no one felt 
except for the alleviation of trouble or the promotion 
of rank. 

CXXXI. Let me end my volume with a prayer. 
O Jupiter Capitohnus, and Mars Gradivus.. author 
and stay of the Roman name, Vesta, guardian of 
the eternal fire, and aU other divinities who have 



et quidquid numinum hanc Romani imperii molem 
in amplissimum terrarum orbis fastigium extulit, vos 
publica voce obtestor atque precor : custodite, 
servate, protegite hunc statum, hanc pacem, hunc 
2 principem,! eique functo longissima statione mortali 
destinate successores quam serissimos, sed eos, 
quorum cervices tam fortiter sustinendo terrarum 
orbis imperio sufRciant, quam huius suffecisse 
sensimus, consiHaque omnium civium aut pia fovete 
aut impia opprimite.^ 

^ hunc principem added hi/ Llpsius. 
* fovete . . . opprimite supplied by Vos*. 


HISTORY OF ROME, II. cxxxi. 1-2 

exalted this great empire of Rome to the highest 
point yet reached on earth ! On you I call, and to 
you I pray in the name of this people : guard, 
preserve, protect the present state of things, the 
peace which we enjoy, the present emperor, and 
when he has fiiled his post of duty — and may it 
be the longest granted to mortals — grant him 
successors until the latest time, but successors whose 
shoulders may be as capable of sustaining bravely 
the empire of the world as we have found his to be : 
foster the pious plans of all good citizens and crush 
the impious designs of the wicked. 




Amono extant historical documents there is none 
that outweighs in importance the aceount of his 
stewardship which the Emperor Augustus left among 
the papers deposited with the Vestal Virgins before 
his death, preserved to us in a copy chiselled upon 
the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at 
Ancyra in Asia Minor, the modern Angora. This 
copy, known as the Monumentura Ancyranum, has 
justly been called by Mommsen the " Queen of 

. Suetonius, Augustus, 101, states that Augustus had 
deposited with the Vestal Virgins, along with his 
will, three other documents, all of which were 
opened and read in the Senate. The first contained 
instructions for his funeral ; the third, a summarized 
statement of the condition of the whole empire ; the 
second, the one with which we are here concerned, 
contained " a r^sume of his acts which he wished to 
have engraved upon bronze tablets to be set up 
before his mausoleum." More than forty years 
before his death Augustus had built this mausoleum 
on the Tiber at the northern edge of the Campus 
Martius, in the midst of a small park, which was 
opened by the Emperor to the public. The mauso- 
leum itself was probably surrounded by an enclosing 
wall, at the entrance to which, facing the Campus 
Mavtius, stood the pillars, or pilasters, on which was 
engraved the iridex rerum gestarum. The shell of the 


mausoleum itself has outlived the centuries and is 

still standing on the Ripetta, but the bronze tablets 
have long since disappeared. The original docu- 
ment, however, was copied on the walls of many of 
the temples of Augustus throughout the empire, and 
remains of three copies have come to hght in Asia 
Minor alone. In addition to the Augusteum at 
Ancyra, inscribed with both the Latin text and a 
Greek version, there was found another ruined 
temple at ApoUonia with remnants of the same 
Greek version ; it is fairly certain that the Augusteum 
at Pergamon had both the Latin and the Greek 
versions ; and finally at Antioch in Pisidia (Colonia 
Caesarea) Sir W. M. Ramsay discovered, in 1914, a 
nimiber of fragments of the Latin text from a fourth 
copy.^ But the inscription on the temple of Rome 
and Augustus at Ancyra is relatively so complete, 
although marred in places by the scahng of the 
stone, that it outweighs all the others in importance, 
and the designation Monumentum Anc}Tanum has 
become synonymous 'with Res Gestae Di\i Augusti. 
The temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra is 
still in a fair state of preservation. The Latin text 
is chiselled upon both sides of the ixmer walls of the 
pronaos or vestibule. It was arranged in six pages, 
three of forty-six hnes each, on the left as one entered, 
surmounted by the title, which runs in two and a 
half hnes across the top of all three, and three pages 
on the right of fifty-four Hnes each. The arrangement 
undoubtedly was in general a rephca of that of the 
inscription at Rome. Each Une contained on the 

^ Ramsay, "Colonia Caesarea (Pisidian Antioch) in the 
Augustan Age," Joumal of Roman Studies, vol. vi., 1916, 
London, pp. 108-129. 

H S33 


average about sixty letters. The height of the inscrip- 
tion is 2-70 metres on each wall, and the length on 
each wall is about 4 metres. To mark the para- 
graphs, the first letter projects beyond the margin, 
and to indicate periods, a symbol like a figure 7 was 
used, which is usually, however, printed in the texts 
as §. On one of the outer walls of the temple was 
inscribed a Greek translation of the I>atin. The 
fact that several Turkish houses had been built 
against this wall long made it difficult to read all of 
the Greek inscription and still more difficult to 
secure casts. 

The Monumentum Ancyranum was first made 
known to the western world by Buysbecche, a Dutch 
scholar who was sent, in 1555, by Ferdinand II. on 
an embassy to the Sultan Sohman at Amasia in Asia 
Minor. He first read and identified the inscription 
and pubhshed a copy of parts of it. After him the 
inscription was copied in part by many travellers, 
but the first faithful and trustworthy copy was made 
by Georges Perrot and Edmund Guillaume, who had 
been commissioned by Napoleon III. to explore 
Asia Minor. They made a facsimile copy, but no 
casts, of the whole of the Latin, and as much of the 
Greek as they could get at. Their plates were the 
basis of Mommsen's edition of the text in 1865, and 
of that of Bergk in 1873 ; also of the text in 
the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. In 1859 the 
Berhn Academy commissioned Mordtmann to make 
a cast in papier-mache, but after visiting the site he 
reported that the owners of the Turkish houses 
would not permit his getting at the parts of the 
Greek inscription which were hidden, and that the 
making of a cast woukl still further injure the 


inscription itself. In 1882, however, at the sugges- 

tion of Mommsen, the Academy commissioned Carl 
Humann to make a plaster cast. He not only made 
casts of the Latin inscription, but also of the Greek 
as well, ha\ing persuaded the owTiers of the houses 
to allow their walls to be partially tom down for the 
piirpose, and the casts were safely transported to 
BerUn in the autumn of 1882, where they are now 
among the treasures of the Museum. Hinnann's 
casts liave superseded in value all pre\ious copies, 
except in a few places where the wall had scaled 
since these earher copies were made, as, for instance, 
in page 5, Unes 34-48, and page 6, Unes 1-6. In 
1 SS3, using these casts as a basis, Mommsen pubUshed 
his great critical edition, vrith a supplement con- 
taining heUogra\"ure reproductions from the casts. 
This edition of Mommsen has become the basis for 
a!l subsequent work. There are still passages in 
which the lacunae in the Latin cannot be suppUed 
with certainty from the Greek translation, either 
because of lacunae or illegibiUty in the Greek text, 
and concerning which subsequent scholars have 
exercised their ingenuity in conjecture. Some of 
these conjectures are clearly more probable than 
Mommsen's, while others raise debatable questions 
which will never be cleared up until another copy 
either of the Latin text or the Greek translation is 
found in one of the many Augustea in Asia Minor.^ 

^ Sir W. M. Ramsay's work at Colonia Caesarea (Pisidian 
Antioch) was stopped by the local authorities soon after he 
began to find fragments of the Latin inscription. When 
the work of excavation is continued it may be that other 
fraarments will come to light which wiU clear up a number 
of the vexed passages. See Ramsay^s article in the Joumal 
of Roman Studies, vol. vi,, 1916. 



But for by far the greater portion of the document 
we have the actual words' of Augustus, and for a 
considerable portion in addition the substance 
supplied from the Greek or from sure conjecture. 

In a style of studied simphcity, and almost tele- 
graphic brevity, with not a word too many or a word 
too few, and, except for the personal pronoun which 
is used throughout, with an objectivity worthy of 
the commentaries of his adopted father, the docu- 
ment sets forth, (1) the honours conferred upon 
Augustus from time to time by the Senate and the 
Roman people and the services for which they were 
conferred, chapters 1-14, (2) the donations which he 
made from his own personal account to the RepubUc, 
to the discharged soldiers, and the Roman plebs ; 
also the games, shows, and spectacles given to the 
people at his own expense, chapters 15-24, and (3) an 
account of his acts in peace and war, chapters 25-35. 
The title provided by Tiberius includes only the last 
two, namely, the Impensae and the Res Gestae, but 
the first group may easily be reckoned mth the 
third, since the services are there recorded as well 
as the honours conferred in reward for them. There 
is no attempt at hterary embelHshment. The 
document is almost statistical in its conciseness, and 
the facts of a long hfe are allowed to speak for them- 
selves. The superlative is purposely avoided, and 
there is also an absence of the usual descriptive 
adjectives and adverbs. Nowhere does the emperor 
refer by name to any of his public enemies, such as 
Antony, Brutus and Cassius, Lepidus, or Sextus 
Pompey. Not even his own name appears in the 
body of the document, except in the statement that 
the Senate, out of honour to him, had conferred upon 


hira the title of Augustus. No mention is made of 
his father, his mother, or his wife, nor, indeed, of any 
member of his family, except that he does mention 
Agrippa, Tiberius, Gaius, and Lucius, when their 
names were Unked with his in pubUc honours and 
public affairs. In a word, everything of a personal 
nature is omitted with studied objectivity, and his 
narration is Umited to his relations •vnih the Senate 
and the Roman people and theirs ^\-ith him. 

For a long time there waged in Germany a con- 
troversy as to the purpose and Uterary classification 
of the document. Was it intended as a poUtical 
testament,^ or a statement of credit and debit in his 
account with the Roman people,^ or an account of 
his stewardship,^ or an apologia pro vita sua,* or as 
an epitaph ^ ? Each of these theories had its 
defenders. If it was intended for an epitaph, 
Augustus must have contemplated that it would be 
thrown into epitaph form by his successor, Tiberius, 
who, in any event, aUowed it to stand in the form in 
which it was written. Mommsen declares against 
ascribing it to any particular class of composition.^ 

1 Hirschfeld, Wiener Studien, iii. (1881) and vii. (1885) ; 
Wochenschrift filr class. Philol., 1884; Plew, QueUenunter- 
suchungen zur Gesch. des Kaisers Hadrian, Strassburg, 1890. 

* Wolfflin, " Epigraphische Beitrage," S.-B. der Mitnch. 
Akad., 1886, p. 225, and 1896, p. 162. 

' Mommsen, von SvbePs Historische Zeitschrift, N.F. 
xxi., 1887. 

* Cantarelli, " L' Iscrizione di Ancyra," Bullettino della 
com. arch. comunale, iii. ser. 4 (1889), p. 3. 

' Bormann, Bemerkungen zum achriftlichen Nachlass 
des Kaisers Augustus, Marburger Program, 1884 ; also 
" Veranlassung und Zweck des Mon. Anc," Verhandl. der 
43. Philologen-Versammlung in Kolrit 1895. Supported by 
Nissen, Schmidt, and Peter. 



It is clear that the document was not originally 
written in a.d. 14, as the last sentence would seem to 
indicate, but that it was begun much earUer, with 
later additions from time to time. As to when 
Augustus wrote his original draft, and what additions 
were subsequently made, and at what time, there 
has been much controversy. Some of the details of 
these problems will be discussed in the historical 
notes. It is sufficient to say here that it is fairly 
sure that an early draft of the document was already 
complete in his twelfth consulship, 2 b.c, and perhaps 
long before that ; that subsequently changes M'ere 
made in some of the statements as, for instance, in 
the case of the donations to the city plebs in his 
twelfth and thirteenth consulships, where the 
amounts are reckoned in denarii and not, as usual, in 
sesterces ; that the statement in regard to the sub- 
jugation of the German tribes as far as the Elbe, 
while true at the time at which it was written, was 
no longer true in a.d. 14, when the last words were 
added, if, indeed, these were added by Augustus 
himself ; and that the mention of his third census 
made in a.d. 14 is of course a later addition made 
either by himself or by Tiberius. 

The Text 

The Latin text of the Res Gestae, as here printed, 
is based upon that of Mommsen's Second Edition 
of 1883, supplemented by that of the third edition 
of the Monumentum Ancyranum by Ernst Diehl, 
Bonn, 1918. Diehl has had the advantage of the 


twenty-five years of study which scholars have 
devoted to the yionumentum since the publication 
of Mommsen's second edition and has adopted a 
number of readings which better fill the spaces in 
the lacunae, or better correspond with the content 
of the Greek version. In some of the passages 
Momnisen's readings have been retained as against 
Diehl, and in a few the conjectures of other scholars 
have been adopted as indicated in the notes on the 
text. Use has also been made of the fragments 
of the Latin text of the Res Gestae found by Sir 
WilHam Ramsay at Colonia Caesarea (Pisidian 
Antioch) in 191 4, and published by him in the 
Journal of Roman Studies, vol. \i., 1916, pp. 114-134. 
These fragments are exceedingly small, but, placed 
in position, some of them serve to determine which 
of the conjectures of various scholars is the correct 
or more probable one. 

In the general typography it has seemed best, 
for the purposes of the Loeb Library, to foUow Diehl 
rather than Mommsen. Mommsen's lines, which 
correspond to those of the inscription, are too long 
for the width of the page of so small a volume. The 
ends of the lines in the original monument are here 
indicated by a perpendicular line thus, | , and the 
beginning of each fifth Une, numbered in the margin 
5, 10, 15, etc, in the various paragraphs is indicated 
by two perpendicular lines thus, [i . In the original, 
the first letter of each paragraph projects beyond 
the margin. To save space, the paragraphs are 
here indented according to modem practice. The 
lacunae and illegible passages are indicated by 
parentheses thus, (), and the words which have 
been supplied to fiU them are, in the case of the 



Latin text, printed in italics. In the Greek text 
the parentheses alone are used. In the Latin in- 
scription the long vowels are indicated on the stone, 
but not always consistently, either by an apex, or 
in the case of long i, by an elongation of that letter. 
In printing the Latin text the apex (') has been 
used for all vowels whose length is indicated on the 
stone by either method. The sign § is used to 
represent a symbol on the stone which resembles 
sometimes the figure 7, sometimes an open 3. 

In printing the Greek text, Diehl has been foUowed 
except in a very few passages. 

Wherever it has seemed essential, the Latin text 
has been provided with critical footnotes. These 
have been omitted for the Greek version, partly 
for economy of space, and partly because the Greek 
version is of value chiefly as a subsidiary aid. 

The Historical Notes 

The interest which the Monumentum Ancyranum 
will have for most readers is chiefly historical. For 
the benefit of the general reader, and also of the 
student of history, the translation has been supple- 
mented by historical notes, to amplify or explain 
the statements of the first emperor, which are 
throughout characterized by epigraphic brevity. 
In compihng these notes it has sometimes been 
exceedingly hard to draw the Hne between saying 
too much or too Uttle. Owing to the nature of the 
document itself, these notes are necessarily much 
more numerous than is usual in the volumes of the 
Loeb Classical Library. 


So many articles and comments on the MonumerUum 
Ancyranum have appeared, especially gince 1861, that a 
complete bibliography is out of the question here, and 
the list will have to be limited to the more important 
books and articles, and particularly to those referred to 
in the introduction, and the critical and historical notes. 

Editions ^ 

Corjnis Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. iii., Pars II,, pp. 

769 ff., Berlin, 1873. 
Mommsen, Theodor, Rcs Gestae Divi Augusti ex Monu- 

mentis Ancyrano et Apolloniensi, with eleven photo- 

gravure plates, Berlin, 1883. 
R. Cagnat and G. Lafaye, Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res 

Romanas pertinentes iii., 1, 1902, p. Q5 S. 
Emst Diehl, Res Gestae Divi AuguMi, third ed., Boim, 


English Translations 

William Fairley, Monumentum Ancyranum in Transla- 
tions and Reprints from the Original Smirces of 
European History, Philadelphia, Pa., 1898. 

E. S. Shuckburgh, Augustus, T. Fisher Unwin, London, 
pp. 293-301. 


E. Bormann, Bemerkungen zum schriftlichen Nachkus 
des Kaisers Augustus, Marburg, 1884 ; also, Ver- 
handlungen der 43. Versammlung deutscher Philologen 
und Schulmanner in Koln, Leipzig, 1895, p. 184 ff. 

^ E. G. Hard}% The Monumentum Ancyranum, Oxford, 
Clarendon Press, 1923, appeared after this volume was in 
page proof, and therefore too late to be used by the translator. 



F. Gottakda, Suetons Verhaltnis zu der Denkschrift des 

Augustus, Dissertation, Munich, 1904, p. 50 ff. ; 

also Blatter fur das bayerische Gymnasialschulwesen, 

1913, p. 121 ff. 
Fr. Haug, Bursians Jahresberichte ilber die Fortschritte 

der Altertumswissenschaft, Ivi., 1888, p. 87 ff. 
J. Schmidt, Philologus, xliv., 1885, p. 448 ff. ; ib. xlv., 

1886, p. 393 ff. ; ib. xlvi., 1887, p. 70 ff. 
O. Seeck, Wochenschrift fiir klassische Philologie, 1884, 

col. 1475 ff. 
R. Wirtz, Erganzungs- und Verbesserungsvorschlage zum 

Monumentum Ancyranum, Program, Trier, 1912. 
E. Wolfflin, Sitzungsberichte der kgl. bayer. Akademie der 

Wissenschaften, 1886, p. 253 ff. ; 1896, p. 160 ff. 
Sir W. M. Ramsay, " Colonia Caesarea (Pisidian Antioch) 

in the Augustan Age," Journal of Roman Studies, 

vol. vi., 1916, London, pp. 108-129. 

BooKS AND Abticles dealing with Literary 


V. Gardthausen, Augustus und seine Zeit, i. 1279 ff. ; 

ii. 874 ff., Leipzig, 1904. 
M. Schanz, Romische lAtteraturgeschichte, vol. ii. pt. i. 

p. 12, Munich, 1911. 
M. Besnier, "Recents travaux sur les Res Gestae Divi 

Augusti," in Melanges Cagnat, p. 119 ff. 
Th. Mommsen, von Sybers Historische Zeitschrift, N.F. 

xxi., 1887, p. 385 ff. ; also Rom. Gesch. v. 600 ff. ; 

Journal des Savants, xii. 176 ff. 
A. von Domaszewski, " Untersuchungen zur rcimischen 

Kaisergeschichte," Rheinisches Museum, lix., 1904, p. 

302 ff. 
W. Fuerst, Suetons Verhdltnis zu der Denkschrifi des 

Augustus. Erlangen dissertation, 1904, p. 58. 
O. Hirschfeld, "Die kaiserlichen Grabstatten in Rom," 

Sitzungsber. der Kgl. preuss. Akad., 1886, p. 1154; 

"Die Abfassungszeit des Regierungsberichtes des 

Augustus," ib., 1915, p. 423. 


E. Koraemann, Beitrage zur alten Geschichte, ii., 1902, 

p. 141 ff. ; ib. iii., 1903, p. 74 ff. ; iv., 1904, p. 
88 ff. ; V., 1905, p. 317 ff. ; Berliner philologische 
Wochenschrift, 1906, col. 120 ; Klio, xiv., 1915, p. 
377 ff. 

F. Koepp, Mittheilungen des romisches Instituts, xbt., 

1904, p. 51 ff. 

F. Marks, " Zur Komposition des Res Gestae des Kaisers 

Augustus," Festschrift d. Padagogiums in Putbus, 
H. Peter, Die geschichtliche Litteratur uber die rSmische 
Kaiserzeit, i. 453 ff. 

G. Sigwart, " Sueton und das Monumentum Ancyranum," 

Klio, X., 1910, p. 394. 
P. Viereck, Sermo Graecus, Gottingen, 1888, p. 85. 
Vulic, Rivista di storia antica, xiii., 1909, p. 41 ff. 
W. L. Westermann, " The Monument of Ancyra," 

American Historical Review, 17, 1911. 
U. WUcken, Hermes, xxxviii., 1903, p. 618 ff. 
M. Rostowzew, Title and Character o/ the Mon. Anc. (in 

Russian), St. Petersburg, 1913. 
Chr. Huelsen, Tapographie von Rom, 1907, p. 620 ff. 
E. Norden, Antike Kunstprosa, p. 268 ff. 



Rerum^ gestarum divi Augusti, quibus orbem terra- 
{rurn) imperio populi Rom. subiecit, § et inpensarum, 
quas in rem publicam populumque Ro(7wa)num fecit, 
incisarum in duabus aheneis piKs, quae su(«)t Romae 
positae, exemplar sub(«)ectum. 

I 1 Annos undeviginti natus exercitum privato 
consilio et privata impensa | comparavi, (§) per quem 
rem publicam (rfo)minatione factionis oppressam | in 

' For an explanation of the apices (') ahd other symbols 
such as §, used in printing the text, see Introd. pp. 334, 339 f. 

M.€drjpfjbrjvev[j,evai, VTreypdcf^rjaav Trpd^eis T€ Kal 
Scopeat He^acTTOV deov, as dTTeXiTTev eTrl 'Pa)p,rjs 
ivKexo-payfievas ^^aA/cats" arijXats Svai. 

I 1. 'EtcDi/ SeKa€{v)v€a cov ro orpdTevjxa ifjLrjt 
yvcofJLrji Kai \ ifiots dv{aX)(x}fia(nv rfToiijjiaad) , hi 
ov Ta KOivd TTpd\yfiaTa {iK rrfjs t{(x))v crvvo{fxoaa) - 

" The title Res Gestae Divi Augusti is that assigned by 

The superscription, which was engraved in large letters 
across the top of the first three columns of the Mon. Anc, 
was of course not by Augustus. It was adapted, as is 
indicated by the words incisarum . . . exemplar subiectum, 
from the superscription provided by Tiberius, or some 
one acting under his orders, for the bronze pillars before 





Below is a copy of the acts of the Deified Augustus 
by which he placed the whole world under the 
sovereignty of the Roman people, and of the amounts 
which he expended upon the state and the Roman 
people, as engraved upon two bronze colimins 
which have been set up in Rome.<» 

1 . At the age of nineteen,* on my o>vn initiative 
and at my own expense, I raised an army " by means 
of which I restored Uberty <* to the republic, which 

the Mausoleum of Augustus at Rome. Its original form 
on that raonument was probably : Res gestae divi Augusti, 
quibus orbem terrarum imperio populi Romani subiecit, et 
impensae quas in rem publicam populumque Romanum fecit. 

The Greek sup>erscription reads : " Below is a translation 
of the acts and donations of the Deified Augustus as left by 
him inscribed on two bronze columns at Rome." 

* Octa\ian was nineteen on September -23, 44 b.c. 

« During October, by offering a bounty of 500 denarii, 
he induced Caesar's veterans at Casilinum and Calatia to 
enlist, and in Xovember the legions named Martia and 
Quarta repudiated Antony and went over to him. This 
activity of Octavian, on his own initiative, was ratified by 
the Senate on December 20, on the motion of Cicero. 

' In the battle of Mutina, April 43. Augustus may also 
have had Philippi in mind. 



libertatem vindica(DJ. Quas ob res^ *e«)atus decretis 
honor(i/i)cis in | ordinem suum m(e adlegit C. Pansa 
s A. Hirti)o consulibu(*, c)on(5«/a)Jiremlocum s(ententiae 
dicendae simul dans,^ et e7«)perium mihi dedit. (§) | 
Res publica n(e quid detritttenti caperet, me) pro praetore 
simul cum | consulibus Y)Vo{videre iussit. § Populus) 
autem eodem anno me | consulem, cum (cos. uterque 
bello cecj)disset, et trium virum ref publicae con- 
stituend(ae creavit.) \\ 
lo 2. Qui parentem meum (interjecer)un(t, e6)s in 
exilium expuH iudiciis legi|timis ultus eorum (fa)ci- 
n(us, § e)t postea bellum iriferentis rel publicae | vici 
h(is a)cie. | 

' Quas ob res Wdlfflin, Ob quae Mommsen, Propter quae 

* &{imul dans sententiae /erendae et iTO)perium Mommsen. 

fievcov SovAiqas \ (rjXev)de{pojaa. 'E<^' o)t? 17 
5 avvKXrjTos eTTaLveaaad \\ (/xe ip-qcf^Lanaai) irpoa- 
KariXe^e rrjt ^ovXrjt VatcoL Ud^va^q. \ (AvXcol 
'IpTLcoL v)7T{d)ro{L)s, iv rrJL rd^eL rwv v7Tar(LKCjo)v | 
(dfJLa r)6 a{vix^ov)XeveLV Sovaa, pd^Bov{s:) r ifJLol 
eSco/cev. | (Ilep)t rd Srj/jLoaLa TrpdypLara pLiq ti 
^Xa^rJL, ifJLOL />te| (to. rcbv vtto^tcov TTpovoeZv eTr- 

10 erpei/jev dvTL arparrjyo^v) \\ (ovtl. § *0 S)e 
8(rf)ijLOS rcoL avTcoL ivLavrcoL, dpLcf^orepcov \ (rcbv 
vrrdrcov TT^oXepLcoL TTe7TTCo{K)6(T)cov, ifie V7Ta\{rov 
aTTeheL^ev Kal rrjv rcbv rpLCOv dvSpcov ep^ot^j^Ta 
dpx^^v eVi) rrJL KaraardaeL rcbv B(rj)iJLoaLcov 7rpa|(y- 
fxdrcov) e(tA)aT(o). || 

15 2. (Toi)? r6v rrarepa rov ifx^v <f>ov€tj)a(av)T(a)s i^- 
cbpLaa KpiKaeaLV ivSCjKOLS reLp,co(p)r]adpe(vos) avrcbv 
r6 I (dae^rjpa K^al (pLe)rd ravra avrovs TToXepLOV 
i\(TrL(j)epovras rrJL 7ra)T(/>)tSi 8ls iveLKrjaa 7ra/BaTa^et.| 


had been oppressed by the tyranny of a faction." 
For which service the senate, ^vith comphmentary 
resolutions, enrolled me in its order, in the consul- 
ship of Gaius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, giving me 
at the same time consular precedence in voting ; 
it also gave me the imperiumfi As propraetor it 
ordered me, along with the consuls, " to see that 
the republic sufFered no harm." In the same year, 
moreover,,as both consuls had fallen in war," the 
people elected me consul and a triumvir for settling 
the constitution.** 

2. Those who slew my father* I drove into exile, 
punishing their deed by due process of law/ and 
aftervvards when they waged war upon the republic 
I twice" defeated them in battle. 

" By " faction " he means Antony, whom he never 
mentions by name. 

* On January 2, 43 b.c, the Senate decreed that Octavian 
should be classed as a quaestorius (Dio, xlvi. 29. 41 ), should be 
a member of the Senate (Livy, Epit. c\\u\.), should have the 
eonsularia omamenta, and for that reason should give his 
opinion along with the consuls (App. B.C. iii. 51); he was 
also given the rank of propraetor with imperium, i.e. the 
constitutional right to command soldiers. 

* Pansa died of his wounds, and Hirtius was kUled in 
action in the operations about Mutina. 

<• Octavian became consul August 19, 43 b.c, after march- 
ing his army from Cisalpine Gaul to intimidate the Senate. 
On November 27 the appointment of Octavian, Antony, 
and Lepidus as triumvirs was brought about by their 
arrival in the citj- with armed forces. 

* Julius Caesar. 

' By the lex Pedia. 

» The two battles at Philippi. 



3. (B)ella terra et mari c(ivilia exter)naque toto in 
orbe terrarum s(uscepi^) | vietorque omnibus (veniam 

15 petentib)us^ civibus peperci, § Exte(ma*) || gentes, 
quibus tiito (ignosci pot)ui(t, co)nservare quam exci- 
dere m(alui. §) | Millia civium R6ma(norum adacta) 
sacramento meo fuerunt circiter (quingen)\ta. § Ex 
quibus dedu(a;i in coloni)as aut remisi in municipia sua 
stipen(c?ij mm^^ltis millia aliquant(o plura qu)am 
trecenta et iis omnibus agros a(dsignavi^) j aut 
pecuniam pro ip(raemis »i«7)itiae* dedi. § Naves cepi 

20 sescen(te* praeter) \\ eas, si quae min6re(* quam tri- 
r)emes fuerunt. § | 

4. (Bis) ovans triumpha(t)«, tris egi c)urulis triumphos 

^ s{uscepi) Mommsen, s{aepe gessi) Bormann. 

* {siiperstitib)\is Mommseii. 

* &{dsignavi) Bormann, a {me emptos) Mommsen. 

* p(raeTOt* mi/)itiae Bergk and Bormann, i){raediis a) me 

5. (rioAejLious" Kal Kara yrjv) Kal Kara ddXaaoav 
20 eix<j>v\\{Xiovs Kal e^coTiKOVs) ev oXrji rrji OLKOVfxevrjL 

7ToX\{Xovs dvede^dfMr^v, V€LK)-^aas re Trdvrojv icf)- 
€LadiJ,r]v I (rcov TrepLovroiv TToX^Lrcov. T)a cdvr), ols 
dcr<^aAes' "^v crvv\{yva)[xrjv ex^LV, €cra>aa /x)aA(Aov) 
n •^ i^eKOipa. § Mu/otaSe? || 'PajjJLaLOJV arpar{€v)- 
a{aa)aL vtt{6 r6)v opKov r6v i[x6v \ iy€vovr{o) 
ivyvs 7T{€vrT]K)o{vr)a- (e)f aiv Kar-q^y^ayov ei? | 
rd{s) 0.770 (t)ACtas' t) d{7T€7T€fjnfja €LS rds) t8/a(s' 77oAeis 
eK:|Auo/xeVas /xu/otaSas" ttoAAcoi ttX^lovs rj rp^d- 
5 Kovra, II KOL TTdaaLS avrals r] dypovs ifiipLaa •^ 
■)(pr\fJ'O.Ta rrjs | arpareias Scopedv eSa»/<a. Navs § 
8e . . . eiAov e^aj/coCTtas rrXrjV rovrcov, et rtves 
T^CTCToves' iyivovro rj \ rpLrjp€Ls) \ 

4. iSXs e(m KeXrjros idpLdfL^€vaa), rpls {i)<f>' 


8. Wars, both ci^il and foreign, I undertook 
throughout the world, on sea and land, and when 
victorious I spared all citizens who sued for pardon." 
The foreign nations which could with safety be 
pardoned I preferred to save rather than to destroy. 
The number of Roman citizens who bound themselves 
to me by mihtary oath was about 500,000. Of these 
I settled in colonies or sent back into their o^to 
towns, after their term of ser\ice, something more 
than 300,000, and to all I assigned lands, or gave 
money as a reward for mihtary ser\ice.* I captured 
six hundred ships," over and above those which were 
smaller than triremes. 

4. Twice I triumphed with an ovation,* thrice I 

" He is referring in particular to the clemency which he 
showed afler the battle of Actium, for which he received a 
crown of oak leaves in 27 b.c. ob cives servatos. 

* Of the 300,000 soldiers who received honourable dis- 
missal from the service, 120,000 had been settled in colonies 
by the year 29 b.c. (see chap. 15) ; the remaining 180,000 
must consequently have been mustered out in the succeeding 
42 years of his reign. There were in senice at the death 
of Augustus 25 legions (Tac. Ann. iv. 5), or about 150,000 
men, exclusive of the praetorian and urban cohorts. Those 
who were killed in battle or died in service therefore num- 
bered about 50,000. 

* From Sextus Pompeius at Mylae 30 ships (Appian v. 
108), and at Naulochus 283 (i6. 108); from Antony at 
Actium 300 (Plutarch, Ant. 68). 

* " Bis ovans ingressus est urbem, post PhUippense (40 
B.c.) et rursus post Siculum bellum " (Nov. 13, 36 b.c), 
Suet. Aug. 2-2. An ovation was a minor triumph. In this 
the conqueror entered the city on foot or on horseback 
instead of in the four-horse chariot, as in the case of the 
curule triumph. 



et appella(to sum viciens) \ (se)me\ imperator. (Cu7n 
autem^ plii)ris triumphos mihi se(natus decrevisset,) | 
(iis *M)persedi. (§) h^aurum de fascib)us^ deposui 
§ in Capi(toZ?o votis, quae) \ quoque bello nuncu- 
(jiaveram, solu)tis. § Ob res a (jiie aut per legatos) \\ 
25 meos auspicis meis terra m(ariqu)e pr(o)spere gestas 
qu(inquagiens et 9M««)|quiens decrevit senatus supp(Zi- 
ca)ndum esse dis immo(rtalibtts. Dies autem,) \ (pe)r 
quos ex senatiis consulto (*)upplicatum est, fuere 
Dc(ccLXXXX. In triumphis) \ (meis) ducti sunt ante 
currum m(e)um reges aut x(eg)um lib(m novem. 
Consul) I (Jfuer)am terdeciens, c(M)m (scribeb)a(m) 

^ deinde Mommsen. 

* \{aurum de /ascib)us Weho/er, I(tem saepe laur)us 

10 apfjbaros. Et/co|[aa(/ct? Kal aTraf 7Tpocrrjyop€vdr)v 
avTo)Kpdrcop. T-fjg | (Se crvvKX-^rov ijjiol TrXeiovs 
6pLdfM^ov)s ^rj^Laa{ap.i\v'qs, avra)V aTTrjXXdyrfv (?) 
Kal 0.770 rcov pd^h)a}v rrjv {8d(f)vr]V \ Karedefjirjv iv 
raji Ka7rtTCoAta)6, rd)s evxds, {as iv €Kda)\roi{i 
rwL TToXifMOji iTTOirfadfxrjV , arroh^ovs. (Ata ra 

15 7rpay//.a||Ta, a rf avros rj Sta rcijv TTpea^evrcov rcov 
i)fx{cov alaioLS \ olcovols kol Kard yrjv Kal Kard 
ddXarrav) KarcLpOco\aa, 7T{€vr)r)KovrdKLS (Kal) 
TTevrd^Kis iijijrjcf^iaaro rf \ av{vKXr)r)os OeoZs 8et(v) 
dveadai. {'Hfj^ipai ovv a|u(Ta)t i{K av)v{KX-qrov) 

20 S{6)yfiar{o)s iyivovro oKra^K^oaiaL ivevijlKKovra) . 
'Ev (T)otS' ifJLOLS {dpLdfJi}^oLS {npo To)v ifiov dp-\ 
fi{aros ^aaL^Xels rf {^aaLXecov TTatjSes (7Tap-qx^)V 
aav I ivvea. § (*T77aT)e(u)ov' rpls Kal heK{aro)v, 


celebrated curule triumphs,* and was saluted as im- 
perator twenty-one times.'' Although the Senate de- 
creed me additional triumphs I set them aside. When 
I had performed the vows which I had undertaken 
in each war I deposited upon the Capitol the laurels 
wliich adomed my fasces." For successful opera- 
tions on land and sea, conducted either by myself or 
by my heutenants xmder my auspices, the senate on 
fifty-five occasions decreed that thanks should be 
rendered to the immortal gods. The days on wWch 
such thanks were rendered by decree of the senate 
numbered 890. In my triumphs there were led 
before my chariot nine kings or children of kings.* At 
the time of writing these words I had been thirteen 

• " Curulis triumphos tris egit Delmaticum, Actiacum, 
Alexandrinum continuo triduo omnes " (Aug. 13, 14, 15 of 
the year 29), Suet. Aug. 22. " Tres triumphos egit, unum ex 
IllyTico, alterum ex Achaica victoria, tertium de Cleopatra " 
(Livy, Epit. 133). 

• These acclamations as imperator, for military successes, 
must not be confused with the title of imperatar prefixed to 
the name of Augustus and succeeding emperors. Mommsen 
gives the list, Re^ Gestae Divi Augiuti, p. 11. 

• Under the Republic the consul or praetor when starting 
<Mi an expedition took his vows on the Capitol ; if acclaimed 
hnperator by his troops he decked his fasces with laurel, 
«od on his retum deposited the wreath upon the Capitol. 

' In the three triumphs of the year 29 b.c. the following 
names are known : Alexander of Emesa, Adiatorix the 
Galatian prince with his wife and sons, and Alexander and 
Cleopatra, children of Cleopatra, whose statue was borne 
in the procession of the Egyptian triumph (Gardthausen, 
Avg. i. 473). 



haec, (et ageham^ se)p(timum et trigensimum annum) \\ 
30 (tribu)nicia,e potestatis. | 

5. (Diciatura)m et apsent(e ei praesenti a populo ei 
senatu Romano mihi ohlatam^) \ (M. Marce)\\o e(t) L. 
Ar(ru7iiio consulihus non accepi. Non recusavi in 
summa) \ (frumenti j9)enuri(o c)uratio(we)m an(wonae, 
qu)Sim. ita a.d(minisiravi, ut intra) | (paucos die)s^ metu 
et per(i)c(Zo praese?iti populu)m umv(ersu7n meis im-)\\ 

35 (pensis liberarem). § Con(suIatum tu7n dat)um annuum 
e(t perpeiuum non) \ (accepi.) \ 

6. (Consulihus M. Vimicio ei Q. Lucretio et postea 
P.) et Cn. h^eniulis ei tertium) \ (Paullo Fabio Maximo 

^ et agebam Mommsen, erainque Bergk. 

* a populo . . . oblatam Wolfflin, mihi datam a populo 
et senatu Mommsen. 

' intra paucos dies Wolfflin and Seeck, paucis diebus 

ore r(av)Ta eypac/jov, \ /cai 'rjf^T^iv rpi,a)K(ocrr6)v 
Kal e)SSo/x(oi/ Srjfxapx^i^KT]? \ e^ovaiag. \\ 

in 5. Avre^ovcTLov jxoi oipxyjv Kal aTTovn Kal 
TTapovTL I SiSoiJievqv (vjtto re rov SrjfMov Kal rrjs 
cruvKXi^rov \ M{dpK)a>(. (M)apKeX\<joi, Kal AevKLOjL 
5 ^AppOVVTLCOL VTToirOLS \\ o{vK e8)e^a/A7ji/. § Ov 
TTaprfrrjadiJLrjv ev rrJL fjLeyLcrrrjL \ {rov) a{eLr)ou 
OTTaveL rrjv enLfxeXeLav rrjg dyopds, rfv ov\{rojs 
eTTerrjhev)aa, oiar ev oklyaLs r]fx.epa{Ls ro)v Trapov- 
ros I <j>6^ov Kal kl{vS)vvov raZs ifMals SaTrdvais 
Tov Srjfiov I eXevdepcx)aa{i) . '^TTareiav re fxoL rore 

10 SL{S)ofjLevr)v Kal \\ €{v)LavaLov /ca(t 8)t(a) ^iov ovk 
eSe^dfxrjV. | 


A{ovKp)r]r{ia)L) | /cat fJLerd ra{v)ra rioTrAicot /cal 
Nato/t AevrXoLS Kal \ rpirov riaJAAait Oa^Stou 


times consul, and was in the thirty-seventh year of 
my tribunieian power.** 

5. The dictatorship ^ offered me by the people and 
the Roman Senate, in my absence and later when 
present, in the consulship of Marcus Marcellus and 
Lucius Arruntius * I did not accept. I did not 
decline at a time of the greatest scarcity of grain 
the charge of the grain - supply, which I so ad- 
ministered that, within a few days, I freed the entire 
people, at my own expense, from the fear and 
danger in which they were.'* The consulship, either 
yearly or for hfe, then offered me I did not accept. 

6. In the consulship of Marcus Vinucius and 
Quintus Lucretius,* and afterwards in that of Pubhus 
and Gnaeus Lentulus,' and a third time in that of 
PauUus Fabius Maximus and Quintus Tubero,» 

" Augustus held his thirteenth consukhlp in 2 b.c. He 
held his thirty-seventh tribunicia potestas in a.d. 14. 

* Dio (liv. 4) says in this connexion : " As for the 
dictatorship, however, he did not accept the office, but went 
so far as to rend his garments when he found himself unable 
to restrain the people in any other way either by argument 
or entreaty ; for, since he was superior to dictators in the 
power and honours he already possessed, he properly guarded 
against the jealousy and hatred which the title would arouse " 
(Cary's trans.). See also Vell. ii. 89. 5. * 2-2 b.c. 

* According to Dio (liv. 1) the offer of the dictatorship 
and the request that Augustus become commissioner of the 
grain-supply were made at the same time. The crisis 
was caused by the conjunction of an overflow of the Tiber, 
a pestilence which interfered with agriculture in Italy, and 
OODSeqnent famine. 

* 19 B.C. ' 18 B.c. » 11 B.C. 



et Q. Tuberone senatu populoq)u(e Romano consen-)\ 

7 1. 

(Princeps senatusjui usque ad eum diem, quo scrip^seram 
45 (haec,) II (per annos quadraginta. Pontifex maximus, 

^ The substance o/the lacuna in the Latin text is supplied 
by the Greek, supplemented by the Greek text of the Fragment 
of Apollonia. 

Ma^t/Ltcot Kal KoiV^TCot) Touj^epojrt § rrjs (re 

15 a^vvKX-qrov Kal rov hr^jjiov rov \\ ' Pco/iatctJV ofjboXo- 

y{o)vvrojv, tv(a eTniJ,€)Xrjrr)s ra)v re vofxojv /cai ra)v 

rpoTTOJV e(7rt rrJL ixejyiarrjL \ {e^ova{iaL fM)6{vo)s 

X^t^porovrfdcbi,, § oipxv^ oi)Se||jLt(ta)i' 7Ta{pa ra 

TTd)rp{t,a) e{d)r] hLhofjbevrjV dv€Se\^dfj,r]V' § a Se 

20 rore St' epov rj avvKXrfros OL\\KovopeladaL i^ovXero, 

rrjs Srfpapxi-Krjs i^o{v)\aLas cov ireXe{aa. K)at 

ravrrfs avrrjs rrjs dpxrjs \ crvvdpxovra (auT^oj 

aTTo rrjs avvKXrfrov TT{€v)rdKLS alr-qaas {eX)a^ov. \\ 

IV 7. TpLU)V dvhpdjv iyevofxrfv hrfpoaioiv TTpay- 

p.drOiiV I Karopdoirrfs avvexicriv ereaLV SeVa. 

§ IlpcDTOv I d^nhparos roTTov eaxov rrjs avvKXrjrov 

dxpi' I ravrrfs rrjs rffJLepas, rjs ravra eypaj)OV, irTL 

s errf TeaJlCTa/aa/covTa. § 'Apxi-epevs, § avyovp, 

" There seems to be a conflict here between the statement 
of Angustus and that of Suetonius (Aug. 27), who states 
that he received the morum leyumque regimen in perpetuuin, 
and of Dio (liv. 10. 5) that " he accepted an election . . . 
to the position of supervisor of morals for five years." It is 
probable that the two writers had in mind the decrees of the 


when the Senate and the Roman people unanimously 
agreed [that I should be elected overseer of laws 
and morals, -without a colleague and ^\ith the fullest 
power, I refused to accept any power offered me 
which was contrary to the traditions of our ancestors." 
Those things which at that time the senate wished 
me to administer I carried out by ^irtue of my 
tribunician power. And even in this ofRce I five 
times received from the senate a coUeague at my own 

7. For ten years in succession I was one of the 
trium\-irs for the re-estabUshment of the constitu- 
tion].* To the day of wTiting this I have been 
princeps senalus ** for forty years. I have been 
pontifex maximus, augur, a member of the fifteen 

Senate ofFering him the title of praefecttis moribu$ and his 
subsequent legislation, while Augustus has in mind his 
refusal of a new and extraordinary title, although he carried 
out the intent by virtue of his tribunician power. 

* Agrippa for five years in 18 b.c, and again for five 
years in 13 b.c, Tiberius for five years in 12 b.c, after the 
death of Agrippa, and again for five years in 6 b.c. His 
tribunate was apparently twice extended after that, each time 
for a period of ten years. 

* Neither the words " ten years " or " in succession " 
are quite exact. The triumvirate began November 27, 
43 B.c The first quinquennium should have ended at the 
latest December 31, 38 b.c. The triumvirs functioned d« 
/acto, but not de iure, during the year 37. The formal five- 
year renewal began January 1, 36 b.c, and should have 
ended December 31, 32. Their de/acto tenure was therefore 
eleven years ; their de iure tenure was ten, but was not 
consecutive. See Gardthausen, ii. 175. 

* Augustus became princeps senatus in 28 B.c. In the 
summer of a.d. 14 he had held the title for forty years not 
counting fractions. By it he became the ranking Senator 
with the right of speaking first in debate. 



augur, quindecimviru)m sacris {faciundis^ \ {septem- 
virum epulonum, frater arvalis, sodalis Titius, 
fetiali)s fui. | 

8. Patriciorum numerum auxi consul quintum iussu 
populi et senatiis. § Sena|tum ter legi. Et^ In 
consulatii sexto censum populi conlega M. Agrippa 
egi. § I Liistrum post annum alterum et quadragen- 
simum fec(«). § Quo liistro civi|um Romanorum 
censa sunt capita quadragiens centum millia et 
5 sexa|lg(t)nta tria millia. (§) (Iteru)m consulari cum 
imperio lustrum | (*)61us feci C. Censorin(o et C.) 
Asinio cos. § Quo liistro censa sunt j civium Roma- 
n6ru(7n capita) quadragiens centum millia et ducen|ta 
triginta tria m(ilHa. Tertiu)m consulari cum imperio 
^ Et deleted by Mommsen. 

§ roiv SeKaTTevre dv\Spa)v roiv lepoTTOia)v , § ribv 
€7TTd avdpojv LepoTTOicJv , § ai^e)\<l)os dpovdXi,s, 
§ iraZpos Ttrto?, § ^TjriaAt?. | 

8. Tcov {7Tar)pLKlcov rov dpLd/JLOV ev^rjcra 7T€fM7Trov \ 

lo V7Tar{os i7TLr)ayrJL rov re hrjp^ov kol rijs ovvKXiq\\rov. 
§ (Ti^i' crvjvKXrjrov rpls i^TeXe^a. § "Ektov 
V7ra\ros rrjv d^T^o^reLjJLrjorLV rov 8-qfJLOv crvvdpxov-\ 
{r)a exo)V MdpKov ^AyplrT^rav eXa^ov, rjrLS a7ro-| 
{reifxrfiaLS jxerd (Suo /cai) reaaapaKoarov ivLav\rdv 
{a)vv€{K)XeLadr] . 'Ev' '^l d^ToreLfiijaei 'Pco/xatcof || 

xs ireL{p,rja)a{vro) /ce^aAat rerpaKo^aLaL e)^T]Kov\ra 
fjLv{pLdBes Kal rpLaxiXiaL. Aevrepov v)7TarL\KrJL 
i^^ovalaL fxovos VaLOii K^rjvacopLVO^L /cat) | Faicot 
{^AaLVLCoL V7TdroLS rrjv dTroreLfjLrjaLV eXa^ov) \ iv 

2o {rjL) dTT^oreLfi-qaeL ireLfirfaavro 'VoifLaL)\\a)V re- 
T^paKoaLaL eLKoaL rpeZs fivpLdSes Kal T)pt(or-)| 
XlXlol. K(at rpirov VTTariKrJL i^ovaiaL rds drTO- 


commissioners for performing sacred rites, one of the 
seven for sacred feasts, an arval brother, a sodalis 
Titius, a fetial priest." 

8. As consul for the fifth time,* by order of the 
people and the senate I increased the number of 
the patricians. Three times I revised the roll of 
the senate." In my sixth consulship, with Marcus 
Agrippa as my colleague, I made a census of the 
people.^ I performed the lustrum * after an interval 
of forty-one years. In this lustration 4,063,000 
Roman citizens were entered on the census roll. 
A second time,' in the consulship of Gaius Censorinus 
and Gaius Asinius, I again performed the lustrum 
alone, with the consular imperium. In this lustrum 
4,233,000 Roman citizens were entered on the census 
roU. A third time, -svith the consular imperium, 

• Augustus became pontifex maximus in 12 b.c, quin- 
decimvir between 37 and 34, augur in 41 or 40, septemvir 
epulonum before I5,fetialis in 32. It is not known when he 
became & frater arvalis, or a sodalis Tilius. The last three 
colleges had fallen into abeyance in the last days of the 
republic and were apparentlv revived by Augustus. 

» 29 B.c. 

• The three revisions of which he speaks apparently 
correspond to the taking of the census in 28 and 8 b.c, 
and in a.d. 14, but the Senate was also revised in 18 b.c 
and A.D. 4, that is to say, about every ten j-ears. See 
Gardthausen, ii. 311. The first of these revisions is de- 
scribed by Dio, Hi. 42; Suet. Aug. 35. At that time the 
Senate had reached the unwieldy number of 1000, and 
contained many undesirables. * 2;8 b.c. 

• The lustrum was the expiatory sacrifice made at the close 
of the census ; in the sentences which follow it is synonymous 
with the census. The census had not been taken' since 
69 b.c. At that time the number of citizens of mihtary 
age was only 450,000. The enormous increase in the 
census of 28 b.c is probably due to the exact enumeration 
of citizens throughout the empire. ' 8 b.c 



lustrum I conlega Tib. Cae(sareJilio meo^ fect) § Sex. 

xo Pompeio et Sex. Appuleio cos. || Quo liistro ce(nsa 
sunt civium i2o)man6rum capitum quadragiens | 
centum mill(/a et nongenta <r)iginta et septem millia. 
§ I Legibus novi(* latis complura^ e)xempla maiorum 
exolescentia | iam ex nost(ro usu revocavi^ et ipse) 
multarum rer(M7n exe^nvpla. imijtanda 'pos(teris 
tradidt). \\ 

15 9. {Vota pro valetudine mea suscipi'^ per c07J*)ules et 
sacerdotes qu(mto) | qu(oque ajino se?tatus decrevit. 
Ex iis) votis s(ae)pe fecerunt vivo | (me ludos aliquo- 
tiens sacerdotu)m quattuor amplissima colle|(g?a, ali- 
quotiens consules. Privatt)m etiam et miinicipatim 
^ meo not in Mommsen. 

* complura, Ramsay, fills the space better than the multa 
of Mommsen. ' reduxi Mommsen. 

* suscipi Mommsen, supported by Ramsay. The Oreek 
would seem to demand suscipere. 

T€ipirj)\ae{i)s '4Xa{fio)v, (ex^)*' {(ruvdpxovTa Tt- 
^epiov) I Katcra/aa rov vlov /xo(u Tie^Tcoi Ilo/LtTrT^tcut 

V /cat) II Se^TCUt WTTTTOvX-qLCDl VTrdTOLS' €V •^t 0.770- 

Teifxiqaei \ eTeLjji-qaavTO 'Paifxaiojv reTpaKoaiai 
evevrjKovra \ Tpels ixvpidhes koI^LXtoi,. 
§ Etaayaycov Kai\vovs vofiovs 77oAAa •^'St^ t(x)v 
5 dpxaicav i6a>v KaWTaXvofieva Bi,cjp6a)adp,r)v /cat 
avTos TToXXcov I TTpayfidTOJV fieip,riixa i/xavTov tols 
/x€Te7ret|Ta TrapebcoKa. \ 

9. Ey;^as" VTTep Trjs ifxrjs aayrrjpias avaXafi^dveLV \ 
Sid Tcov VTrdTCDV Kal lepecov Ka6' eKdaTrjv Trev-H 
10 reTrjpiSa ei/jrjcj^iaaTO rj avvKXrjTos. 'E/c tov\tcov 
Tcov evxcov TTXeLardKLS eyevovTO deaL, \ tot€ fxev 
e/c T^? avvapxio-S tcov Teaadpcov Lepe\a>v, TOTe Se 
iJTrd Tcov VTTdrcov. Kat /caT' tStai' Se /cat j KaTO. 


and viith my son Tiberius Caesar as my colleague, I 
performed the lustrum in the consulship of Sextus 
Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius.*» In this hutrum 
4.937,000 Roman citizens were entered on the census 
roU. By the passage of new laws I restored many 
traditions of our ancestors which were then falhng 
into disuse, and I myself set precedents in many l 
things for posterity to imitate.* 

9. The senate decreed that every fifth year*' 
vows should be undertaken for my health by the 
consuls and the priests. In fulfilment of these 
vows games were often held in my hfetime, some- 
times by the four chief coUeges of priests, some- 
times by the consuls.'* In addition the entire body 

* A.D. 14, three months before the death of Augustus. 
The gain in the number of citizens in the twenty-two years 
since the census of 8 b.c. was 704,000. 

» C/. Suetonius, Aug. 34 and 89. Among such laws 
Suetonius specifically mentions the sumptuary law, the law 
oonceming adultery and chastit}% the law conceming 
briberj-, and that conceming the marriage of the orders. 

* That is to say " every four years." 

* According to Suetonius, Aug. 8 1 , Augustus suflFered from 
chronic ill-health. The divinity invoked in these vows was 
the Actian Apollo. These games were held for the first 
time in 28 b.c, and celebrated thereafter at four-year 
intervals. Dio (liii. 4) states that they were in charge of 
the following four priesthoods in succession : the pontiffs, 
the augurs, the septemviri epulonum, the quincUcimviri 
aaerit faciundis. 



liniver^w) | (cives uno animo continente)r^ apud omnia 
to pulvinaria pro va.\e\\(tudine mea sacrijlcauerunt.) | 

10. {Nomen meum senatus consulto ^«c)lusum est in 
saliare carmen et sacrosan|(ciM^ ut essem in perpetuum^ 
et q)uoa(d) viverem, tribiinicia potestas mihi | (esset, 
per legem^ sanctum est. PontiJ')^'^. maximus ne fierem 
in vivi (c)onle|(gae locum, populo id *ace)rdotium 
25 deferente mihi, quod pater meu(*) || (hahuerat,^ 
recusavi.^ Cepi id^) sacerdotium aliquod post annos 
eo mor|(<MO demum,'' qui id tumultus o)ccasione occu- 
paverat (§), cuncta ex Italia | (ad comitia mea coeunte 

^ (cives . . . continente)v Wirtz. Mommsen's (cives 
sacrificaverunt sempe)r did not translate the 6/j.odv/j.a5di> 
awex^i of the Greek. * in perpetuum Bergk. 

' per legem Ramsay, Mon. Ant., lege Mommsen. 

* habuerat Bormann, confirmed by Ramsay, Mon. Ant., 
habuit Mommsen. 

* recusavi Mommsen, confirmed by Mon. Ant. 

* Cepi id Mommsen, Quod Bormann. 

' demum Ramsay, Mon. Ant. Bormann had eon- 
jectured suscepi, but the fragment of the Mon. Ant. shows 
that the letter after mortuo was not S but probably D. 

«5 TToAeis" aruvTTavres ol TToXeZrai o/Ao^u//.a||8(ov) avv- 
ep^aJS" edvcrav vnep rrjs ifxi^s aoj(T)r)pLas. | 

10. To ov{oix)d fiov avvKXrjTOV SoyfJLart iv- 
TTepLeXrj\(f)dri el(s rovjs aaXiojv vjxvovs. Kai Iva 
lepos cLl I Sta (fiio)v (r^e tt^v SrjfjLap^^LKTjV e^ojt 
e^ovaiav, \ vo^pLCOL eK)vpd)drj. § ^Apxi^epojavvrjv, 

2o Tjv 6 TTaTrjp II {pC)ov {ea-)()r]KeL, tov SijfMov fjLOL 

KaTa(f>€pOVTOS \ els TOV TOV t,OJVTOS tottov, ov 
7rpoae8e^d\fJi{7])v . § ("H)i' dpx^^epareiav fjLerd TLvas 
VI evLavrovs \\ drTodavovros rov iTpoKareLXrf^fjoros 
av^TTfv ev TToXeLTLKals rapaxats, dv€iXrj<f>a, els \ 
rd €fxd dpxaLpeaLa i^ oXrfs rrjs ^lraXias roaov^rov 


of citizens ■nith one accord,** both indi^idually and by 
municipalities, performed continued sacrifices for my 
health at all the couches of the gods. 

10. By decree of the senate my name was included 
in the Salian hymn,'* and it was enacted by law that 
my person should be sacred in perpetuity and that 
so long as I hved I should hold the tribunician 
power.* I dechned to be made Pontifex Maximus 
in succession to a coUeague still hving, when the 
people tendered me that priesthood which my father 
had held. Several years later I accepted that 
sacred office when he at last was dead who, taking 
advantage of a time of civil disturbance, had seized 
it for himself, such a multitude firom all Italy 

• An interesting coin, struck by L. Mescinius Rufus 
Illvir, has on the reverse a cippus or altar with the 
words IMP • CAES • AUGU • COMM • CONS- (Imperatori 
Caesari Augusto communi consensu), and on the obverse, 
with initial abbreviations, the following legend : lovi 
Optimo Maximo Senatus Populusque Romanus votum 
susceptum pro salute Imperatoris Caesaris quod per eum 
respublica in ampliore atque tranquilliore statu est. 

' Mentioned by Dio, li. 20 : " When the letter came 
concerning the Parthians (29 b.c), they further arranged 
that his name should be included in their hymns equally 
with the gods." 

• On the overthrow of Lepidus in 36 b.c, the tribunician 
power was given to Octavian, as it had been to Julius, for 
me. One of the privileges of the tribunate was that the 
person of the tribune should be inviolate. In 23 s.c. it was 
made annual as well as perpetual, and from that time on 
the years of his principate were reckoned by it. 



tanta mM)ltitudine, quanta Romae nun(9)uam | (antea 
fuisse narratur^ §) P. Sulpicio C. Valgio consulibu(^) §. | 

11. (Aram Fortunae Reducis^ iuxta ae)des Honoris 
30 et Virtutis ad portam |) {Capenam pro reditu meo se)- 

natus consacravit, in qua ponti|(^cf* et virgines 
Vestales fl«Kt)versarium sacrificium facere | (iussit eo^ 
die, quo corisulibus Q. Luc)retio et (M. Vinuctjo in 
urbem ex | (Syria redi, et diem Augustali)a. ex (c)o(gno- 
mifie nost)ro appellavit. | 

12. (Senatus consulto eodem tempor)e pars (praetorum 
35 et in^bunorum || (plebis cum consule Q. Lucret)io et 

princi(p/)bus (viris o6)viam mihi | mis(*)a e(st in 
Campan)\Si(m, qut) honos (ad hoc tempus) nemini 

^ coeunte . . . narratur is based upon the conjecture 
of Seeck. 

* reduci Mommsen. • eo inserled by Bormann. 

5 TrXriOovs avveXrjXvOoTos, oaov oySets" || evTrpoaOev 
larop-qaev errl 'VcojJLrjs yeyovivai riolTrAtcot SouA- 
TnKLOJt Kai Vatcoi OvaXyiati VTrdroLS. | 

11. Ba)/xoi/ Tvxf}? Sotrrj/atou VTrep rrjs ifirjs 
€7Tav68ov I TTpos ttjl l^aTTTJVrjL TTvXrjL Tj crvvKXrjTos 
a(j)L€pcoaev \ iTpos c5t tovs Upels Kal Tas lepeias 

10 evtavaLov 6v\\aiav ttolclv eKeXevaev iv eKeivrjt Trji 
Vji-iipaL, I iv rJL VTrdroLS KotVrcot AovKprjricoL Kal 
MdpKcoL I OvLvovKicxjL €/c Hvpias els 'Payfxrjv 
€7Tav€Xr)Xv\deL{v) , rr]v re r\[Jiipav iK rrjs rjpieripas 
irrcDVV^ixias TTpoar^yopevaev AvyovardXLa. \\ 

xs 12. AoyfiarL a{v)vKX^Tov ol Tas fjLeyiaras dpxds 
dp\^avT€{s a)i)v fiipeL arparrfyGiv koX SrjfMdpxcov \ 
fxera V7T{a)rov K.oivrov AovKprjriov iTTifX(f)drj\adv 
fiot V7TavTT]aovT€s f^ixP'' KafjLTTavias, rjrLS \ reLfxrj 


assembling for my election, in the consulship of 
Publius Sulpicius and Gaius Valgius, as is never 
recorded to have been in Rome before." 

11. The Senate consecrated in honour of my 
retum an altar to Fortuna Redux at the Porta 
Capena, near the temple of Honour and Virtue, on 
which it ordered the pontiffs and the Vestal ^irglns 
to perform a yearly sacrifice on the anniversary of 
the day on which I retumed to the city from SjTia, 

the consulship of Lucius Lucretius and Marcus 
Vinucius, and named the day, after my cognomen, 
the Augustaha.^ 

12. At the same time, by decree of the senate, 
part of the praetors and of the tribunes of the 
people, together with the consul Quintus Lucretius * 
and the leading men of the state, were sent to 
Campania to meet me, an honour which up to the 

• M. Lepidus (like Antony never mentioned by name 
in the Mon. Anc.) had seized upon the office of pontifex 
maximus at Caesar's death, Livy, Epit. cxvii. ; Vell. ii. 63. 
Lepidus died in 13 b.c. and Caesar's election, as we are 
informed by tiie/asti Praenestini, took place March 6, 12 b.c. 

* On the return of Augustus in 19 b.c. after settling the 
affairs of Sicily, Greece, Asia, and Syria, many honours, 
according to Dio, liv. 10, were decreed to Augustus, but 

(he accepted none except those here mentioned. The Altar 
of Fortuna Redux was dedicated October 12, and its dedica- 
tion was celebrated on coins struck in that year. The Porta 
Capena is the gate by which Augustus entered the city, 
coming from the south by the Appian Way. 

' Quintus Lucretius \'espillo was not consul when he 
started out with the deputation. The year had been one 
of tumults in the consular comitia and the second consul 
had not been elected, Dio, liv. 10. One of the purposes of 
the deputation was to ask Augustus either to accept the 
consulship, or to name some one to it. His choice fell upon 

' Lucretius, who was one of the delegates. 



prae|ter (m)e e(st decreius. Cu)m ex ll(ispa)Tda, 
Ga\(liaque, rebus in his p)xovmc\s prosp(e)|re (^gest)i{s), 
B.(omam redi) Ti. Ne(r)one P. Qui(ntilio consulibu)s 
(§), aram | (Pads A)u(g)ust(ae senatus pro) redi(t)u. 
40 meo co(nsacrari censuit) ad ca.m\\{pum Martium, in qua 
7raa)gistratus et sac(erdotes et virgines) V(est)3i(les) | 
(anniversarium sacrific)ium facer(e iussit.) | 

13. (lanum) Quirin(M7«, quem cZ)aussum ess(e 
maiores nostri voluer)unt, \ (cum p)er totum \(mperium 
po)puli Roma(nt terra marique es)set parta vic\(torii)s 
pax, cum pr(«M*, quam) nascerer, (a condita) u(rb)e 

45 bis omnino clausum )j (^^^uisse prodatur m(emori)a.e, 
ter me princi(pe senat)us claudendum esse censui(<). | 

14. (Fil)ios meos, quos iuv(e«e* m{)hi eripuit for- 

20 ixexpi' TOVTOV ovSe evl el firj e/xot €iJjr)<f)La\\9r) . 
§ "Ore e^ 'loTTavias Kal raAarias', tcov iv Taulrats' 
Tais iTrapxclaLS TrpayiJidTcov /cara TCiS" €v\xo-s 
TeXeaSivTCOv, ets 'Pcop.r]v iTravrjXOov § | TL^eplcoL 
(Ne')/3a);'t /cat IloTrAtwt KotvTtAia;t VTraTOis, \\ 
\ni ^cofiov K^lpj^qvrjs lle^aaTrjs VTrkp Trjs ifirjs e7r-| 
aj^oSou d(f)Lep(i)drjvaL iifjrjcj^iaaTO tj avvKXrjTos iv 
7re|8icot "Apecos, Trpos col tovs Te iv Tals dpxo-LS 
Kal Tovs I lepels Tas t€ lepeias iviavaiovs 6vaias 
iKeXevae 7tol€lv. \\ 
5 13. HvXrjv 'Ej/uaAtov, t]v KeKXladai ol TraTepes 
rj/jLCov rj6e\Xr)aav elprfvevopLevrjs Trjs vtto 'Vcop,aioLS 
Trdarjs yr]S T€ | Kal daXdaarjs, rrpo p,ev ipLOV, i^ 
ov rj ttoXls €KTia6rj, \ tcol TravTL alcbvL hls fiovov 
KeKXeladaL ofioXoyel^TaL, iiTL 8e ifiov rfyefiovos 

10 Tpls rj avvKXrjTOs iiJjrj\\(f)iaaTO KXeLoQqvaL. \ 

14. Ytous' fi-ov Tdiov KOL AevKLOv Kaia{a)pas, 


present time has been decreed to no one except 
myself. When I retumed from Spain and Gaul, 
in the consulship of Tiberius Nero and Publius 
Quintihus, after successful operations in those 
pro^lnces, the senate voted in honour of my retum 
the consecration of an altar to Pax Augusta in the 
Campus Martius, and on this altar it ordered the 
magistrates and priests and Vestal virgins to make 
annual sacrifice." 

13. Janus Quirinus, which our ancestors ordered 
to be closed whenever there was peace, secured by 
victory, throughout the whole domain of the Roman 
people on land and sea, and which, before my birth 
is recorded to have been closed but twice in all 
since the foundation of the city, the senate ordered 
to be closed thrice while I was princeps.'' 

l*. My sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar," whom 

• Augustus was absent for three years in Spain and Gaul, 
16 to 13 B.c. The altar was built on the Via Flaminia, by 
which Augustus returned to the city, and formally dedicated 
on January 30, 9 b.c. The site was systematically excavated 
in 1903. For the now famous sculptures see Strong, Rom. 
Scidpture, pp. 39-58. 

* Tradition records that the Arch of Janus was closed 
for the first time under Numa. It was closed again after 
the First Punic War in 235. It was closed by Augustus 
after the Battle of Actium in 31 b.c, again in 25 b.c. after 
the Cantabrian war. The year of the third closing of the 
arch is not known. It stood on the Forum where the 
Argiletum entered it. See Virg. Aen. vii. 607, xii. 198. 

' Gaius (born in 20 b.c.) and Lucius (born in 17 b.c), 
the sons of Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus. 
They were adopted by their grandfather in 17 b.c. at the 
time when Agrippa was associated with Augustus in the 
tribunicia potestas, thus securing the succession. But 
Agrippa died 12 b.c, Lucius in a.d. 2, and Gaius in a.d. 4. 



in (tuna,) Gaium et Lucium Caesares || honoris mei 
caussa senatus populusque Romanus annum quintum 
et deci|mum agentis consules designavit, ut (e)um 
magistratum inirent post quin|quennium. Et ex eo 
die, quo deducti (5)unt in forum, ut interessent con- 
siliis I publicis decrevit sena(<)us. § Equites (a)utem 
s Romani universi principem || iuventiitis utrumque 
eorum parm(z*) et hastis argenteis donatum 
aplpellaverunt. § 

15. Plebei Romanae viritim «s trecenos numeravi 

ex testamento patris | mei, § et nomine meo «9 

quadringenos ex bellorum manibiis consul | quintum 

dedi, iterum autem in consulatii decimo ex (p)atri- 

10 monio || meo «s quadringenos congiari viritim per- 

ovs veavias a\vripTTaa€V rj rvxq, €ls rrjv ifxrjv 
T€i,fi{rj)v 17 T(e) avvK/{7]\ros Kal 6 Srjfios rwv *Pco- 
fxaiwv TrevTe/caiSeKaerei? | ovras VTTarovs aTreheL^ev, 

,3 Iva ixera Trevre err] || els rrjv VTrdrcov dpXW ^^'°" 
eXdojaLV Kal d(f)' -^s dv \ rjfjie{pa)s {els rrjv d)yopdv 
{Kar^axd^cojcnv, Iva {iJ,e)rexoj\ai,v rrjs av^v^KX-qrov 
etfjr)(^iaaro . § 'iTTTTels 8e 'Paj|/xata»v avv^TT^avres 
■nyefLova veorrjros eKarelpov avrcov {7Tp)oar]yopev- 

90 aav, doTTiaiv dpyvpeais \\ koI hopaaiv {er)eifirjaav. \ 
15. Atj/xwi 'PcofjLa{ia))v Kar dvSpa e^hofirjKovra 
rr{evr)e j hrfvdpia eKaarajL rfpidfxrfaa Kard Sta-| 
9-^KrjV Tov TTarpos jxov, /cat Ta»t e/xcDt ovofxarL \ 
eK \a(f)vpa>v {Tr)o{Xe)pLOV dvd eKardv SrjvdpLa \\ 
vm TTefJLTTTOv VTTaros eSojKa, § TraAtv t€ 8e{Karo)v \ 
VTTarevcov e'/c r{rj)s ifxrjs vrrdp^ecos dvd 8r]vd\pi,a 


fortune snatched away from me in tlieir youth, the 
senate and the Roman people to do me honour 
made consuls designate, each in his fifteenth year," 
pro\iding that each should enter upon that office 
after a period of five years.* The senate decreed 
that from the day on which they were introduced 
to the forum " they should take part in the counsels 
of state. Moreover, the entire body of Roman 
knights gave each of them the title of princeps 
iuventutis " and presented them with silver shields 
and spearSii 

15. To the Roman plebs I paid out three hundred 
sesterces per man in accordance with the will of my 
father,'* and in my own name in my fifth consulship 
I gave four hundred sesterces apiece from the spoils 
of war ; * a second time, moreover, in my tenth 
consulship I paid out of my own patrimony four 

" In the year in which they assumed the toga virilis, 
Gaius in 5 b.c. and Lucius in 2 b.c. Augnshis assumed 
the consulship in each of these years in order to introduce 
them to public life. 

• Lucius died before reaching the consulship. Gaius 
was consul a.d. 1. 

• As their adopted father was princeps senatus, so each 
of his adopted sons was called princeps iuventutis, or first 
among the young men in the class of knights. It seems to 
have been an honour rather than an official title. 

** This first donation was in 44 b.c. The amount was 
$12.00, or £2, 8s. per man, distributed to at least 250,000 

• In 29 B.c, on the occasion of his triple triumph. The 
amount was about $16.00, or £3, 6s. per man. 



numer(a)vi, § et consul | undecimum duodecim 
frumentationes frumento pr(f)vatim coempto ) emen- 
sus sum, (§) et tribunicia potestate duodecimum 
quadringenos | nummos tertium viritim dedi. Quae 
mea congiaria p(e)rvenerunt | ad (kom{)num millia 

ts nunquam minus quinquaginta et ducenta. § j| (T^ri- 
bu(w?c)iae potestatis duodevicensimum consul xii 
trecentis et | vigint({) millibus plebis urbanae sexa- 
genos denarios viritim dedi. § | In colon(e)s militum 
meorum consul quintum ex manibiis viritim | millia 
nummum singula dedi ; acceperunt id triumphale 
congiarium | in colo(«)is hominum circiter centum 

20 et viginti millia. § Consul ter||tium dec(i)mum 
sexagenos denarios plebei, quae tum frumentmn 

€Kar6v r]pL6(jJi)rj(Ta, (§) /cat ivSeKarov viraTos \ 
ScoScKa aeiToiJierpriaeis e/c rov epiov fiiov 0.77- 

5 elljLteT/DTjCTa, (§) /cat h-qjJuapxiKrjs e^ovmas ro Sco- 
8e|/caTOV eKarov SrjvdpLa Kar dvSpa eSoj/ca* at- 
r{L)\v€S e'/xat eVtSoCTets- oySeVoTe rjaaov r}Xd[o)v e^i)? 
I dv8pas p.vpLd8a)v eLKoaL Trevre. A7]p.a{p))(iKrjs 
i^^ovalas OKTCoKaLSeKarov, VTrar^os) 8{a)3eKarov) || 

10 rpLdKovra rpLa^i) fivpLdaLV 6)(\ov 7ToXeLTLK{ov 
e^^T^^KOvra Sr]vdpLa Kar dvhpa eSa)/c(a, /ca)t 
aTTOLKOLs arpa\riojr6jv ifJLCov TTefXTrrov VTraros i{K) 
Xacf>vpcov Kard \ dvBpa dvd Sta/coCTta TTevTiJKovra 
hrjvdpLa eS{coKa-) \ eXa^ov ravrrjv rrjv Scopedv iv raXs 

15 drroLKLaLS dv\\dpdj7TCx}v p,vpLd8es 7rA(et)ot' SajSe(/ca. 
"TJTraTOS' T(/)t)CTJ/caiSe'/caTOV dvd e^-qKovra hrfvdpLa 


hundred sesterces per man by way of bounty,'* 
and in my eleventh consulship I made twelve 
distributions of food from grain bought at my own 
expense,* and in the twelfth year of my tribunician 
power I gave for the third time four hundred sesterces 
to each man." These largesses of mine reached a 
number of persons never less than two hundred and 
fifty thousand.** In the eighteenth year of my 
tribunician power, as consul for the twelfth time, 
I gave to three hundred and twenty thousand of the 
city plebs sixty denarii apiece.* In the colonies of 
my soldiers, as consul for the fifth time, I gave one 
thousand sesterces to each man from the spoils of 
war ; about one hundred and twenty thousand men 
in the colonies received this triumphal largesse/ 
When consul for the thirteenth time I gave sixty 
denarii apiece to the plebs who were then receiving 

" 24 B.C., on his return from the war in Spain. The 
amount per man was the same as in 29 b.c. * 23 b.c. 

' 12 b.c, on the occasion of his assumption of the office 
of Pontifex Maximus. 

* It will be noted that the number of the city plebs is here 
a quarter of a milHon. In the donation of 5 a.c. the number 
had reached 320,000. The donation of 2 b.c. is to those 
receiving pubhc grain. That thLs number had been reduced 
to 200,000 is attested by Dio, Iv. 10. 1. 

• 5 B.c, on the occasion of introducing Gaius to the 
forum. The amount per man is about 19.60, or about 
j£2 apiece. 

' 29 B.c. The amount is about $40.00 or £8, 5s. 



publicum I accipieba(<), dedi ; ea millia hominum 
paullo plura quam ducenta fuerunt. | 

16. Pecuniam (pro) agris, quos in consulatii meo 
quarto et postea consulibus | M. Cr(asso e)t Cn, 
Lentulo augure adsignavi militibus, solvi municipis. 
Ea I (s)u(m7na ^e^^)ertium circiter sexsiens milliens 

95 fuit, quam (/>)r6 Italicis || praed(^.y) numeravi, § et 
ci(r)citer bis mill(2V)ns et sescentiens, quod pro agris | 
pr6vin(c)ialibus solvi. § Id primus et (^)olus omnium, 
qui (rf)eduxerunt | colonias militum in Italia aut in 
provincis, ad memor(e)am aetatis | meae feci. Et 
postea Ti. Nerone et Cn. Pisone consulibus, (§) 
item^q-^ue C. Antistio | et D. Laelio cos., et C. Calvisio 
et L. Pasieno consulibus, et L. L,e(ntulo et) M. Mes- 

3° salla II consulibus, § et L. Caninio (§) et Q. Fabricio 

Tcoi a€LTOfi€T{pov)\iJ,€V(ji}L ST^fjicot eScu(/<:a* ovTo)s 

dp{l)6lJi{6s TtXcLWV €LKo)\{a)L {fjiv)pLdSoJV VTTTJPX^^^V. \ 

16. Xpi^/xara iv viraT^iaL T€TdpTr]L ip^fJL K:a(t) 
2o iJ,€Ta TavTa t5||7raTOt? Map/ccui Ys.pdaaa>L Kal Natcot 
AivTXojL avyov\pL TaXs ttoX^olv rjpLdpirjaa vjrep 
aypcvv, ovs e/xepicra j tols aTpaT^LOj^TaLS . Ke^a- 
Xaiov iyivovTO iv 'iTaAiat | p,€V pLvpLaL TT^evTaKi)- 
a{x)€{iXLaL iJiv)pidh€s, {tojjv (8e e)7rap|;^etTtK:ttJt' 
dypcov {p)v{pidS€S i^aKiaxiX)iaL 7T€v{Tf ^6)a{LaL.) \\ 


{KaTa)yay6vT(jL>v aTTOLKias aTpaTLCOTcov iv 'lTa|Atai 
•q iv irTapx^iaLS p^ixp^ t^? e/XT^? rjXLKias. § Kat | 
lx€T€TT€LTa Ti^€picoi Nipcovi Kal Naicoi Heiacovt 
5 i57ra||Tots" Kal ttoXlv raiojt 'AvdeaTLCjoL Kat Ae/cftcot 
Aat|Ata>t VTTdTOis Kal Tatcoi KaAoutcrtcot Kat Aeu- 
Ktojt I IlacTcrtTyi^ctJt (?3)7raTo(t)? (/cat A^euKtcot AivTXcoL 
Kal Mdp\Kcoi MecraaA(at) inrdTOiS /c(a)t {A)€VKicoL 
KavLv{i)(joi (/c)at | (K)otWct;t Oa(^)/3t/ctci)i yTrctTOts-, 


public grain ; these were a little more than two 
hundred thousand persons.* 

16. To the municipal towns I paid money for the 
lands which I assigned to soldiers in my own fourth 
c> nsulship * and aftervvards in the consulship of 
Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Lentulus the augur.* 
The stmi which I paid for estates in Italy was about 
six hundred milKon sesterces, and the amount 
vliich I paid for lands in the pro\-inces was about 
two hundred and sixty miUion.'* I was the first 
and only one to do this of all those who up to my 
time settled colonies of soldiers in Italy or in the 
provinces. And later, in the consulship of Tiberius 
Nero and Gnaeus Piso, Ukewise in the consulship 
of Gaius Antistius and Decimus Laehus, and of 
Gaius Calvisius and Lucius Pasienus, and of Lucius 
Lentulus and Marcus Messalla, and of Lucius Caninius 
aiid Quintus Fabricius, I paid cash gratuities to the 

' 2 B.C., on the occasion of introducing Lucius to the 

■ m. $9.60 or £2 per man. The donation to the soldiers 

iks the chronological narration of donations to the 

'5. This donation therefore looks like a later addition. 

a discussion of the problem see Introduction. The 

! of these donations amounts to something over 

" .000,000 or about £5,550,000. 

30 B.c. After Actium he had sent back to Italy a 

detachment of veterans of his own army and that of 

Antony. These soldiers mutinied at Brimdisium and he 

- obUged to retum from Samos to settle this mutiny, by 

_ming to the oldest veterans towns in Italy which had 

1 ored Antony and by giving money to the rest. Those 

^ ho were thus dispossessed were in part reimbursed by 

lands at Dyrrachium and at Philippi and in part by the 

monevs here referred to. See Dio, li. 3. 4; Suet. Aug. 17. 

' 14 B.C. 

" $24,000,000 (about ^£4,980,000), and $10,400,000 
(£-M 40,000) respectively. 



co(^.) milit(ibus, qu)6s eme|riteis stipendis in sua 
municipi(a dedux)\} praem(?'a «)umerato | persolvi, 
(§) quam in rem seste(r<iM7w) (\(uater 7n)i\\\G.n{s It)- 
h(ente)r | impendi. | 

17. Quater (pe)cunia mea iuvi aerarium, ita ut 

35 sestertium m{llien(*) et [| quing(en)t(ien)s ad eos qui 
praerant aerario detulerim. Et M. Lep(i)do | et L. 
Ar(r)unt(t)o cos. i(w) aerarium militare, quod ex 
consilio m(eo) \ co(nstitut)um est, ex (7)^0 praemia 
darentur militibus, qui vicena j (aut plu)ra. st\(pend{)a. 
emeruissent, (§) «s- milliens et septing(e)nti|(ew* ex 
pa)t(rim)onio (in)eo detuli. § || 

40 18, (Inde ab eo anno, q)vio Cn. et P. Lentuli c(on- 
*)ules fuerunt, cum d(e)iicerent | (vecii)g(alia, tuni) 
centum millibus h(ow?)num tu(m pZ)uribus (7raM/)to 
^ remisi Mommsen. 

10 arpaTUOTais d7roXv\\oiJi€voLs, ovs KaTr\yayov els Td? 
ISias TToX^eis), (f)LXav\6pco7rov ovofjLaTL eSco/ca )u.(u- 
p^LaSas iyyvs (ftupta)?. | 

17. TeTpd^K^LS ;\;pr]/x(a)crtv efiols (dv^eXa^ov to 
alpdpLov, (els) o \ (KJaTijvevKa (;!^)etAtas' (eTrr^a/cocrta? 
TrevT-qKOVTa \ fJLvpidSas. K(at) M(d)pKa)L (Ae77tSa)t) 

15 Kal AevKLCoL 'Appowllrtajt i3(77aTots' €)ls t(o) aT(p)a- 
{tl(ot)lk6v alpdpLov, o ttjl \ (epLrJL) y(v)(L{priL) KaTearrj, 
Lva (i)^ avTOv al 8a»/)(e)at etcrKeVetra TOt? e)fjLOLS 
a{TpaTL)coTaLs StScovrat, o(t etKo)|(cTt)v ivLavTo{v)s 
7J TrXeiovas iaTparevaavTO , jU,(u)pt|aSa(?) TeTpa(/<:)t? 

20 p^etAta? StaKOCTtas' TrevTrJKOVTa || (e/c T^S" e)/Lt(^s) 
VTrdp^ecos KaTT)V€VKa. \ 

18. ('Att' iK^eivov t{o)v ivLavTov, i{(f>') ov Natos' 
/cat IIoTT-Atos' I (A)eVTAot xmaTOL iyevovTO, otc 
VTTeXeLTTOv al St] | (^o) atat 7T/DocroSot, aAAoTe fiev 
Se'/ca fivpLaaLV, aA|(AoTe) Se TrAetocrtr acLTLKas Kai 


soldiers whom I settled in their own towTis at the 
expiration of their ser\ace, and for this purpose I 
expended four hundred milUon sesterces as an act 
of grace." 

17. Four times I aided the pubhc treasury ■with 
my own money, paying out in this manner to those 
in charge of the treasury one hundred and fifty 
million sesterces.*' And in the consulship of Marcus 
Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius I contributed one 
hundred and seventy milHon sesterces out of my 
own patrimony to the military treasury, which was 
estabhshed on my advice that from it gratuities 
might be paid to soldiers who had seen twenty or 
more years of service." 

18. Beginning Avith the year in which Gnaeus 
and PubHus Lentulus were consuls,** whenever taxes 
were in arrears, I furnished from my own purse and 
my own patrimony tickets for grain and money, 

• The vears vere 7, 6, 4, 3, 2 b.c. The amount is about 
$16,000,000 (£3,329,000). 

" Two of these four occasions are known from other 
evidence. Dio Cassius, liii. 2, mentions that of 28 b.c, 
and a coin of 16 b.c. (c/. Eckhel, vii. 105) has the inscription, 
" The Senate and the Roman people to Imperator Caesar 
because the roads have been paved with money which he 
contributed to^ the treasury." The amount is about 
$6,000,000 (£1,234,000). Up' to 28 b.c. the treasury was in 
charge of the quaestors. From then to 23 b.c. it was in 
charge of two ex-praetors. From that time until the reign 
of Claudius two praetors had charge of it. 

• Augustus founded the aerarium militare in a.d. 6. In 
addition to his own subvention, amounting to 16,809,000 
(about £1,400,000), it was also supported by a five per cent 
tax on inheritance and a one per cent tax on sales. From 
13 B.c. the length of ser\'ice had been 12 years for praetorians 
and 16 for legionaries. It was now increased to 16 and 20 
years respectively. '18 b.c. 



fru\(mentarias et n)umma(n'a)s t(esseras ex aeref- et 
pat(rmorato) m(e)o | {dedi). | 
IV 19. Curiam et continens ei chalcidicum, templum- 
que ApoUinis in | Palatio cum porticibus, aedem divi 
luli, Lupercal, porticum ad cirjcum Flaminium, quam 
sum appellari passus ex nomine eius qui pri[6rem 
eodem in solo fecerat Octaviam, pulvinar ad circum 
5 maximum, || aed^s in Capitolio lovis Feretri et lovis 
Tonantis, (§) aedem Quirini, § | aedes Minervae § et 
lunonis Reginae § et lovis Libertatis in Aventino, 
§ I aedem Larum in summa sacra via, § aedem deuni 

^ multo . . . aere Schmidt. Mommsen conjectured : 
inlato frumento vel ad nummarios tributus ex agro. 

Z apyvpiKas avvrd^ei? |) c/c t^? eyitTj? VTrdp^ccos 

19. BouAeyT7y/3(io)v Kal ro TrXrjGLOV avroji ;\;aA- 
KihiKov, I vaov re ^AttoXXwvos iv ITaAaTtait avv 
aroais, \ vaov deov {^I)ovXi.ov, Ilavos Upov, aroav 
5 TTpos t7r||7roSpo/xa)i Ttut TTpoaayopevofievcoL OAa- 
^ivtojt, rjv I etaaa Trpoaayopeveadai. e^ ovofiaros 
iK€LVOV '0/CTa|outav, o{s) rrpcoros avrr^v dvearrjaev , 
vaov irpos TcDt | fieydXcoL LTTTTohpopmiL, (§) i^aous" ev 
KaTTtTajAtcoj I Ato? Tpo7Taiocf)6pov /cat Atos" Bpov- 
xo r-qaiov, vaov \\ Kvp€(,v{o)v, (§) vaovs ^Adrjvds Kal 
"Ylpas BacrtAtSo? /cat | Ato? 'EAeu^eptou iv 'Aovev- 
rlvcoL, rjpujcov TTpos rrJL \ UpaL oSojt, deoiv KaroLKL- 


sometimes to a hundred thousand persons, sometimes 
to many more. 

19. I built the curia" and the Chalcidicum 
adjoining it, the temple of Apollo on the 
Palatine with its porticoes,* the temple of the 
deified Julius," the Lupercal,'* the portico at the 
Circus Flaminius which I allowed to be called 
Octavia * after the name of him who had constructed 
an earher one on the same site, the state box at the 
Circus Maximus, the temples on the capitol of 
Jupiter Feretrius f and Jupiter Tonans," the temple 
of Quirinus,'^ the temples of Minerva, of Juno the 
Queen, and of Jupiter Libertas, on the Aventine,* 
the temple of the Lares at the highest point of the 
Sacra Via, the temple of the Di Penates on the 

* This is the Curia lulia dedicated in 29 b.c. on the site 
of the old Curia Hostilia. 

* The Temple of Apollo was begun soon afler 36 b.c. 
(Vell. ii. 81) and dedicated 28 b.c. 

« At eastern end of the forum, on the site where Caesar's 
body was burned. Dedicated August 18, 29 b.c. 

"* Formerly a cave in the rock on the south-west of the 
Palatine, where the she-wolf was supposed to have suckled 
the twins. It was now converted into a nymphaeum. 

* Near the theatre of Pompey. For the original portico 
built by Octavius, who defeated the fleet of Perses in 168, 
see Vell. ii. 1. 

' A restoration at the suggestion of Atticus, in 31 b.c, 
of the chapel near the large temple of lupiter Optimus 
Maximus, in which Roman generals hung the arms taken 
from their enemies slain in single combat. 

» Dedicated September 1, 22 b.c, to commemorate his 
miraculous escape from a bolt of Hghtning when on his 
Cantabrian expedition, 26-25 b.c. It was at the entrance 
to the Area Capitolina. 

* On the Quirinal, dedicated in 16 b.c. 

* These three temples on the Aventine were restorations 
of earlier temples. 



Pendtium in Velia, § | aedem luventatis, § aedem 
Matris Magnae in Palatio feci. § | 

20. Capitolium et Pompeium theatrum utrumque 

lo opus impensa grandi refeci || sine ulla inscriptione 
nominis mei. § Rivos aquarum compluribus locis | 
vetustate labentes refeci, (§) et aquam quae Marcia 
appellatur duplicavi | fonte novo in rivum eius 
inmisso. § Forum lulium et basilicam, | quae fuit 
inter aedem Castoris et aedem Saturni, (§) coepta 
profligatajque opera a patre meo perfeci § et eandem 

15 basilicam consumptam in)|cendio ampliato eius solo 
sub titulo nominis filiorum m(eoriim i)n|cohavi (§) et, 
si vivus non perfecissem, perfici ab heredib(M* iussi.) \ 
Duo et octoginta templa deum in urbe consul se\(ium 

Sicov iv OueAtai, vaov Neo|T7^To(s", va)6v M.-r]rp6s 
decov ev riaAaTtcot eTroTjaa. | 

20. Ka7rtTc6A(to)v /cai r6 HoiJiTrrjiov diarpov e/ca- 

15 repov (I r6 epyov dvaXwfjiaaiv fxeyiaroLs inccrKeva- 
aa ali^ey imypacfirjg rov ifxov ovofxaros. § ^ Kycoyovs 
v\hdru>{v iv TrXeCjarois roTTOis riJL TraXaLorrjri 
oXLa\ddvov{ras irrjeaKevaaa Kal vScop r6 KaXov- 
fJLevov I Mdp{KLOv iSi^TrXcDaa Trrfyrjv viav els ro 

20 peWpov II {avrov eTTOp^eTeucr) a? . (§) ^Ayopdv 'louAtW 
Kal PaaL\{XiKrjv rrjv piera^v r)ov re vaov ra)V 
AtocTKro Kpcuv /cat tou Yi.p6vov Kara)^e^Xr]p,eva epya 
VTTo rov I {narpos fiov ireXelcoaa /<:a)t rrjv avrrjV 
^aaiXiKrjv \ {Kavdelaav irrl av^rjdevri) iha<f)eL avrrjs 

X.I i^ i7rL\\ypa(f>rjs ovofiaros rcov ifiaJv vlcbv V7r{r]p^d- 
fJLr])v I /cat et pir] avr6s rereXeicoK{o)i{jJii, r)eXe{i)(o- 
{drjvai V7t6) I rcov ificov KXrfpovopiCov irrera^a. § A(i^o 
(/cat dySo)|7^/coi^Ta vaovs iv rrJL TToX^ei eKr)ov V7T{aros 


Velia," the temple of Youth,* and the temple of the 
Great Mother on the Palatine.*' 

20. The CapitoHum ^ and the theatre of Pompey,* 
both works involving great expense, I rebuilt with- 
out any inscription of my owti name. I restored 
the channels of the aqueducts which in several 
places were falUng into disrepair through age, and 
doubled the capacity of the aqueduct called the 
Marcia by tuming a new spring into its channel.^ 
I completed the JuHan Forum " and the basiHca 
which was between the temple of Castor and the 
temple of Satum, works begun and far advanced 
by my father, and when the same basiHca was 
destroyed by fire I began its reconstruction on an 
enlarged site, to be inscribed with the names of my 
sons, and ordered that in case I should not Hve to 
complete it, it should be completed by my heirs.^ 
In my sixth consulship,* in accordance ^^ith a decree 

" These two temples in the neighbourhood of the later 
arch of Titus apparently disappeared to make room for 
the colossal constructions of Hadrian and Constantine. 

* On the Palatine facing the Circus Maximus, destroyed 
by fire 16 b.c. 

' Dedicated in 191 b.c. ; destroyed by fire, 3 a.d. 

** The temple of lupiter Optimus Maximus, built accord- 
ing to tradition by Tarquinius Superbus, burned to the 
ground in 83 ; the rebuilding was begun by Sulla and 
completed by Catulus in 69 a.c. 

* The first stone theatre in Rome, built in 55 b.c. It 
continued to be the most important theatre in the city. 

' For these restorations of the aqueducts see Frontinus, 
De aquis, 125, translated by Herschel. 

' Dedicated along with the Basilica lulia on the occasion 
of the triumph after the battle of Thapsus. 

* The basilica was soon destroyed by fire. The rebuild- 
ing was begun in 12 b.c. The later name, basilica Gai et 
Luci, never gained general acceptance. 

* Augustus was consul for the sixth time in 28 b.c. 



ex decreto) | senatus refeci, nullo praetermisso quod 
e(o) temp(ore rejici debebat.) \ Con(*)ul septimum viam 

20 Flaminiam a(6 urbe) Ari(jninum Jeci et pontes) \\ omnes 
praeter Mulvium et Minucium. | 

21 . In privato solo Martis Vltoris templum (^orum- 
que Augustum (ex mani)\h\h feci. § Theatrum ad 
aede^ Apollinis in solo magna ex parte a p(r)i(v)atis | 
empto feci, quod sub nomine M. Marcell^i) generi 
mei esset. § Don(a e)x | manibiis in Capitolio et in 

25 aede divi Iu(/)i et in aede Apollinis et in ae[|de 
Vestae et in templo Martis Vltoris consacravi, § quae 
mihi constijterunt HS- circiter milliens. § Auri 
coronari pondo triginta et quinque millia municipiis 

^ aede (s/c). 

5 8oy/xa)||Tt cwvKQ^rjTOV i7T€(7K€vacr{a) o{v)B€va 7r(e)/3i- 

X{lTrc6v, OS) j €K€LVa}L TCl)L )(p6va)i €7TLaK€vfjS iSeLTO. 

§ {"Y^TTa^TOS €)\^8{o)fxov oBov ^{Xa/xLVLav aTTo) 
'Pa>fjL7]s {* ApifJLLVov) I y{€(f))vpas t€ tols iv avTTJL 
Trdaas e^co Bv€lv tcov p,rj \ eV(i)Seo/xeva)v iv^ijaKevrjs 
iTTorjora. \\ 

10 21. 'Ej/ ISlcotlkcol ihd(j)€L "Apeojs ^ApLVVTOpog 
dyopdv T€ Tie^^acrTTjv iK Xa(f)vpo)v iTTorjaa. (§) 
Qiarpov iTpos tcjl \ * AttoXXojvos vacoL irrl i8d(f)ovs 
iK TrAetWoy pLcpovs dyo^paadivTOS dvqycLpa (§) cttl 
ovofjLaTos MapK€?C{ov I Tov yafjL^pov fiov. 'Ava^e- 

15 fiara iK Xa(f)vpcov iv Ka7Tt|[TajAta;t /cat vacoL IouAta;t 
/cat i^aaji 'AttoAAojvos' | kol 'Eo-Tta? Kal "Aipeojjs 
d(f>L€pojcra, d ifiol KariaTr] \ ivyvs fLvpLdho){v hCja- 
;^e(i)At6uv 7T€VTaK{oaio)v ) \ Et? j^^puaow aricfjavov 
XeLTpcbv TpLa{fivpio)v) \ ^TCVTaKLax^LXicov Karacfjepov- 



of the senate, I rebviilt in the city eighty-two temples 
of the gods, omitting none which at that time stood 
in need of repair. As consul for the seventh time * 
I constructed the Via Flaminia from the city to 
Ariminum, and all the bridges except the Mulvian 
and the Minueian.'' 

21. On my ovm ground I built the temple of Mars 
Ultor and the Augustan Forum from the spoils of 
war." On ground purchased for the most part 
from private owners I built the theatre near the 
temple of Apollo which was to bear the name of 
niy son-in-law Marcus Marcellus.'* From the spoils 
of war I consecrated offerings on the Capitol, and in 
the temple of the divine Juhus, and in the temple 
of ApoUo, and in the temple of Vesta, and in the 
temple of Mars Ultor, which cost me about one 
hundred milhon sesterces.* In my fifth consulship 
I remitted thirty-five thousand pounds weight of 

• 27 B.c. 

• Now the Ponte Molle over the Tiber. The location of 
the Minucian Bridge is not known. In the Greek version 
these two bridges are not named but simply referred to as 
" two bridges not in need of repair." 

• This temple was vowed before the battle of Philippi, 
but only completed and dedicated in 2 b.c. Part of the 
temple still stands, as also part of the surrounding wall of 
the Forum. 

<* The theatre of Marcellus on the Campus Martlus was 
dedicated May 4, 11 b.c. Marcellus died in 23. Part ot 
the outer wall still stands. 

• Suet. Aug. 30, states that at one single donation he 
presented to the temple of lupiter Capitolinus 16,000 
pounds of gold (64,000,000 sesterces) and in addition gems 
and pearls amounting to 50,000,000 sesterces. That such 
statements were grossly exaggerated is shown by the fact 
that his total donations, 100^000,000 sesterces ($4,000,000 
or £800,000) fell short of the amount reported for this one gift 



et colonis Italiae conferentibus ad triumph6(*) | me6s 
quintum consul remisi, et postea, quotienscumque 
imperator a(ppe)l|latus sum, aurum coronarium non 

30 accepi decernentibus municipii(*) || et coloni(*) aequ(e) 
beni(g)ne adquo antea decreverant. | 

22, T(e)r munus gladiatorium dedi meo nomine 
et quinquens^ filiorum me(o)jrum aut n(e)p6tum 
nomine ; quibus muneribus depugnaverunt homi-| 
nu(m) ci(rc)iter decem millia. (§) Bis (a^)hletarum 
undique accitorum | spec(ta)c(lu7n po)pulo pra(ebiii 

35 meo) n6mine et tertium nepo(tis) mei no!|mine. 
§ L(M)dos feci m(eo no)m(ine) quater, (§) aliorum 
autem m(agist)rsi\tu(um) vicem ter et vicie(w*). (§) 
(Pr)o conlegio xv virorum magis(ter con)\(l)e(gi^)i 
colleg(a) M. Agrippa (§) lud(o5 .y)aecl(flre)s C. Furnio 
* quinquens (sic), quinquiens Mon. Ant. 

ao aais Ta(ls iv 'I^TaAtlJat TToAeiTetais' Kal dTTOtKiaLs 

crvv€)(^d>piq(a)a ro (tt€ij)\tttov VTTaTevcov , /cat varepov 

oaaKLS {avr^oKpdrcop | rrpoarjyopevdrjv , rds etV rov 

aT€(f)avo(v i^TTayye^Xlas ovk eXa^ov i/jr](f)i,l,ofJi€va>v 

Tcijv 7r(oAetTet)c(jv | /cat dTTOiKLcbv pbeTa rrjs avrrjs 

xn 7Tpod{vfjiLas, Ka)d\\d{7Tep /cat ii/j-^^f^L^a^ro TT^po^repov.) \ 

22. (T/3ts" fJLOvo) pa)({io.v e8co)Ka Tcot eyLtcDt ovopLarL 

Kal I (TTevrdKLS rdJv vlchv /jlov ^ vljcovojv iv als 

fxovo\{ixaxLaLS ifJLaxicrcLvro i}v(yvs fiv)pL(o)L. Als 

5 d6Xr)Tw{v) 7rav||T(a;)^o^ei') fL€{Ta7Tefi<f)devrcov yvfi- 

VLKo)v dydjvos deav \ (rdJL 87^/xait 7T)apeaxov r(dJL 

i)fLd)L ovofiarL Kal Tpir{ov) \ r{ov vlcovov fiov. Qeas 

iTTOTj^aa St' ifJLOV rerpdK^LS,) | Sta Se rdjv dXXcov 

dpxcov iv fiepeL rpls /cat elKoadKLS . § | *T7rep rdjv 

•° 8eKa7T€VT€ (dvSp)d)v, exojv avvdpxovra |j Map/cov 
'AypL7r7T(av, rds d)eas (S)ta eKarov irdov yeLVo\fi,evas 


coronary gold * contributed by the municipia and 
the colonies of Italy, and thereafter, whenever I 
■\\as saluted as imperator, I did not accept the 
coronary gold, although the municipia and colonies 
voted it in the same kindly spirit as before. 

22. Three times in my own name I gave a show of 
gladiators, and five times in the name of my sons 
or grandsons ; in these shows there fought about 
ten thousand men.'' Tmce in my own name I 
fumished for the people an exhibition of athletes 
gathered from all parts of the world, and a third 
time in the name of my grandson." Four times 
I gave games in my o-nTi name ; as representing 
other magistrates twenty-three times.** For the 
college of quindecemvirs, as master of that coUege 
and with Marcus Agrippa as my coUeague, I con- 

" The custom had grown up for cities affected by a 
victory to give crowns of gold to a triumphing imperator. 
These crowns seem later to have been commuted for cash 
which was called coronarium aurum. The amount named 
here, 35,000 pounds, corresponds to the number of the tribes 
and would seem to have come from them. The occasion 
was his triumph in 29 b.c. 

' Of these eight gladiatorial shows, seven are mentioned 
in other sources : 29 b.c, on the occasion of the dedication 
of the temple of Julius ; 28 b.c. ; 16 b.c. ; 12 b.c, in honour 
of Gaius and Lucius ; 7 b.c ; 2 b.c, at the dedication of 
the temple of Mars Ultor ; a.d. 6, in honour of the elder 

• Suet. Aug. 43, states that on one occasion (probably 
28 b.c, c/. Dio. liii. 1) wooden seats for the spectators were 
erected in the Campus Martius. Which grandson, whether 
Germanicus or Drusus, is referred to in connexion with the 
third exhibition is not known. 

** These were the usual games of the circus and theatre 
given by magistrates when entering upon their offices. 



C (iS)ilano cos. (feci.) \ (C)on(sul xiii) ludos Mar(fta)les 
Y>r(imus fect), qu(os) p(ost {)d tempus deincep(j) | 
ins(equen)ti(bus ann)is (s. c. mecwm}- fecerunt co)n(*M)les. 

40 (§) (Ven)ait\(o)n(es) best(?a)![rum Africanarum meo 
nomine aut filio(rM)m meorum et nepotum in ci(r)[co 
aut (t)n foro aut in amphitheatris popul(o rf)cdi 
sexiens et viciens, quibus | confecta sunt bestiarum 
circiter tria m(ill)ia et quingentae. | 

23. Navalis proeli spectaclum populo d.e(di tr)ans 
Tiberim, in quo loco | nunc nemus est Caesarum, 

« cavato (solo) in longitudinem mille l[ et octingentos 

pedes, (§) in latitudine(7n mille) e(t) ducenti.^ In quo 

tri|ginta rostratae naves triremes a(ut birem)6s, (§) 

^ s. c. mecum supplied hy Wirtz. 

* ducenti (»ic). 

ov{ofia^oiJ,€va)s cr(at)/<rAa/)eiS' eTTorjaa Tatoii ( Ooup- 
VLCOL /c(ai) TatujL He^L^XavcoL VTTaroLS. (§) "TTraros" 
TpLa^KaLbeKarov {deag "Apeco? TTp^coros iTTorjaa, ds 
fier^ i\K€lvo{v x)p6vov i^rjs {rots /x^ereTretra iviav- 
'5 roLS II h{6yp,arL avvKXrirov arvv i)pLOL irTorjaav ol 

VTTa\{roL) V 

7^? dr]picov 6 I 

23. N(auyLta;^tas" diav rcoL SijficoL eSco)Ka 7Te{p)av 
Tov Ttj(jSept8o?, iv WL r^TTCOL iarl vv)v aXaos 
KaLa(i{pco)v, \ iKKexco^Kchs ro eSacf^os) e(t)? p.r]K{o)9 
)(€lXlcov OKraKo^aLCov 7ToS{cbv, etV 7T)X(ir{o)s ;!^tAta>j/ 
^™ 8ta/co(CT)ta»t'. 'Ev' rJL \\ rpL(XKo{v)ra vavs e/x^oXa 
exovaai, rpiripeLS rj hi\Kpor(oL, at) Se rjaaoves TTXeiovs 


ducted the Secular Games in the consulship of 
Gaius Fumius and Marcus Silanus.** In my thir- 
teenth consulship I gave, for the first time, the 
games of Mars, which, since that time, the consuls 
by decree of the senate have given in successive 
years in conjunction with me.^ In my own name, 
or that of my sons or grandsons, on twenty-six 
occasions I gave to the people, in the circus, in the 
forum, or in the amphitheatre, hunts of African 
^^ild beasts, in which about three thousand five 
hundred beasts were slain. 

23. I gave the people the spectacle of a naval 
battle beyond the Tiber, at the place where now 
stands the grove of the Caesars, the ground having 
been excavated for a length of eighteen hundred 
and a breadth of twelve hundred feet." In this 
spectacle thirty beaked ships, triremes or biremes, 

* The fiflh celebration of the secular games, June 1-3, 
17 B.c. An inscription reporting this celebration of the 
end of the century was found in 1890, C.I.L. vi. 32,323. 
For an interesting account of it see Lanciani, Pagan and 
Christian Rome, p. 73. 

* The Ludi Martiales, celebrated for the first time in 
2 B.c, on the occasion of the dedication of the temple of 
Mars Ultor. 

* The Naumachia Augusti was directly across the Tiber 
from the lower corner of the Aventine. The present church 
of S. Francesco a Ripa is located near one focus of the 
ellipse and that of S. Cosimato near the other. Remains 
have been found of the pavement and the travertine walLs. 
The waler was siipplied by the Aqua Alsietina, 33 kilometres 
long, built by Aug^istus expressly for this purpose. 



plures autem | minores inter se conflixerunt. Q(uibus 
in) classibus pugnavejrunt praeter remiges millia 
ho(minum tr)ia circiter. § | 

24. In tempKs omnium civitatium pr(or;?recf)ae Asiae 
s» victor orna||menta reposui, quae spoliatis tem(plis is) 

cum quo bellum gesseram | privatim possederat. 
§ Statuae (mea)e pedestres et equestres et in | quad- 
rigeis argenteae steterunt in urbe xxc circiter, quas 
ipse I sustuli (§) exque ea pecunia dona aurea in aede 
Apol(Zi)nis meo nomi|ne et illorum, qui mihi statua- 
rum honorem habuerunt, posui. § || 
V 25. Mare pacavi a praedonibus. E6 bello servo- 
rum, qui fugerant a dominis | suis et arma contra 
rem pubUcam ceperant, triginta fere millia capta § | 
dominis ad supplicium sumendum tradidi. § luravit 

Ivavjxdxf^cfav . § | 'Ev r{ovrcoC) rcbi aroXcot rjycovL- 
aavro e^ca rcov iperu>v | 7Tp6a7T{o)v dvhpes rp{i)a- 
X(e)c(A)toi. II ^ . ,A '/ \ 

s 24. ('Ev vaoZ)s TT{aa)a)v TToXeoi^v) rrjs ( A)at(a)? 
veiKT^aas ra dvade\{fxara aTr^oKarear-qaa, {a eix^v) 
t(Stai) lepoavX-qaag 6 | utt' {ip,ov) 8{i)ayci)ViadeLg 
7ToXe{iJ,Los) . 'Avdpidvres Trel^ot Kal ecjinTTTOL p,ov 
Kal i(j>' dpiiaaw dpyvpoZ elarrjKeL^aav iv rrJL TToAet 

lo ivyvs dySoTjKovra, ovs avros "^pa, \\ eK rovrov re 
rov xP^^t^OL^^os dvadejjLara xp^^^d iv \ rcoL vawL rov 
^AttoXXcovos rcoL re ificoL ovofxarL Koi \ eKetvcov, 
olrLves fX€ {r)ovroLS roZs dvSpLaaLV ireLfir]\aav, 
dvedrfKa. \ 

25. 0aAacrora(v) TTeLparevofxevrfv vrro aTToarartov 
15 SoulJAan' {elpr]v)evaa' i$ Sv rpeZs ttov fivpidSas 

roZs I Se^CTTTOTat)? els KoXaaLV TrapehcoKa. § "Q.fLoaev 
S84 ' 


and a large nimiber of smaller vessels met in conflict. 
In these fleets there fought about three thousand 
men exclusive of the rowers." 

24. After my victory * I replaced in the temples 
ta all the cities of the province of Asia the ornaments 

■hich my antagonist in the war,« when he despoiled 
the temples, had appropriated to his private use. 
Silver statues of me, on foot, on horseback, and in 
ohariots were erected in the city to the number of 
about eighty ; these I myself removed, and from 
the monev thus obtained I placed in the temple of 
\pollo golden offerings in my own name and in the 
aame of those who had paid me the honour of a 

25. I freed the sea from pirates. About thirty 
thousand slaves, captured in that war, who had run 
iway from their masters and had taken up arms 
aigainst the republic, I delivered to their masters 
Ebr punishment.* The whole of Italy voluntarily 

" For this spectacle see Vell. ii. 100. The date was 
i B.C., on the occasion of the dedication of the temple of 
Mars Ultor. Dio, Iv. 10, states that the fight represented 

battle of Athenians and Persians, and that the former 
were victorious. 

* At Actium in 31 b.c. 

* Antony is never mentioned by name. He had robbed 
}f their statues and ornaments various temples at Samos, 
Ephesus, Pergamos, and Rhoeteum in the province of 
\sia and had given them to Cleopatra. C/. Dio, li. 17. 

"* For the melting up of these statues see Suet. Atiff. 52, 
md Dio, liii. 52. Suetonius says that these golden oflFerings 
irere tripods. 

* He is referring to the war with Sextus Pompey, ter- 
[ninated in 36 b.c. Pompey's following was made up largely 
rf runaway slaves, and his fleet, so manned, had cut oflF the 
;rain fleets on their way to Rome. See Vell. ii. 73. 



in mea verba tota | Italia sponte sua et me he(lli), 
quo vici ad Actium, ducem depoposcit. § Iura-j| 
s verunt in eadem ver(6a provtjnciae Galliae Hispaniae 
Africa Sicilia Sar|dinia. § Qui sub {signis meis tuvi) 
militaverint, fuerunt senatores pliires | quam Dcc, in 
ii(* qui vel antea vel pos)tea consules facti sunt ad eum 
diem | quo scripta su(nt haec, Lxxxui, sacerdo)tes 
ci(rc)iter clxx. § | 

26. Omnium pr6v(inciarum populi Romani), quibus 
lo finitimae fuerunt || gentes quae n(on parerent imperio 
nos)tro, fines auxi. Gallias et Hispajnias pr6vicia(*^ 
et Germaniam qua inclu)dit Oceanus a Gadibus ad 
6sti|um Albis ^nm(inis pacavi. Alpes a re)gi6ne ea, 
quae proxima est Ha|drian6 mari, (ad Tuscum pacari 
^ provicias (sic). 

I (et? rovs ifxovjs Xoyovs aTracra rj ^lraXia cKovaa 
Kd\{fjL€ TToXefiov,) cut ctt' 'A/CTta»t ive{L)Kr]a-a, r^yefjiova 
i^r]\{Trioaro . "Q^fxoaav et? rovs {avrov)s Xoyovg 
ao e7ra(p)||xe(tat FaAa^Tta 'laTravla Ai^vr] 2t(/<reAta 
Sap)8cu. Ot utt' e'|)U.(at? arffxiais r6)r€ arparev- 
{adfievoi rjaav avvKXr)Tiy{Kol rrXeiovs i7rr)a{Koai)o)V' 
{i)v {avroZs ol rf Trporepov rj) \ {jiereTreLra) iy{evov)ro 
{vTr)a{TOL els iK)e{l)v{r]v rrjv rj) fie\{pav , iv rji ravra 
XIV yiypaTTTo^i, 6{yhoriKo)vra Tpe{i)s, tep(et)? || Trp^aTTOv 
eKarov i^bofjLrj^K^ovra. \ 

26. Uaaojv iTTapx^Libv S7]fJLo{v 'PoJ)fjLaio)v, als 
ofJLopa I "^v edvrf rd fjL-^ VTTOTaaa{6fL)eva rrJL rjfxerepai 
r]\yefJLOvia, roiis opovs iTrev^{r]a)a. (§) VaXariav 
5 Kal *Icr||77avias', o/xoto)? 8e /cat Vepfiaviav Kadd>s 
^Q.Kea\v6s TTepLKXeieL 077(6) raSe(ip)a>i' fJLexpL ar^- 
fjLaros I "AX^LOS 7TOTafJLo{v iv) elprfvr] Karearrjaa, 
"AXtnqs drro | KXifiaros rov rrXrfaiov Kioviov k6Xttov 


k oath of allegiance to me and demanded me as 

leader in the war in -n-hich I was victorious at 

ium. The pro^inces of the Spains, the Gauls, 

ica, Sicily, and Sardinia took the same oath of 

aiiiL-giance.* Those who served under my standards 

at that time included more than 700 senators,^ 

jand among them eighty-three who had pre\aouslv 

?or have since been consuls up to the day on which 

these words were written, and about 170 have been 


26. I extended the boundaries * of all the provinces 
wliich were bordered by races not yet subject to 
oiu- empire. The provinces of the Gauls, the Spains, 
and Germany, bounded by the ocean from Gades 
to the mouth of the Elbe, I reduced to a state of 
peace.* The Alps, from the region which lies 
nearest to the Adriatic as far as the Tuscan Sea, I 

• In other words, all the provinces in the half of the 
Empire ruled by Octavianus. 

* The number of senators at that time was about 1000. 

« The extensions included : the temporary pushing forward 
of the German frontier from the Rhine to the Elbe; the 
creation of the new provinces of Pannonia and Moesia : the 
addition of the newprovinces of Galatiaand Paphlagonia in 
Asia Minor; the expedition of Aelius Gallus to Arabia 
Felix ; and in Africa, in addition to the formal annexation 
of Egypt, some minor expeditions by the various pro-consuls. 

•^ In the Gallic and Cantabrian expeditions of Augustus 
himself, 27-25 b.c, in that of Carrinas against the Morini, 
of Messala against the Aquitani, 21 b.c, and the numerous 
campaigns in Germany, particularly of Drusus and Tiberius. 
Pacavi could apply to Germany for a very brief period only. 



fec)\ nulli genti bello per iniuriam | inlato. § Q\&{ssis 
mea per Oceanum) ab ostio Rheni ad solis orientis 

15 re||gionem usque ad fi(we* Cimbroru)m navigavit, (§) 
quo neque terra neque | mari quisquam Romanus 
ante id tempus adit, § Cimbrique et Charydes j et 
Semnones et eiusdem tractus alii Germanorum 
popu(Z)i per legatos amicijtiam meam et populi 
Romani petierunt. § Meo iussii et auspicio ducti 
sunt I (duo) exercitus eodem fere tempore in Aethio- 

20 piam et in Ar(a)biam, quae appel;, (Zaiwr) euoaemon, 
(maxim)aeque hos(<)ium gentis utr(?M)sque cop(«ae) | 
caesae sunt in acie et (c)om(j)lur)a. oppida capta. In 
Aethiopiam usque ad oppijdum Nabata pervent(M7«) 

fiexpi' Tvp\pr)vtKrjs OaXdcrcrrjs elprjveveaOai. TreTTorjKa, 
10 (§) ovSevi II edvei aSc/co)? CTrevexd^vTos TToXefiov. 
(§) StoAos" I ifios Sta 'D/ceai^ou aTTO arofiaros 
'Pt^vov (hs TTpos I dvaToXds P^^XP'- ^G^ovs Y^iix^pcov 
huTrXevaev , oS ov\r€ Kard yrjv ovre Kard ddXaaaav 
'VcofMaiojv ns rrpo \ rovrov rov xpovov TTpoarjXdev 
,5 Kal Kljx^poi, Kal XaAu||^es' Kal l^efxvoves aAAa re 
TToAAa edvr] Vepixavwv \ Sta npea^eLcov rrjv ifxrjv 
<j)iXiav Kal TTjv hrjfiov 'Vco\fiaiojv ffrijaavro. 'Efxiji 
eiTvrayrJL koI olcovols alai\ois Suo arparevfiara 
e7T€^r) Aldiorriai Kal ^Kpa^iai \ rrjt evSaifMOvi /ca- 
20 Xovfxevrfi, fieydXas re rcov 7ro\\Xefjiicov Svvdfjbets Kar- 
eKOiJjev ev TTapard^ei Kal \ iTXeiaras rroXets hopi- 
aXiorovs eXafiev /cat 7Tpo\e^rj ev AWtomat ptixpi 


1 • lught to a state of peace without waging on any 

e an unjust war.<* My fleet sailed from the 

uth of the Rliine eastward as far as the lands of 

Cimbri to which, up to that time, no Roman 

1 ever penetrated either by land or by sea, and the 

abri and Charydes and Semnones and other 

'ples of the Germans of that same region through 

ir envoys sought my friendship and that of the 

nian people.'' On my order and under my 

-pices two armies were led, at almost the same 

.6, into Ethiopia and into Arabia which is called 

" Happy," and very large forces of the enemy 

lx)th races were cut to pieces in battle and many 

vns were captured* Ethiopia was penetrated 

as far as the town of Nabata,"* which is next to Meroe. 

* At Torbia (Tropaea Augrusti), near Monaco, stood a 
monument, of which only fragments now exist, commemorat- 
ing the subjugation of the Alpine peoples. Pliny, X.U. 
iii. 20. 136, has preserved the inscription : " The Senate 
and the Roman people to Caesar . . . Augustus . . . 
because under his leadership and auspices all the Alpine 
nations from the upper to the lower sea have been brought 
into subjection to the Roman people." There follows a 
list of forty-six peoples. 

* For this naval expedition to the Elbe in a.d. 5 see 
Aell. 11. 106. The Cimbri inhabited the coast of Schleswig 
and Jutland, the Charudes (the Greek text gives " Chalybes ") 
were their close neighbours, and the Semnones were located 
between the Elbe and Weser. 

« The Arabian expedition of Aellus Gallus, 25-24 b.c. 
The two other portions were called Arabia petraea and 
Arabia deserta. 

* Queen Candace, taking advantage of the withdrawal 
of Egyptian garrisons for the Arabian expedition, captured 
some towns In upper Egj-pt. They were retaken by 
C. Petronius, 24-2J b.c. Hls punltlve expedition pene- 
trated Aethlopia. 



est, cui proxima est Meroe, In Arabiam usque | in 
fines Sabaeorum pro(ce**)it exerc(i<)us ad oppidum 
Mariba. § | 

27. Aegyptum imperio populi (7?o)mani adieci. 

25 § Armeniam maiorem inter! fecto rege eius Artaxe 
§ c(M)m possem facere provinciam, malui maiorum | 
nostrorum exemplo regn(M)m id Tigrani regis Arta- 
vasdis filio, nepoti au|tem Tigranis regis, per T(i. 
A^^e^ronem trad(er)e, qui tum mihi priv(?of)nus erat. | 
Et eandem gentem postea d(e5c)iscentem et rebel- 
lantem domit(a)m per Gaium | filium meum regi 
Ario(6fl/-£r)ani regis Medorum Artaba(r^) filio regen-|| 

30 dam tradidi (§) et post e(««*) mortem filio eius Arta- 
vasdi. (§) Quo (inte^rfecto (Tigra)\ne,^ qui erat ex 
r^gio genere Armeniorum oriundus, in id xe{gnum) 

^ Read Tigranem. 

TToAeoJS" ^a^drrjs, 17x1? iaTLV evytaTa MepoT^, iv^ 
'Apa^tat Se ^i^XP^ TrdAelcD? Mapt/Sa?. || 
XV 27. KlyvTTTOv hrjixov ^PcofjiaLcov r)y€fiovLat TTpoa- 
edr]Ka. \ ^ApfjLeviav rrjv fi^eLjl^ova dvaLpeOevTos rov 
j8acrtAe|co? SvvdpLevos eTTapx^iav TTorjaaL /xaAAov 
i^ov\Xrj6rjv Kard rd rrdrpLa rjjjLoJv edrj ^auLXeiav 
5 Ttypalli^T^t 'ApTaofaaSou vlojl, vlcovwl 8e TLypdvov 
^aaL^Xeojs S(o)w(a)t Sta TL^epiov Nepojvog, os ror 
ip,ov I TTpoyovos rjv /cai ro avro edvos d^Lard- 
fievov Kal I dva77oAe/xow hap,aadev vtto ratou rov 
VLOV I p,ov ^aoLXel ^ApLo^apt^dveL, ^aoLXecos MrjStov 
10 ^ Apra\\^d^ov vlcol, TTapeScoKa /cai fierd rov iKeivov 
^dva|roi' Toit utcDt avrov 'ApraovdaSr)' ov dvat- 
pedevros \ Ttypdvrjv, os "^v iK yevovs ^AppLeviov 
^aatXtKov, els \ rrjv ^aaLXeiav eVe/x^a. § 'Ett- 


In Arabia the army advanced into the territories 
of the Sabaei <» to the town of Mariba. 

27. Egypt I added to the empire of the Roman 
people.* In the case of Greater Armenia, though 
I might have made it a province after the assassina- 
tion of its King Artaxes, I preferred, foUowing the 
precedent of our fathers, to hand that kingdom over 
to Tigranes, the son of King Artavasdes, and grand- 
son of King Tigranes, through Tiberius Nero who 
was then my stepson." And later, when the same 
people revolted and rebelled, and was subdued by 
my son Gaius,** I gave it over to King Ariobarzanes 
the son of Artabazus, King of the Medes, to nile, 
and after his death to his son Artavasdes. When 
he was murdered I sent into that kingdom Tigranes, 
who was sprung from the royal family of the 

" In southern Arabia. 

' In 30 B.c, after Actium. Before that time Egypt had 

n a nominally independent kingdom, though, in a sense, 

a Roman protectorate. Since 57 b.c, when Ptolemy Auletes 

uas restored, a considerable Roman force had been main- 

ned there. After Actium, Egypt, unhke other provinces, 

;> treated as the personal domain of the emperor. For the 

■uliar status of Egypt as a part of the empire see Arnold, 

man Provincial Administration, p. 113. 

Mn 20 B.c. See Vell. ii. 94. 

^ It was in the factional stniggle which followed the 
s^tting up of Artavasdes that Gaius received the wound 

■m which he died in February, 4 a.d. 



misi. § Pro|vincias omnis, quae trans Hadrianum mare 
vergun(< a)d orien(^e)m, Cyrejnasque, iam ex parte 
magna regibus eas possidentibus, e(t) antea Siciliam 
et I Sardiniam occupatas bello servili reciperavi. § || 

35 28. Colonias in Africa Sicilia (M)acedonia utraque 
Hispania Achai(a) Asia S(j/)ria | Gallia Narbonensi 
Pi(*«)dia militum dediixi. § Italia autem xxviii 
(co/o)ni|as, quae vivo me celeberrimae et frequentis- 
simae fuerunt, me(is auspicis) | deductas habet. | 
29. Signa miUtai-ia complur(a per) alios d(M)ces 

4c amiissa) devicti(5 hostibu)s re(cipe) \\ ex Hispania 
et (Gallia et a Dalm)ateis. § Parthos trium exercitum 
Roman(o)|rum spoha et signa rc(ddere) mihi supplices- 
que amicitiam populi Romani | petere coegi. § Ea 

apx^Lag aTraaas, ocrai | Trepav rov Etovioy koXttov 
15 StaretVoucrt 77^6? dva||ToAas', /cat K.vp-^vr]v e/c fxel- 
a^ovos [Jiepovs vtto ^aai\Xe(x>v Karea^^rinevas Ka\ 
epLTTpoadev Di/ceAtW /cat Hap\Scbt TrpoKaTeiXrjfMevas 
TToXipnoi SovXiKcbi, dveXa^ov . | 

28. 'ATTOi/ctas" ev Al^vtjl St/ceAtat Ma/ceSortat ev 
€Kar€\pa(^sic) re 'laTravLat. 'A;;^aiat 'Afftat Yivpia{sic) 

20 FaAaTtat TTyt 7J"e||pt Ndp^ojva rito-tStat arparicorcov 
Karriyayov. § 'lTa|Ata Se et/coot o/ctco aTTOiKLas 
ex^L VTT^ efjLov KaraxQ^i^aas, al ifxov TTepiovros rrXr]- 
dvovaai ervvxavov. \ 

29. ^r)p,eas arparnorLKas [rTXeiaras i5)7ro aXXiov 
riyepi6\vcov aTTO^e^XrjjjLevas {vlkcov rov)s TToXefxiovs \\ 

XVI aTTeXa^ov § e^ 'laTravias /cai raAaTta? /cat Trapd | 
AaXfxarcjv. UdpOovs rpLcov arparevfxdrcov 'Vco- 
fxai\cov aKvXa Kal crqfieas drroSovvaL ifxol LKiras re 
<f)L\Xiav hrffxov 'Pcofxaicov d^Lcoaat rjvdyKaaa. (§) 


Armemans.'* I recovered all the pro^inces extend- 
ing eastward beyond the Adriatic Sea, and Cyrenae, 
which were then for the most part in possession of 
kings,*' and, at an earher time,<= Sicily and Sardinia, 
which had been seized in the ser\ile war. 

28. I settled colonies of soldiers in Africa, Sicily, 
Macedonia, both Spains, Achaia, Asia, S}T-ia, Galha 
Narbonensis, Pisidia. Moreover, Italy has twenty- 
eight colonies founded under my auspices which 
have gro\\Ti to be famous and populous during my 

29. From Spain, Gaul, and the Dahnatians,* I 
recovered, after conquering the enemy, many 
mihtary standards which had been lost by other 
generals. The Parthians I compelled to restore to 
me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies,' 
and to seek as suppliants the friendship of the Roman 

• For the complicated question of the Armenian succession 
see Mommsen. Res Gestae, pp. 1C9-117. 

* Antony had received by tlie treaty of Brundisium in 
40 B.c. Macedonia, Achaia, Asia. Pontus, Bithynia, Cilicia, 
Cj-prus, Sj-ria, Crete, the Cyreraica. The last five he had 
given over to foreign kings. These alienations of foreign 
territory were the occasion of the civil war which ended 
at Actium. 

* By the defeat of Sextus Pompey in 36 b.c, 

•* For these colonies of Augustus see Mommsen, Mes 
Gegtae, pp. 119-222 ; also IJermes, x^iii. 161 fF. 

• The standards lost to the Dalmatians during the civil 
wars by Gabinius in 48 b.c, and Vatinius in 44 b.c, were 
restored to Augustus in 23 b.c We have no account of 
the standards lost in Gaul. The loss of standards in Spain 
was during the wars with Pompey's sons, and the recovery 
must have occurred in the Cantabrian campaign of 25 b.c. 

' Of Crassus at Carrhae in 53. of Antony in 40 and 36 b.c 
The standards were restored by Phraates, the Parthian 
king, in 20 b.c. 



autem si(g«)a in penetrali, quod e(*)t in templo 
Martis Vltoris, | reposui. [ 

30. Pannoniorum gentes, qua(* a)nte me principem 

45 populi Romani exercitus nunllquam ad(i)t, devictas 
per Ti. (iYe)ronem, qui tum erat privignus et 
legatus meus, | imperio populi Romani s(ubie)ci pro- 
tulique fines IUyrici ad r(?p)am fliiminis | Dan(2^)i. 
Citr(a) quod (D)a(cor)u(?w <r)an(5)gressus exercitus 
meis a(w)sp(z'a* vict)us profliga|tusque (est, et) pos(ted 
tran)s Dan(M)vium ductus e\{ercitus me)u(s) Da(cor)um 
I gentes im(j)eria populi Romani perferre coegit.) j| 

50 31. Ad me ex ln(dia regum legationes saepe missae 
sunt, nunquam antea visae) | apud (\u(ei7i)<:[(uam) 
B.(omanoru7n du)cem. § Nostram a,m(icitiam petierunt) 
I per legat(oj) B(a)starn(ae Scythae^que et Sarma- 

5 Tavras \\ Se rag crqfjLeag iv raji "Apecos rov 'A/xw- 
ropos vaov a\hvrcoi, dTreOefMrjv. \ 

30. TlavvovLcov edvq, ols Trpo ifiov rjyefiovos 
arparev\fia 'Vcjpiaicov ovk TJvyLaev, rjaarjdevra vno 
TL^epLOV I Nepcovos os ror ifiov rjv Trpoyovos Kal 

10 TTpea^evrrfS, \\ rjyefioviaL hrffLov 'Pctifiaicov vrrera^a 
(§) ra re ^WXvpL^Kov opLa fiexpi' "larpov iTorafiov 
TTpoT^yayov ov e7ret|TaSe AaKCDV hLa^daa iToXXrf 
SvvafJLLS ifJLOLS alaioLS olo}\vols KareKOTrrf. Kat 
varepov fjLeraxOev ro ifiov arpd\revfxa TTepav 

15 "larpov rd AaKcov edvrj 7Tpoardyp.ara \\ hrffjLov 
PcofjiaLCOv VTTOfjLeveLV rfvdyKaaev. \ 

31. Yipos ifJLe i^ 'Ii^Sta? /SacrtAe'a)v Trpea^elaL 
TToAAa/cis' d7Te\ardXrfaav, ovherrore npo rovrov 
Xpdvov 6(f)deLaaL napd \ 'Pcofxaicov rfyefLOVL. § TrfV 
rffierepav <f)L\iav rf^icoaav \ Std Trpea^ecov § Baardp- 


people. These standards I deposited in the inner I 
shrine which is in the Temple of Mars Ultor." -^^ 

30. The tribes of the Pannonians, to which no 
army of the Roman people had ever penetrated 
before my principate,^ ha\ing been subdued by 
Tiberius Nero who was then my stepson and my 
legate," I brought under the sovereignty of the 
Roman people, and I pushed forward the frontier of 
Illyricum as far as the bank of the river Danube. 
An army of Dacians which crossed to the south of 
that river was, under my auspices, defeated and 
crushed, and afterwards my own army .was led 
across the Danube and compelled the tribes of the 
Dacians to submit to the orders of the Roman 

31. Embassies were often sent to me from the 
kings of India,* a thing never seen before in the 
camp of any general of the Romans. Our friend- 
ship was sought, through ambassadors, by the Bas- 

" Only after its completion in a.d. 2. They were tem- 
porarily placed on the Capitol. 

• Augustus had himself fought the Pannonians in 35-34 
B.c. See Dio, xliv. 36-38. 

• 12-9 B.c. 

•* The Dacians had invaded Roman territory many times 
during the late republic. Julius Caesar was about to make 
an expedition against them. Augustus, in 35 b.c, occupied 
Segesta on the Save as an outpost against their invasions. 
They figure in the civil war as allies of Antony. He is 
here referring probablv to an invasion in 10 b.c. See Dio, 
liv. 36. 

• Two such embassies are mentioned : the first, frequently 
referred to in Augustan literature, while Augustus was in 
Spain, 26-25 b.c. ; the second visited him at Samos, 20 b.c. 


tarum q(ui sunt citrajlu)men | Tanaim (et) ultra reg(es, 
Alba)norumc{ne rex et Iiiher(orum et Medorum). \ 
32. Ad me supplices conh\g(erunt) reges Parthorum 

VI Tirida(ie* et postea) V\\rki(es) \\ regis Phrati(* j^/?W) ; 
(§) Medorum (Artavasdes ; Adiabenorum J)rtaxa|res; 

§ Bi-itann(o)rum Dumnobellau^wM^) et Tim ; 

(Sngambr)or\im \ Maelo ; § Mar(c)oman6rum Sue- 

boru(?« rus). (Ad me rex) Parthorum | Phrates 

Orod(z)s filius filios suos nepot^e^^we omnes misit) in 

5 ItaHam, non || bello superatu(*), sed amicitiam 
nostram per (liberorum) suorum pignora | petens. 
§ Pliirimaeque aliae gentes exper(to suntp. R.) fidem 
me prir^cipe, quibus antea cum populo Roman(o 
nullum extitera)t legationum | et amicitiae (c)om- 
mercium. § | ,A 

20 vai. Kal ^Kvdai koI ^apixa\\Tcov ol iTnTaSe ovres 
Tov TavdiSog TTOTafiov Kal \ ol Trepav Se ^aaiXeis, 
Kal 'AX^avcbv Se /cat 'I^-qpcov \ Kal ^lijBojv ^aatXeis. \ 
32. 11/30? e/xe i/cerat KaTe(f)vyov ^aaiXeLs Udpdojv 
fjiev I TetptSaTTjS" «'at pLeTeTieiTa ^paaTTjs, ^aaiXicjs 
XVII § II (bpaTOV (vlos, M^T^S^ojj/) Se 'A/3rao(uacrS)7^S", 
'ASia^^T]) ji^air CA)pTa{^dpr)s, BpiTa)wa)V Ao/x- 

voeAAawos' j /cat T(i/x , So)u- 

{y)dix^po}v (M)atAa>v, M-apKo\pidv(i)V (HovtJ^cov 

)pos. § {Ylp6)s e/x,e ^aavXevs \\ 

5 HdpOojv ^pa{dTr]s 'Q.pd}So)v vl6{s v)lovs {avTov) 
VLaj\vovs T€ TrdvTas eTreixiltev els 'IraAtW, ov 
TToXiiJLCoi I Xei(f)deis, aXXd ttjv rjpi{e)Tipav ^iAtW 
d^iaii' €771 Ti\Kvojv evexvpois, TrAetord re ctAAa 
edvr] TTeXpav eX{a)^ev S-qpiov 'Pcxjfiaicov TTicrTeoJS en 

10 epLov rjye/jiovos, || ois' t6 TTplv ovSe/xta rjv rrpos 
Srj/jiov 'PojfJiaiCjov 7T{pe)ar\^eici)v Kal ^tAtas' KOivcjiJVia.\ 


tarnae and Scythians,* and by the kings of the 
Sarmatians who live on either side of the river 
Tanais,* and by the king of the Albani * and of the 
Hiberi «* and of the Medes. 

32. Kings of the Parthians, Tiridates,* and later 
Phrates,' the son of King Phrates, took refuge \vith 
me as supphants ; of the Medes, Artavasdes ; " of 
the Adiabeni,* Artaxares ; of the Britons, Dumno- 

l^ellaunus * and Tim ; of the Sugambri,^ 

Maelo ; of the Marcomanni and Suevi rus. 

Phrates, son of Orodes, king of the Parthians, sent 
all his sons and grandsons to me in Italy, not because 
lie had been conquered in war, but rather seeking 
our friendship by means of his own children as 
pledges.*= And a large number of other nations 
f xperienced the good faith of the Roman people 
' iring my principate who never before had had 
y interchange of embassies or of friendship with 
the Roman people. 

« The Bastarnae were a Teutonic people then settled at 
the mouth of the Danube. The Scythians lived in Southern 

* The Don. • On the Caspian Sea. 

* In what is now Georgia. • 26 b.c. 

' 20 B.c. I 31-30 B.c. 

* An AssjTian people, mentioned here for the first time. 

* Probably the same Dumnobellaunus whose coins have 
been found in England. C/. J. Evans, Coins of the Ancient 

^ The Sugambri, a German tribe living to the east of the 
Rhine, were finally defeated in 8 b.c, and transferred to 
the west bank. 

* It was really in order to get his legitimate sons out of 
the way, so as to secure the succession for his illegitimate 
son, Phraataces, whose mother was an Italian slave, a 
present from Aug^stus. The date was 10 b.c. 

o 397 


33. A me gentes Parthorum et Med6ru(m per 
«o legatos) principes earum genjjtium reges pet(j)t6s 

acceperunt : Va.r{thi Vononem regis Phr)a.tis filium, 1 
regis Orodis nep6tem, § Medi Ar(iobarzanem), regis 
Artavazdis fi|lium, regis Ariobarzanis nep(ptem). 1 

34. In consulatii sexto et septimo, h(ella ubi civil)ia. 
exstinxeram | per consensum univers6rum (jpotiius 

'5 rerum 07nra)ium, rem publicam || ex mea potestate (§) 
in senat(?f* popiilique Romani a)rbitrium transtuli. | 
Qu6 pro merito meo senatu(* consulto Augustus 
appe)\\a.tus sum et laureis | postes aedium mearum 
\{estiti publice coronaq)ue civica super | ianuam meam 

33. Hap* efiov edurj UdpOcov /cat M-^Scov 8ia 
Trpecr^ecov t(x)v \ Ttap avrois TrpoiTOiv ^acnXeLS 
alrrjadiJievoL eAa^(ov)* | Ilap^ot Ovovcovrjv , ^aGtXeojs 

15 OpaTOU v{i)6v, ^aaiX{ea))s || ^Q.pd)Sov vIcdvov, 
MrjSoL ^ApLo^ap^dvrjv, ^a(o-)tAea;s" | 'Apra^a^ou 
VLOV, jSaCTtAeo)? ApLo^apt,dv{ov VLa))v6v. \ 

34. 'Ev virareiaL eKrrjL /cat €^86fjLrjL [xerd ro 
rovs iv(f)v\XLOvs ^^ecraL [xe TToXepLOVs (/c)aTa Ta? 
€V-)(ds rwv e\ix(x)V 7ToXe{L)ra)V ivKparrjs yev^fievos 

20 Trdvrojv rcov || TTpayfidrcov, iK rrjs ifirjs i^ovaias 
€LS rrjv rrjs crvv^KX^qrov /cat rov hrjpiov rcov 'Poj- 
p,aio)V p,€rt]V€yKa \ KvpL-qav. 'E^ rjs alrias 
86yfjLarL avvKX-qrov Yie^aards \ 7Tpoa{riyop€)vdr]v 
/cat Sd<f)vaLS 8r]fioaiaL rd 7Tp67Tv\X{d fiov iari' 
XVIII <j)d)r], 6 r€ hpvLvos ar€(f)avos 6 StSojU.eros' || em 
ao)rrjpL(i rcov TToXeLrcov V7T€pd{v)io rov ttvXoj^vos 
rrjs ifirjs OLKias dveridrj, § 077(^)01^ re xP^\(^ovv iv 

" In 4-5 B.c. the Parthians asked that the throne, vacated 
by the flight of Phraataces (see last note), be iilled by 



33. From me the peoples of the Parthians and of 
the Medes received the kings for whom they asked <• 
through ambassadors, the chief men of those peoples ; 
the Partliians Vonones, son of King Phrates, grandson 
of King Orodes ; the Medes Ariobarzanes, the son 
of King Artavazdes, grandson of King Ariobarzanes. 

34. In my sixth and seventh consulships,'' when 
L had extinguished the flames of civil -w-ar, after 
«eceiving by universal consent the absolute control 
of affairs, I transferred the repubhc from my own 
control to the will of the senate and the Roman 
people. For this service on my part I was given 
the title of Augustus " by decree of the senate, 
and the doorposts of my house were covered witl\ 
laurels by pubhc act, and a civic crown was fixed 
above my door,'* and a golden shield was placed in 

Vonones, the legitimate son of Phraates, then a hostage in 
Rome. For Ariobarzanes see Chap. 27. 

* 28 and 27 b.c. In these and the following years he 
gradually divested himself of his extraordinary powers and 
contented himself with ordinary offices, but held in an 
extraordinary way, such as the tribunicia potesfas, and the i 
imperium. In form he restored the republic ; in substance 
the real power rested with him, perhaps, in view of the 
circumstances, unavoidably. The statement which he : 
makes here is clearly the one which he wishes to be the j | 
view of posterity. At any rate, the revolutionary and J 
extraordinary acts of the triumviral period ceased, by his >/ 
own edict (Dio, liii. 2), with the expiration of 28 b.c. 

* Januarv' 16, 27 b.c. The title was suggested by 
Munatius Plancus. 

* This crown, or the laurels, or both, are represented 
upon coins. See Cohen, Nos. 43-48, 50, 207-212, 301, 356, 
385, 426, 476-478, 482. Most of them have the inscription 
06 cives servatos. The civic crown was the reward of the 
soldier who had saved the life of a citizen. It was given 
to Augustus because, by putting an end to the civil wars, 
and by his clemency, he had saved the lives of many citizens. 



fixa est (§) (clupeusque aureu)s in (c)uria Iiilia posi|tus, 
quem mihi senatum {populumque RomarM)m dare 

lo virtutis c\e\\m(entia)e iustitia(e pietatis caussa testattim) 
est pe(r e)ius cliipei | (inscription)em.) § Post id 
tem(pus praestiti omnibus dignitate, potes\t)atis au(te>n 
w)ihilo ampliu(* kabui quam qui fuerunt rn)i\a. quo|que 
in ma(gis)tra(t)\i conlegae. | 

35. Tertium dec(2)mum consulatu(7w cum gerebam, 

23 senatus et equ)ester ordo || populusq(?/e) Romanus 
liniversus (appellavit me patrem p)atriae idque | in 
vestibu(/o a)edium mearum inscriben(c??/?n esse atque^ 
in curia e)t in foro Aug. | sub quadrig(?)s, quae mihi 
(ex) s. c. Y>^s(itae sunt, decrevit. Cum ^cri^psi haec, | 
annum agebam septuagensu(7«Mm sextum). | 

^ atque Wirtz, et Mommsen. 

Tcoi ^o{v)XevTrjpioii avaTeO^ejv vtto T€ ttjs \ crvv- 
KXiqTov Kal Tov b-qfjLov tcov 'Pa»(/ia)ta)V Sto, ttjs \\ 
5 €7nypa(f)fjs apeTTjv /cai eTretKeiav /ca(t S^iKaiocrvvqv | 
Kal evae^eiav e/xot fxapTvpel. § 'A^t66)Lt(a)Tt (§) 
TrdvTOJv I hirjveyKa, (§) e^ovaias 8e ov8ev tl TrXelov 
eaxov I T(x)v avvap^dvrcov /xot. | 

S5. TpLaKaLSeKaTiqv VTraTeiav dyovTos fiov rj 

10 re avv\\KXrjTOs Kal to LTnnKov ray/xa o re avvrras 
SrjfJLOs TcDv I 'PcopLaLOJV rrpoarjyopevae fie TraTepa 
TraTpiSos Kol tovto \ iirl tov TrpoTrvXov Trjs OLKLas 
fiov Kal iv TcDt ^ovXevTr)\pLa)L Kal iv ttjl dyopaL 
TrJL HejSaaTrJL vtto twl dpfiaTL, 6 fJLOi \ SoyfxaTL 

15 avvKX-qrov dveTedrj, e7TLypacf)7JvaL iifjrj(f)Laa\\ro . 
(§) "OTe eypa<j)ov TavTa, rjyov eTos e^SofJLrjKoarov \ 

€KTOV. § I 


the Curia Julia whose inscription testified that 
the senate and the Roman people gave me this in 
recognition of my valour, my clemency, my justice, 
and my piety." After that time I took precedence 
of all in rank, but of power I possessed no more 
than those who were my colleagues in any magistracy. 
35. While I was administering my thirteenth con- 
sukhip the senate and the equestrian order and 
the entire Roman people gave me the title of Father 
of my Country,'' and decreed that this title should 
be inscribed upon the vestibule of my house and 
in the senate-house and in the Forum Augustum 
beneath the quadriga erected in my honour by 
decree of the senate. At the time of writing this 
I was in my seventy-sixth year.' 

" Not mentioned by ancient writers, but represented 
upon coins and inscriptions. Cf. C.I.L. ix. 5811, with two 
Victories supporting a shield and the words, " The Senate 
and Roman people have given to Augustus a shield on 
account of his valour, clemency, justice, and piety." Korne- 
mann in Klio, vol. xv., points out that virtua, iustitia, 
clementia, and pietas are the subjects of the first four chapters 
of the Mon. Anc. 

* Formally bestowed February 5, 2 b.c. Before that he 
had often been called pater, or parens patriae informally. 
Suetonius, Augustus, 5S, gives part of the address of Messala 
including the actual salutation, " senatus te consentiens 
cum populo Romano consalutat patriae patrem." 

* Augu<;tus was seventy-six on September 23, a.d. 13. 
Chap. 8 of the Mon. Anc. refers to his third census which 
was completed one hundred days before his death. This 
would bring the date of writing to between May 11, a.d. 14, 
and his departure for Campania. Augustus died at Nola, 
August 19, in that year. 



1. Summa pecun(«)ae, quam ded(2< in aerarium vel 
30 plebei Romanae vel c?e)misj|sis militibus : denarium 

&fi{xi)t(ns milliens). | 

2. Opera fecit nova § aedem Martis, {lovis Tonantis 
et Feretri, Apollinis,) | divi luli, § Quirini, § Minervae, 
(Innonis Reginae, lovis Libertatis,) | Larum, deum 
Penatium, (§) Iuv(entatis, Matris deum, Lupercal, 
pulvina)r | ad circum, (§) ciiriam cum ch(alcidico, 

■isforum Augustum, basilica)m )) luliam, theatrum 

Marcelli, (§) (p)or(ticus , nemus trans 

T^iberim | Caesarum. § | 

S. Refecit Capito(/m7w 5acra)sque aedes {nti)m{ero 
octoginta) duas, thea(^)rum Pomjpei, aqu(arM7w rivos, 
w*)am Flamin(ia/n). | 

1. ^vvK€^a\aio}ai£ (§) rjpcd/Jirjfievov ;!^/37^/iaTO? 
€1? To aipd\piov 7] els rov S-q/jiov rov 'Vo)(jj,aL)cov 7) 
els roiis dTroAejAu/AeVou? arpartcoTas (§) : e^ 
/LiupidSes' fivpidScov. § || 
20 2. "Epya Kaivd iyevcro vrr* avrov vaol fjiev 
"Apeois, Atos' I BpovrrjCTiov Kal TporraiO(f)6pov, 
Ilaros", 'A7rdAAa)|vos", (§) deov 'louAtou, Kvpeivov, 
(§) 'A{eri)vas, (§) "Hpas ^a(XiXi\8os, (§) Atds 
'EAeu^eptou, (§) r]pa){a)v, Oecov rr)arpia)V, (§) Ne-| 
dTrjTOS", (§) Mi^Tpds" dedJv, (§) ^{ovXevr-qpiov) avv 
XIX ;!^aA/ct|]8tK:d)t, (§) dyopdi Se^aaTT^t, (§) dearpov 
Map/ce'AAoy, (§) jS^a^fftjAt/irT^ 'louAta, (§) dAo-o? 
Kaio-dpcov, (§) OToat i{v) IlaXar{i)a)i, | arod iv 
imTohpoixoji ^XapLivioji. 

S. § 'Yi7TeoKevdcd{ri rd Ka)|7rtTd)Atov, (§) vaol 

5 dySoTy/cot^Ta Sdo, (§) di{ar)pov rT(o/,t)]]7r7jtou, (§) 

ohds ^XapiivLa, (§) dyojyol vddrcov. 




1. The sum total of the money which he contri- 
buted to the treasury or to the Roman plebs or to 
discharged soldiers was 600,000,000 denarii.* 

2. The new works which he built were : the 
temple of Mars, of Jupiter Tonans and Feretrius, of 
Apollo, of the Deifi^d JuHus, of Quirinus, of Minerva, 
of Juno the queen, of Jupiter Libertas, of the Lares, 
of the Di Penates, of Youth, of the Mother of the 
gods, the Lupercal, the state box at the circus, the 
senate-house with the Chalcidicum, the Augustan 
Forum, the Basilica Juha, the theatre of Marcellus, 

the grove of the Caesars beyond the 


3. He restored the Capitol and sacred buildings 
to the number of eighty-two, the theatre of Pompey, 
the aqueducts, the Flaminian Way.<* 

■ This summary, as Mommsen points out, is not by 
1 iberius, but apparently by one of the local magistrates of 

' The total of the expenditures mentioned by Augustus 
in this connexion was 2,199,800,000 sesterces. The 
6' 0,000,000 denarii — 2,400,000,000 sesterces— is accordingly 
a round sum. See Mommsen, Res Gestae, p. 157. 

' A summary of Chapter 19 and part of 20. Temples are 

ntioned first to simplify grammatical construction, the 

•r buildings at randomi. The Greek does not correspond 

• ih the Latin : there is no equivalent in the Greek version 

for pulvinar ad circum, nor exact equivalent in the Latin 

text for (TToal iv IlaXariw, aToa iv lrTo5p6/ufi ^XafUviif, 

■* A summary of Chap. 20. 



4. Impensa p(raestita in spect)acu\{a scaenica et 
4° munerd) gladiatorum atJK^we athletas et venationes et 

nai(7n) et donata pe(c)unia a (?) | 

(^er)rae motu § in- 

cendioque consum|pt(w) a(ut viritim) a(micis sena- 
<)oribusque, quorum census explevit, | in(ra)umera- 
(bili)s. § I 

4. (Aa7r)avat 8e | els dias Kal fiovofidxovs Kal 
dOXrjras Kal vavfxa\xi-av Kal drjpofiaxiO-v dojpeal 
(rc) aTToiKiais iToXeaiv | ev 'iTaAtai, iroXecn.v iv 
iTTapx^iais (§) CTetff/xcDt Ka(i) iv7Tv\pi,afji,ots ttctto- 
lo vrjKVtats T^ /car' avSpa ^tAotS" /cat avv\\KXr]TiKOLS , 
cov ras reifMTfaets Trpoae^eTrXrjpcoaev : a\7Teipov 
TrXrjdos- I 



■i. The expenditures provided for theatrical shows, 
£rladiatorial sports, for exhibitions of athletes, for 
luints of wild beasts, and the naval combat," and 
hi- aifts [to colonies in Italy, to cities in the provinces] 
^^hich had been destroyed by earthquake or con- 
flagration, or to individual friends and senators, 
whose property he raised to the required rating, 
are too numerous to be reckoned.^ 

" Summarizes Chaps. 22, 23. 

' These donations to cities and to individuals are not 
covered by Augustus in his account. The names of some 
of the cities aided are supplied by the authors and inscrij>- 
tions : in Italy, Venafrum in Campania {C.I.L. x. 4842), 
and Naples (Dio, Iv. 10) ; in the provinces, Paphos in 
Cyprus, 15 b.c. (Dio, liv. 23), and several cities in Asia in 
12 B.c. (Dio, liv. 30), and lastly Laodicea and Tralles (Strabo, 
xii. 8. 18 ; Suet. Tih. 8). 

The census rating for a senator was raised from 800,000 
sesterces to 1,200,000, and where senators were worthy, 
though poor, he raised their fortunes to that amount (Suet. 



[Tlie page numbers in light-faced type refer to Velleius Paterciilus. 
Those in black-faced type refer to the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.] 

Accius, writer of trasedy, 43, 69 
Acerrans, receive citizenship, 37 
Achaea, occupied by Achaeans, 9 ; 

power broken by Metellus Mace- 

donicus, 27 ; made province by 

Mummius, 31, 133 ; province of 

Achaea, 97. 261 ; granted to Sex. 

Pompey, 213 ; colonies estab- 

lished by Augustus, 393 
Achaeans, driveii from Laconia, 9 ; 

defeated by Metellus, 27 ; con- 

quered by Mummius, 29, 81 ; 

Achaeans on Black Sea, 135 
Achaicus, cognomen of L. Mum- 

mius, 33, 321 
Achillas, causes death of Pompey, 

Achilles, father of Pyrrhus, 3 ; 

ancestor of Alexander, 15 
Actium, 227 ; battle of, 229, 233, 

235, 387 
Adduus, wounds C. Caesar, 263 
Adiabeni, 397 

Adriatic Sea, 145, 163, 387, 393 
Aeculanum, 81 
Aefulum, colony, 37 
Aegeae, 201 
Apfiean Sea, Islands of, occupied 

by ionians, 11 
Aegisthus, cousinofAgampmnon, 5 
Sex. Aelius Catus, cos. (a.d. 4), 265 
L. Aelius Lamia, 295 
L. Aelius Seianus, associate of 

Tiberiusinburdensof principate, 

319, 823 ; his character, 319, 

M. Aemilius Lepidus augur, 


branded by censors for extrava- 
gance, 69 

M. Aemilius Lepidus, triumvir 
reipublicae constituendae, 235 ; 
niade pontifex max. in Caesar's 
place, 187 ; Spain decreed to 
him, but delays in Gaul, ib. ; in- 
competence as conimander, 187, 
219 ; his army receives Antony 
after Mutina, 187 ; declared a 
public enemy, 189 ; with Antony, 
begins proscriptions, 191 ; pro- 
scribes his brotlier Paulus, 195 ; 
mockery at his triumph, ih. ; 
deprived of liis command by 
Octavian, 221 ; his wife sister of 
M. Brutus, 235 ; his character, 221 

M. Aeinilius Lepidus, sonof above, 
forms design to kill Augustus, 
crushed by Maecenas, 235 ; his 
wife, Servilia, kills herself, ib. 

M. Aemilius Lepidus, cos. (a.d. 6), 
373 ; in charge of winter quarters 
of Tiberius in Pannonian war, 
291 ; receives ornaments of a 
triumph, 293 ; holds Spain in 
peace and tranquility, 317 

L. Aemilius Faulus, losea life at 
Cannae, 23 

L. Aemilius Paulus, his son, defeats 
Perses, 21 ; triumph of, 23 ; losi 
of his sons, 25 ; liis famous say- 
ing, ib. 

L. Aemilius Paulus, proscribed by 
his brother Lepidus, 195 

Aemilius Paulus, censor with 
Plancus (22 b.c), 251 


Aemilias Suia, on chronology of 
Rome, 15 

Aenaria, 89 

Aeolians, colonies of, in Asia, 11 

Aeschylus, 43 

Aeseniia, colony, 37 

Aetolia, conquest of, 133 

L. Afranius, writer of fabulae 
togatac, 69 ; almost contemporai y 
with Terence, 43 

li, Afranins, Pompey^a Uentenant 
in Spain, 157, 163 

Africa, 9, 31, 41, 55, 71, 89, 137, 167, 
171, 219, 295, 317 ; flrst entered 
by Regulus with army, made 
province by Scipio Aeiiiilianus, 
131 ; takes oalh of allegiance to 
Augustus, 387 : Augustus founds 
colonies in, 393 

African war, 169 ; Caesar^s triumph 
for, 173 ; war with Tacfarinaa, 325 

Africanus, see Comelius Scipio 

A^memnon, founds oities in Crete, 
3 ; slain by Aegisthus, 5 

Agrarian laws, of Tib. Oracchus, 
51 ; of C. Gracchus, 61 ; Licinian, 
ib. ; of Caesar, 147 

IL Agrippa, 179, 199; his characler, 
217 ; prepares fleet for Octavian 
against Sei. Pompey, ib. ; lights 
successful battle at Mylae, un- 
Buccessful at Tauromenium, 217, 
219 ; despoils Pompey of his 
■hips, 219; flrst to receive corona 
classica, 223 ; his successes in 
campaign precedingActium,229; 
commands fleet at Actium, 229 ; 
•ssistance to Angtistus, 235, 239, 
819, 381 ; consul three times and 
peceives tribunician power, 239; 
pacifies Spain, ib. ; retires to 
Asia on account of Marcellus, 
247 ; on retum marries Julia, 
daughter of Augustus, ib. ; his 
death, 251 ; a " novus homo," 251, 
319; his sons, 251 

]f. Agrippa Postumus, his son, 
adopted by Augustus, 265, 285 ; 
alienates Augustus, 2a5 ; put to 
death, ib. 

Alba, colony, 87 

Albani, 397 

Albania, 135 

Albis, aee Blba 

Alcmaeon, last of life archons, 19 
Alcman, the poet, 47 
Alesia, captured by Caesar, 153 
Aletes, son of Hippotes, foonds 

Corinth, 9 
Alexander the Great, descended 

from Achilles and Hercules, 15 ; 

his statue by Lysippus, 27 ; 

addicted to drunkenness and 

anger, 139 
Alexandria, 25, 87, 187, 225, 233, 

Alexandrian war, Julius Caesar's 

triumph in, 173 ; Alexandrian 

war of Augustus, 235 
Aliso, fortress in Geraiany, 305 
Allobroges, 71 
Allobrogicus, see Fabius 
AIps, 59, 187, 269 ; wild aod 

barbarous peoples of, subdued, 

239, 387 ; the boundary of lUIy, 

ALsium, colony, 37 
Altar of Fortuna Rednx, 363; of 

Pax Angusta, 365 
Altinum, town of, 211 
Amnesty, 177 
T. Ampius, trib. plebis, proposes 

special honour for Pompey, 137 
Amyntas, king of Galatia, deserts 

Antony, 229 
Anchises, ancestor of Julian gens, 

Andros, settled by lonians, 11 
L. Anicius, triumph of, 23 
Annia, wife of Cinna, theu of Piao, 

139 ; given up by latter to gain 

favour with Sulla, ib. 
T. Annius Milo, trib. pleb., restores 

Cicero from exile, H9 ; as candi- 

date for consnlship slays P. 

Clodius, 155 ; condemned with 

consent of Pompey, ib. ; slain 

at siege of Compsa, 197; his 

character, ib. 
Antiochus, the Great, shom of 

Asia by L. Scipio, 135 
Antiochus Epiphanes, curt treat- 

ment by Popilius, 25 ; begins 

Olynipieum at Athens, ib. 
C. Antistius, lieutenantof Augustus 

in bpain, 241 
C Antistius Vetus, son of above, 
C08. (6 B.a), 371 



P. Antistius, slain by Damasippus, 
105 ; wife of, 105, 237 

Antistius Vetus, propraetor of 
Spain, 145 ; his grandson a con- 
sular and pontifex max., ib. 

C. Antonius, brotherof the trium- 
vir, whose troops voluntarily go 
over to Brutus, 109 

L. Antonius, brother of triumvir, 
starts war at Perusia, 207 ; after 
capture of P. permitted to go by 
Octavianus, ib. 

M. Antonius, orator, 67 ; put to 
deatli on orders of Marius and 
Cinna, 95 

M. Antonius (Creticus), praetor 
with extraordinary powers, 117 

M. Antonius, son of above, triuni vir, 
191, 235 ; his character, 175, 187, 
207 ; good conimander, 187 ; 
places crown on Caesar at Luper- 
calia, 175 ; saved l)y Brutus, 175 ; 
permits slayers of Caesar to 
descend from Capitol, 177 ; his 
haughty reception of Octavian, 
181 ; seizes money deposited by 
Caesar in temple of Ops, ib. ; 
tampers with Caesar*» reoords, 
t*. ; resolves to wrest Gaul from 
D. Brutus, ib. ; two of his legions 
goovertoOctavian, 183; defeated 
at Mutina, ib. ; joins Lepidus 
in Gaul, 1S7; declared enemy of 
state, ib. ; his emissaries slay D. 
Brutus, 189; Cicero's speeches 
against him, ib. ; makes overtures 
to Octavian, 191 ; triumvirate of 
Ant., Caesar, Lepidus, ib. ; crit- 
icized for proscription of Cicero, 
193 ; proscribes own uncle, 195 ; 
victory at Philippi, 201 ; visits 
eastern provinces, 207 ; agree- 
ment with Octavian at Brundi- 
sium, 213; peace of Misenum 
with Sex. Pompey, 213 ; marries 
Octavian's sister, Oclavia, 215 ; 
Sex. Pompey slain by his orders, 
219, 233 ; defeats at hands of 
Parthians, 225, 243 ; his Armenian 
expedition, 223 ; infatuated witli 
Cleopatra malces war on his 
country, ib. ; defeat at Actium, 
227 ff. ; deserts forces and follows 
Cleopatra, 231 ; ends his life, 233 


Antonius lulus, son of triumvir 

adultery with Julia, 259 
Apollo, temple of, 223, 375, 379, 

403 ; oracle of, 7 
Apollonia, Augustus student 

there, 179 
Appius, see Claudius 
L. Apronius, military honours of, 

L. Apuleius Saturninus, trib. pl., 

banishes Metellus Numidiciis, 

81 ; put to deaih by Mai ius, 75 
Sex Apuleius, cos. (a.d. 14), 311, 

Apulia, 103 
Aqua Marcia, capacity doubled by 

Aug., 377 
Aquae Sextiae, named froni Sextius 

Calvinus, 39 ; scene of victory 

of Marius over Teutons, 75 
Aqueducts, 377, 403 
Aquileia, colony, 39 
M'. Aquilius, cos. (129 b.c), 55; 

leads Aristonicus in triumph, ih 
M'. Aquilius, son of above, betrayed 

by iieople of Mytileiie, 85 
Arabia, expedition to, 389, 391 
Arbaces, the Mede, 15 
Archilofihus, the poet, 13 
Arclions, at Atheiis, 7, 19 
Argos, 15 ; no orator of, 47 
Aricians, admitted to citizenship, 

Arimlnum, 379 ; colonists sent to, 

Ariobarzanes, king of Armenia, 

Ariobarzanes, placed on throne of 

Medes by Aug., 399 
Aristodemus, descendant of Her- 

cules, 7 
Aristonicus, pretender to throne 

of Attalus, seizes Asia, 55 ; sla\ s 

Crassus Mucianus the procon^i) 

ib. ; subdued by Perpenua, i' 

led in triumph by M'. Aquilii 

Aristophanes, the poet, 43 
Aristotle, 43 
Armenia, 121, 129, 257; Tigrant., 

left in peace there, 129 ; entered 

by Antony, 223, 225 ; brouplit 
under sovereignty of Ronie by 
Tiberius and given to Artavasdes, 


229, 2d7, 309, 391 ; campaign of 
C. Caesar there, 2ti3, 391 
mfnians, royal family o', 393 
uinius, of race of Chenisci, 209 ; 
^on of Sigimer, 299 ; his character, 
ib. ; arouses Germans against 
Rome, ib. 

L. Arruntius, restored to state by 
Sex. Pompey, 215 ; coinmands 
'.ett wing of Caesar's fleet at 
Actium, 229 ; reconciles Sosius 
to Octavian, 233 ; consul, 353 

L. Arruntius, son of above, cos. 
(a.d. 6), 373 

Artabazus, king of Medes, 391 

Artagera, city of Armenia, 263 

.\: tavasdes, king of Arnienia, 391 ; 

ound in chains by Antony, 225 ; 

akes refuge with Augustus, 397 

>:tavasdes (distinct from above), 

placed ou throne of Armenia by 

Til)erius, 249, 399 

Artaxares, king of Adiabeni, 397 

Artaxes, king of Armenia, 391 

Artorius, physician of Octavian, 201 

Arval brother, Augustus made, 357 

Arverni, 71 

Asculum, people of, begin Italian 
war, 79 ; taken by Cn. Pompeius, 

Asix, 11, 85, 97, 99, 121, 137, 141, 
199, 219, 245, 247, 255, 261, 319, 
385 ; left to Roman people by will 
of Attalus, 55 ; wrested by 
Scipio from Antiochus, given to 
Attalids, made tiibutary by 
Perpenna, 133 ; Augustus founds 
colonies in, 393 ; its cities restored 
by Tiberius, 319 

Asinius Herius, leader of Italians, 

C. Asinius Pollio, orator, 127 ; 
novus homo, 321 ; loyal to Julian 
party hands overanny to Antony, 
187 ; tights against Sex. Pompey 
in Spain, 207; keeps Venetia lor 
Antony, 211 ; wins over Domitius 
for A-, ib. • remains neutral 
between Antony and Octavlan, 

0. Asinius Gallus, son of above, 
cos. (8 B.C.), 357 

L. Asprenas, saves part of army of 
Varus, 305 ; charged with appro- 

priating inheritances of the 

slain, io. 
Assyrians, sovereignty of Asia 

to Medes, 13 ; first holders of 

world power, 15 
Asylura, established by Romulus, 

Athenians, 7, 47 ; fonnd CJhalcis 

and Eretriain Euboea, 11 ; loyalty 

to Romaus in Mithridatic war, 

97 ; amnesty of, 177 
Athens, 7 ; ceases to be ruled by 

kings, 7 ; ruled by Archons, 7, 

19 ; Pelasgi migrate thither, 9 ; 

lonians set out froni, 11 ; 

Antiochus begins Olympieumat, 

25 ; home of eloquence, 47 ; 

wrested from Mitliridates by 

SuIIa, 97 
Atliletic contests, 311, 381, 405 
Atia, daughter of sister of Julius 

Caesar, 177 ; mother of Augustus, 

ib., 179 
C. Atilius Serranus, Pompey born 

in his consulship (lOt) B-C), 169 
Atreus, liolds funeral games at 

Olympia, 19 
Attalids, 133 
Attalus, bequeaths Asia to Roman 

people, 55 
Attuarii, conquered by Tiberius, 

Augustalia, 363 
Augustns, see Octavianus ; title of 

Aug., 399 
C. Aurelius Cotta, consular and 

pontifex maximus, 143 ; orator, 

C. Aurelius Cotta, di.stributes jury 

service between senators and 

knights, 119 
Aurelius Cotta, brother of Messa- 

linus, 283 
M. Aurelius Scaurus, slain by 

Cimbri, 73 ; orator, 67 
Auximum, colony, 39 
Aventine Hill, 61, 375 
Avernus, lake of, 217 

Babtlon, founding of, 16 
Bagienni, 41 
Balbus, see Cornelius 
Basiiica Julia, 377, 403 
Ba.staniae, 395 



Bath, carried by Tiberius for 

invalid soldiers, 289 
Bathinus, river, 291 
Batones, brotliers, leaders of 

Pannonians, 279; one captured, 

Beneventum, colonists sent to, 37 
Bestia, see Calpurnius 
M. Uibulus, colleague of Caesar in 

consulship, 147 
Bithynia, bequeathed to Rome by 

Nicomedes, 55 
Black Sea, 135, 261 
Blaesus, see Junius 
Bocchus, king of Mauretania, 73 
Boeotia, 97 
Boiohaemum, country of Marobo- 

duus, 277 
Bononia, colony, 39 
Bovillae, 155 
Britain, twice invaded by Caesar, 

151, 153 
Biitons, 397 

Bructeri, German tribe, 269 
Brundisium, see Brundusium 
Brundusium, 137, 161 ; colony 

founded there, 37 ; Sulla lands 

there, 101 ; Octavianus at, 179 ; 

legions of Antonius at, 183 
BTOtus, see Junius 
Buxentum, colony, 39 
Byzantium, colony of Miletus, 

surpasses mother city, 65 

Cadiz, see Gades 

Caecilia, distinction of family of, 

Caecilius, writer of comedy, 43 

Q. Caecilius Metellus Mace- 
donicus, earns cognomen by 
defeating the pseudo-Philip of 
Macedon, 27 ; defeats Achaeans, 
27; surrounds two temples with 
a portico, 27, 49; brings statues 
froni Greece, 27 ; builds first 
templeofmarble, 27; distinction 
of his four sons, 29 ; rigour of his 
discipline in Spain, 59 

Q. Caecilius Metellus Numi- 
dicus, wages Jugurthine war, 
wins triumph, 71, 73 ; supplanted 
in conimand by Marius, 71 ; 
exiled by Saturninus, 81 ; re- 
stored by son, 81, 149 ; orator, 67 


Q. Metellus, son of above, eams 

cognomen of Pius, 81 ; routs 

enemies of SuUa at Faventia, 

109 ; wins triumph for victory in 

Spain, 113; opinion of Sertorius 

coneerning, 113 
Q. Metellus Creticus, brings 

Crece under sovereignty of 

Rome, 123, 133; triumphs, 139; 

dies before civil war, 159 
Metelli, two brothers, Gaius and 

Marcus, sons of Macedonicus, 

triumph same day, 67 ; Metelli, 

two, cousins, censors same year, 

A. Caecina, brings army to Tiberius 

in Pannonian war, 283 
L. Caedicius, valour of in dlsaster 

of Varus, 305 
Caelian Hill, conflagration on, 827 
L. Caelius (Antipater), historian,69 
Caelius Caldus, captured by Ger- 

mans, kills himself by his chains, 

M. Caelius Rufiis, as praetor 

advocates cancellation of debts, 

195 ; as orator, 127 
Caepio, see Fannius and Servilius 
Caesar, see Julius 
L. Caesetius Flavus, tribiine of 

people, outspoken against Caesar, 

Calabria, 103 
Calatia, 183 
Caldus, see Caellus 
Cales, eolony, 37 
M. Calidius, orator, 127 
Calpnrnia, loyalty to hnsband 

Antistius, 105, 237 
Calpumia, wife of Caesar, terrifled 

by dream, 177 
Cn. Calpumius Piso, consul with 

Tiberius (7 b.c), 371 
L. Calpurnius Piso ends Thracian 

war, 255 ; praefectus urbi, ib. ; 

his character, t6. 
L. Calpumius Piso, conspiros 

against Tiberius, 327 
Calvinus, see Domitius and Veturius 
C. Calvisius, cos. (4 b.c.), 371 
C. (Licinius) Calvus, orator, 127 
Camelus, 1S9 
Campaiiia, 363; Cinna sets out 

for, 91; Sulla leads army into, 


103; Pompey ill there, 157; 
TL Claudius stirs up war ihere, 
209, 211 ; Augustua seta out for, 

Gainpanians, 81 ; receive citizen- 
ship without vote, 35 ; Caesar 
establishes colony, and restores 
rights to Capua, 147 ; additions 
to colony by Augustns, 221 ; 
Angnstas compensates for lauds 
taken away, ib. 

Campos Martius, 245, 317, 365 

Candidates of Caesir, 313 

P. Canidius Crassus, leader of land 
forces of Antony at Actinra, 
229 ; deserts them, ib. ; his 
death, 235 

L. Caninius GaUns, cos. (37 B.aX 

lu Caninins Gallns, consul with 
Augustus (2 B.C.), 257 

Canninefates, subdued by Tiberins, 

T. Cannutins, trib. pl., assails 
Aiitony, 189 ; pays with life, ib. 

Capito, nncle of Velleius, 199 

CBpitol, 375, 379 ; porticoes on, 49, 
53 ; steps of, 53 ; seized by 
assassins of Caesar, 175, 177; 
rebuilt by Angustns, 377, 403 

Oappidocia, made a pro^ince, 135 

Gapiia, foanded by the Ktruscans, 
17 ; captured by Romans, t6. ; 
reduced to praefecture, 147 ; 
Sulla's Tictory ihere, 103 ; Spar- 
tacus escapes from, 115 

Garantis, descendant of Hercules, 
seizes kingsbip of Hacedonia, 

Oarbo, see Papirius 

Gamnntnm, 277 

Carseoli, colony, 37 

Oarthage, founding of, 15 ; colony 
of Tyre, more powerful than 
mother city, 65 ; destroyed by 
Scipio, 31 ff., 55, 131; rival of 
Rome, 31, 47 ; Cato advocate of 
her destruction, 33; after lier 
destruction Romans abandon 
their old-time discipline, 47 ; 
Roman colony, 41 ; first outside 
of Italy, 63 ; Marius amid her 
rnins, 89 

Obrlhaginians, 89 

Sp. Cirvilins, a novxis homo, S21 

Casilinum, 183 

C. Cas?ius Longinus, the censor 
(154 B.a), builds theatre, 39 

C. Cassius Longinus, consul (124 
B.C.), 39 

L. Cassius Longinns, severity of 
his censorship (125 B.a), 69 

C. Cassius Ijonginus, qnaestor of 
Crassus, retains Syria in alle- 
giance, 153 ; conspires against 
Caesar, 173; in livour of slaying 
Antony al^o, 175 ; with Bruius 
seizes C!apitol, 175; takes Lao- 
dicea from BoUbella, 199; ac- 
cused by Agrippa, ib. ; takes 
Rhodes, ib. ; crossea into Mace- 
donia, ib. ; at Philippi falls by 
sword of his freedman, 201 ; com- 
parison with Brutus. 205 

Cassius of Parma, death of, 235 

Castor, temple of, 377 

Castrum, colony, 37 

Catilina, see Sergius 

Cato, see Porcitis and Insteios 

Catti. 277 

Catnllus, poet, 129 

Catns, see Aelius 

Cauchi, tribes of, reconqnered by 
Tiberius, 271 

Ceionius, prefect of camp of Varos, 

Celer, fee Hagius 

Censorinus, see Marcius 

Censorship, severity of c of 
Fulvius Flaccus and Postumius 
Albinns, 25 ; of Cassina Longinus 
and Caepio, 69 ; discord between 
Plancus and Paolus, 251 

Census, 367, 369 

Ceres, rites of, 11 

O. Cethegus, feUow conspirator 
with Catiline, put to death in 
prison, 125 ff. 

Chalcidians, found Cumae, 11 

Chalcidicum, built by Augustus, 
375, 403 

Chalcis in Euboea, fonnded by 
Athenians, 11 

(Aarops, tirst decennial archon, 
7, 19 

Cltarydes, Gennan tribe, 389 

Cherusci, oiBiqaered by Tiberius, 



Chlos, settled by lonians, 11 

Cicero, see Tullius 

Cilicia, 199 ; couquered by Isauri- 

cus, 136 
Cimbri, cross Rliine, 67 ; defeat 
various Roman armies, 73 ; 
crushed by Marius and Catulus, 
75 ; seek frieudsliip of Augustus, 
Cimbrian war, 05 
Cimon, son of Miltiades, 21 
L. Cinna, enrolls new citizens in 
all tribes, 89 ; consulship abro- 
gated, prepares army, 91 ; recalls 
Marius, ib. ; raeets Cn. Pompey 
in battle, 93 ; seizes city and 
passes law recalling Marius, ib. ; 
slaughter of citizens, 95 ; 
consul with Marius, 97 ; slain by 
mutinous army, 101 ; Caesar his 
son-in-law, 139' ; party of , 101 
Circus, portico of, 49 ; games of 
"Sulla'3 victory," 109; Circus 
Maxlmus, 375, 403 
Citizens, number of, 349 
Citizenship, extensions of, 35-41; 
granted to Italians, 83; grauted 
individually to Minatius Magius, 
Civil war, see war 
Claudian mountain, 283 
C. Claudius Canina, cos. (273 B.O.), 

Appius Claudius Caudex, cos. (264 
B.C.), 31 ; the flrst to cross into 
Sicily, 131 
Appius Claudius Crassus, cos. (268 

B.c), 37 
Appius Claudius Pulcher, father- 
in-law of Tib. Gracclius, triumvir 
for assigning lands, 51 
Appius Claudius, adultery with 

Julia, 259 
M. Claudius Marcellus, talces 
Syracuse and converts Sicily 
into a province, 131 
C. Claudius Marcellus, cos. (49 

B.C.), 150 

M. Claudius Marcellus, son of 
Octavia, sister of Augustus, 
husljand of Julia, daughter of 
Augustus, 247 ; hostility of 
Agrippa to, ib. ; his deatli and 
character, ib. 


M. Claudins Marcellus, coa (22 

B.C.), 353 
stirs up war in Campania, 209 ; 
his cliaracter, ib. ; flees to Sicily 
with wife and son, 211 ; restored 
to rep. by Sextus Pompey, 215 ; 
gives Livia in marriage to Octa- 
vianus, 217, 247 
Ti. Claudius Nero Caesar, son of 
above, his consulships, 365, 371 ; 
at two years shares Uight of 
parents, 211; three years of age 
when niother marries Augustus, 
247 ; education and character, 
ib. ; as quaestor relieves grain 
supply, ib. ; sent on niission to 
east,247, 391; aids brother Drusus 
in conquest of Rhaeti and Vinde- 
lici, 135, 249 ; marries Julia, 
widow of Agrippa, 251; wages 
Faimonian war and wins ovation, 
251, 253 ; wages German war 
after death of Drusus and wii' 
second triuuiph, 253: shai' 
tribunician power, 255 ; retires t 
Rhodes for seven years, 255, 257, 
259 ; on return adopted by 
Augustus, 263, 265 ; rejoicinj,' 
of state, 265 ; sent secoud tiiiie 
to Germany, 267; rejoicing of 
arniy, ib. ; his deeds in Gei niany, 
269-273 ; prepares war against 
Maroboduus, 275, 277 : Paunonian 
and Dalmatian war entmsted t' • 
him, 281 ; events of these wai s 
135, 281-293; his di.scipline ai, 289; pacilies GauN 
after disaster of Varus, 307 ; 
given power equal to that ol 
Augustus in all provinces, ib. ; 
triumphs over Paunonians and 
Dalmatians, ib.; .satislied witli 
three triumphs, 309 : perfoniis 
liistmm as colleague of Augustii- 
359; Augustus attends him i 
departure for Illyricum, 311 ; r> 
called by last of Aug , 
ib.; declines throne, 313; regi- 
lates comitia, ib. ; quells mutinie> 
through Germanicus and Drusus. 
313, 315; his acts of peace, 317- 
825 ; elevates Sejanus, 319, 323 . 
his policy toward foreign enemies, 


323 ff. ; checks conspiracy of 
Drasus Libo, 323; his training 
of Germanicus, f6. ; buildings 
built by T., 325; Yelleius' 
prayer for, 327 

Claudius Nero Drusus Caesar, 
biother of Tiberius, bom in 
house of Augustus, 249 ; con- 
quers the Rhaeti and Vindelici, 
fl). ; carries on war in Germany, 
253 ; his character and death, 

Claudius Germanicus Caesar, son 
of above, grandson of Augustus, 
gives proof of valourinDalmatian 
war, 293 ; sent to Germany, 309 : 
quells mutiny there, 315 ; trained 
in warfare by Tiberius, 323 ; con- 
qneror of Germany and honoured 
with triumph, ti." ; sent to pro- 
vinces across the seas, 325 

Clandius Dnisus, son of Tiberius, 
quells mutiny of legions in 
lUyricum, 305 ; loses son, 327 

Claudius Quadrigarioa, historian, 

Clazomenae, founded by lonians, 

Cleopatra, love of Antony for, 225 ; 
Cn. Domitius refuses to salute, 
229 ; defeated at Actium, 231 ; 
death of, 233 

P. Clodius, character and career 
of, 147 8q ; causes exile of Cicero, 
149 ; has Cato sent to Cyprus, 
ib. ; murdered by Milo, 155 

Clusium, 109 

Cocles, 61 

Codrus, last king of Atheng, 7 

Colchians. 135 

Colline Gate, battle at, 107 

Colonies, established in Italy by 
order of senate, 35 ; outside of 
Italy, ib. ; military colonies, t6. ; 
list of C, 35-41; colonies esta- 
blished bv Angustus, 349, 369, 
371, 393, 405 

Colophon, founded by lonians, 11 

Comedy, writers of, 43 ; old 
Comedy, ib. ; new Comedy, ib. ; 
at Rome, ib. 

Comitia, see Elections 

Compsa, town of Hirpini, 81 ; 
besieged by Milo, 197 

Consulship, yearly or perpetoal, 

offered Augustus, 353 
Contrebia, in Spain, 59 
Coponius, saying of conceming 

Plancus, 227 
Corfiniiim, S3, 161 
Corinth, 7 ; furmerly called Ephyre, 

founded by Aletes, 9, 33 ; founds 

Syracuse, 65 ; overthrowu by 

Muinmius, 33; occupied bj 

Agrippa, 229 
Corinthians, instigate uprising of 

Achaeans agamst Romans, 29 
Comelia, daughter of Africanns, 

mother of Gracchi, 63 
Coraelia, wife of Pompey, 167 
L. Comeliiis Balbus, of 

origin, 163 
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus, cos. (14C 

B.c), 31 
P. Cornelins Lentulus Sura, fellow- 

conspirator with Catiliue, put to 

death, 125, 127 
L. Cornelius Lentnlns Crus, cos. 

(49 B.a), 159 
Lentuli, two (L. Crus and P. 

Spinther), Pompey'8 companions 

in flight, 167 
Cn. Comelius Lentulus ,cos. (18 

B.C.), 353, 373 
Cn. Conieliu.s Lentulus, coa. (14 

B.a), 371 ; augur, ib. 
P. Comelius Lentulus, cos. (18 

B.&), 353, 373 
L. Cornelius Lentulos, cos. (3 b.c.), 

L. Comelius Merula, flamen dialis, 

consnl suffectus (87 b-c), 91 ; 

abdicates consulship and slain 

by order of Cinna, 95 
P. Comelius Rufinus, cos. (290 b.c), 

37 ; ancestor of SuUa, S3 
Cn. and P. Coraelii Scipiones, flrst 

to lead armies to Spain, 133, 241 ; 

their death, 241 
Cn. Comelius Scipio (CaU-us), nncle 

of Africanus the elder, 53, 

241 ; great-grandfather of Scipio 

Nasica, slayer of Gracchus, ib. 
P. Conielius Scipio, his brother, 

cos. (218 B.C.). 241 
P. Comelius Scipio Africanus, son 

of above, 25; made Carthage a 

monoment to his clemency, 31 ; 



opened way for world power 
of Rome, 47 ; grandfather of 
Gracchi, 51 ; aedile with brother, 
C7 ; orator, 47 

L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, 
brolher of Africanus, 133 

P. Conielius, son of Africanus, 
adopts son of Aeniilius Paulus, 
25, 29 

P. Cornelius Scipio Africauus 
Aemilianus, son of Paulus, 
elected consul though candidate 
for aedileship, 29 ; his talents, 
ib. ; had received mural crown 
in Spain, ib. ; destroys Carthage, 
ib. ; receives name of Africanus, 
33 ; contrast between Scipio and 
Mummius, 33 ; as orator, 45 ; 
opens way for luxury, 47; consul 
second tinie, 55 ; takes Numantia, 
ib. ; his death, 57 

P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica, son of 
Cn. Calvus, adjiidged by senate 
best citizen of state, 51 

P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (Cor- 
culum), son of above, as consul 
(155 B.c.) resists Cassius building 
a, theatre, 39; builds portico on 
Capitol, 49 

P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica, son of 
above,51; his family connexions, 
53 ; elected pontifex niaximus in 
absentia, ib. ; supports cause of 
Optimates against Ti. Gracchus, 

P. Comelius Scipio Nasica, father- 
in-law of Pompey, 169 

L. Cornelius Scipio, consul (83 b.c.) 
with Norbanus, deserted by his 
arniy and released by SuUa, 103 

Cornelius Scipio, lover of Julia, 259 

L. Conielius SuUa, his fainily 
and character, 83 ; as quaestor 
of Marius gains jjossession of 
Jugurtha, 73 ; legatus of Marius 
in Gaul, 85 ; wins distinction in 
Italic war, 79, 83 ; besieges 
Pompeii, 81 ; elected consul, 83 ; 
assigned to Asia and Mithridatic 
war, 85 ; command abrogated by 
Sulpicius, 87; drives Marius and 
Sulpieius out of city, ib. ; defeats 
generals of Mithridates, retakes 
Athens, 97, 99 ; imposes terms 


of peace on Mithridates, 99 ; 
prophecy of magi, 101 ; returns 
to settle aflairs in Italy, 101, 103 ; 
defeats Scij^io and Norbanus, 101 ; 
his conduct before and after 
victory, 83, 103 ; allows Sertorius 
to go, 103; gives thankofffiring 
to Diana Tifantina, 103 ; battle 
with Pontius Telesinus at 
Colline gate, 105, 107 ; defeats 
son of Marius at Sacriportus, 
107 ; assumes name of Felix, 
109 ; celebrates victories with 
games, ib. ; his cruelty as dicta- 
tor, ib. ; his proscription, 109, 
139 ; reduces power of tribunate, 
115 ; honoured with equestrian 
statue, 183 

Cornificius, lieutenant of Octa- 
vianus, 219 

Coronary gold, 381 

T. Coruncanius, a novus homo, 

Corvinus, see Messala 

Cosa, colony at, 37 

Cossus, wins cognomen and oma- 
ments of triumph in Africa, 295 

Cotta, see Aurelius 

Cotys, king of Thrace, slain by 
his uncle Uhascupolis, 323 

Courts, transferred to equites Dy 
C. Gracchus, 01 ; severity of, G7 ; 
transferred back to senate, 75" 
divided between senate and 
knights, 119 

L. Crassus, orator, 67, 127 

M. Crassus, ends war with Spar- 
tacus, 115 ; member of tirst 
triumvirate, 145 ; consul second 
time with Ponipey, 151 ; Syria 
his province, ib. ; his cliaracter, 
ib. ; disaster at Carrhae, and 
death, 153, 225, 243, 301 

M. Crassus, cos. (14 b.c), 371 

P. Crassus Mucianus, slain by 
Aristonicus, 55 ; as orator, 45 

Cratinus, writer of Coiuedy, 43 

Cremona, colony, 39 

Creon, first annual archon, 19 

Cresphontes, descendant of Her- 
cules, 7 

Crete, brought under power of 
Romans, 123, 133; revenues 
given to Campauian colony, 221 ; 


three cities in it foxmded by 

Agamemiion, 3 
Crispinus (Quintius), adultery with 

Julia, 259 
Crispus, see Marcius 
Crown, of gold, decreed to Pompey, 

137 ; naval c. decreed to Agrippa, 

223 ; mural c and corona obsi- 

dionalis decreed to Scipio Afri- 

canus, 31 ; civic crown decreed 

to Augustns, 399 
Camae, founded by Chalcidians, 

11 ; its colony Neapolis, 11 ; 

character of its citizens changed 

by Oscan neighbours, ib. 
Coria HostUia, 75, 105, 375 ; Curia 

Jnlia, 401 
C. Curio, trib. pleb., applies torch 

to civil war, 157 ; his character, 

ib. and 195 ; dies in Africa flght- 

Ing for Caesar, 171 
M. Curius, cos. (290 b.c.X 37 
Cyme, founded by Aeolians, 11 
Cyprus, becomes a province, 133 ; 

taken trom Ptolemaeus by Cato, 

Cyrenae recovered by Augustus, 

Cyzicus, colony of Miletus, snr- 

passes mother city, 65 ; besieged 

by Mithridates and freed by 

Lucullus, 121 

Daciasts, 395 

Dalmatia, becoraes province, 135 ; 

after 220 years of resislance, 

pacitied by Augustus, 215, 239 ; 

rebels, 277, 291, 295 
Dalmatian war, 291-297 
Dalniatians, 251, 2V3, 307, 393 
L. Damasippus, as praetor puts to 

death men of note, 105 
Danube, 277, 395 
Magius Decius, 81 
P. Decius Mus, fourth consulship 

of (295 B.C.), 37 
Q. Dellius, traitor to party In civil 

wars, 229 
Delmatia, see Dalmatia 
Delos, settled by Tonians, 11 
Delphi, 5 

Dertona, colony, 41 
Desidiates, Dalmatian tribe, 293 
Diana of Tifata, 103 

Dictatorship resumed after 120 

vears, 109 ; Augustus refuses it, 

23<>, 353 
T. Didius, takes Herculaneum in 

Social war, 81 
Dido, founder of Carthage, 15 
Diphilus, poet, 43 
Divus Julius, temple of, 375, 379, 

Cn. Dolabella, accnsed by Caesar, 

P. Dolabella, cos. (44 b.c), 177, 

181 ; has provinces beyond sea 

assjgned to himself, 181 ; puts to 

death Trebonius, 197 ; commits 

snicide when Cassius takes Lao- 

dicea, 199 
P. Dolabella, commands coast of 

Illyricum, 317 
Domitii, distinction of this family, 

Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, defeats 

the Arvemi, 71 ; first to enter 

Gaul with an army, 133 
Cn. Domitius, son of above, as 

tribune of people, passes law 

alxjut priesthoods, 73 
L. Domitius, brother of above, put 

to death by Damasippus, 105 
L. Domitius, son of above, cap- 

tured by Caesar at Corfinium and 

allowed to go, 161 
Cn. Domitius, son of above, leader 

of his party after Philippi, 205, 

211 ; joins Antony, 211 ; declinea 

to salute Cleopatraand goes over 

to Cae.sar, 229 
L. Domitius, son of above, 205 
Cn. Domitius, son of above, 71, 

Cn. Domitius Calvinus, severity of 

djscipline as pro-consul in Spain, 

Donations, of Augustus, 369, 371, 

373, 403, 405 
Drusus, see Claudius and Livius 
Drusus Libo, conspires against 

Tiberius, 323 
L. Drusus Claudianus, father of 

Livia, 209, 247 ; kills himself 

after Philippi, 203 
Dumnobellaunus, king of Britons, 

Dyrrachium, 161, 163, 199 



Ii. Egoius, praefect of camp of 

Varus, 303 
Egnatius, Marius, leaderof Italians, 

M. Egnatius Rufus, his praetor- 

ship follows immediately upon 

aedileship, 243 ; frustrated in 

hope of consulship, plots to assas- 

sinate Augustus, ib. ; C. Sentius 

forbids to become candidate for 

consulsliip, 2-15 
Egypt, inade province by Augustus, 

135, 391 ; Pompey seeks Egvpt, 

Bgyptian, vassal, 167 
Elbe, flows past Senniones and 

Hermunduri, 271 ; Roinan fleet 

sails up for first time, ib. ; limit 

of conquests of Augustus in 

Germany, 387 
Elections, interference with and 

abuses of, 76, 155 ; regulated by 

Tiberius, 313 
Electra, .sister of Orestcs, 5 
Elephants, sham battle with, given 

by Caesar, 173 
Elissa, sonietimes called Dido, 

founder of Carthage, 15 
Eloquence at Rome, 45 ; at Athens, 

43, 49 
Epeus, founder of Metapontum, 3 
Ephesus, founded by lonians, 11 
Epliyra, in Thesprotia, 3 ; ancicnt 

naine of Corinth, 9 
Epidius, L. Marullus, tribune of 

people, outspoken against Caesar, 

Epirus, occupied by Pyrrhus, 3 
Epochs, in literature, 41-45, 127- 

Eporedia, colony, 41 
Eretria in Buboea, founded by 

Athenians, 11 
Erythra, founded by lonians, 11 
Eryxias, last of decennial arclions, 

Ethiopia, expedition to, 389 
Etruscans, 19 
Euboea, 11 

Eumenes, king of Pergamum, 21 
Euphrates, crossed by Crassus, 

153 ; C. Caesar confers with 

Parthian king on island in, 261 
Enpolis, writer of comedy, 43 


Enporus, slave of C. Gracchus, 61 
Euripides, 43 

C. Fabics Dorso, cos. (273 b.c), 38 
Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianns, cos. 

(295 B.c), 37 
Q. Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, 
son of Paulus, 25 ; wins renown 
in Spain by severity of discipline, 

Q. Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, 

his son, 71, 133 
PauUus Fabius Maximus, cos. (11 

B.c), 353 
Fabrateria, colony, 39 
Q. Fabricius, cos. (37 b.c), 371 
Fannius Caepio, conspiracy against 

Augustus, 243 
C. Fannius, orator, 45, 47 
Faventia, 109 
M. Favonius, ex-praetor, accom- 

panies Pompey in flight, 167 
Felix, cognomen adopted by 

Comelius SuUa, 109 
Fetial priests, 49, 357 
Fidentia, 109 
Firmnm, colony, 37 
Flaccus, see Fulvius, Pomponius, 

C. Flavius Fimbria, slays Valerius 

Flaccus, takes possession of his 

army, and routs Mithridates, 

99 ; takes own life, 99 
Flavus, see Caesetius 
Floralia, institution of, 39 
Florus, see Julius 
Fonteius, slain by people of As- 

culum, 79 
Formiae, people of, receive citizen- 

ship, 37 
Fortuna Redux, altar of, 363 
Forum, of Augustus, 135, 379, 403; 

of Julius, 377 
Fregellae, destroyed by L. Opimius, 

Fregenae, colony, 37 
Fulvia, wife of Antony, starts war 

at Perusia, 207 ; allowed to depart 

from Italy, 211 
M. Fulvius Flaccus, cos. (264 b.c), 

Q. Fulvius Flaccns, takes Capua, 

67 ; has brother as colleague 

consulship, 67 ; censor, 25 


Cn. Fulvius Flaccus, eipelled from 

8enat« by censor, his brother, 27 
M. FuUius Flaccos, son of above, 

slain with his son by Opimius, 

Q. Fulvins Flaccus, son of M. above, 

sent as envoy to Opimius, and 

slain by him, 61 
M. Kulvius Xobilior, cos. (1S9 B.a), 

39 ; conqners Aetolia, 133 
Fuiidi, people of, receive citizen- 

ship, 37 
C. Fumios, cos. (17 B.C.), 383 

A. Gabisios, trib. pl., proposeslaw 
giving Pompey command over 
war with pirates, 117 

Gades, 387, founded by Tyrians, 7 

Servius Galbi, orator, 45 

Gallaecus, see D. Junius Brutus 

Gallograecia, conquered by Manlias 
Vulso, 135 

Gallus, see Caninins 

Games : Olympic, 17 ; of the circns, 
109, 303; beginning of Floralia, 
89; games given by Caesar, 173 ; 
by Augustus, 257, 381, 383, 405 ; 
games of Mars, 383 ; secular 
games, 383 

Gaul, 41, 73, 85, 187, 207, 393 ; firet 
entered by Domitius and Fabius, 
133 ; made tributary by Caesar, 
135 ; decreed to Caesar for five 
years, and then for five more, 
147, 151 ; assigned to D. Brutus, 
181 ; takes oath of allegiance 
to Augustos, 387; visit*d by 
Augnstos, 253, 365; Tibeiius 
secures peace of, 303. 387; np- 
rising of crushe^d by Tiberius, 

Gauls, 35, 195 : number of G. slain 

by Julins Caesir, 153 
Oentius, king of Ulyriana, led In 

triumph, 2i 
Gerraanicus, see Claudius Nero 

Germans, 389, inflict disaster on 
I.oUius, 253; revolt, 257; their 
savagery, 271, 297, 303 ; inflict 
disaster on Varus, 297 ; miitilate 
body of Varus, 303 ; the GTman 
who wished to behold Tiberius, 
871 fll 

Gerraany, 253, 255, 257, 265, 271, 
273, 275, 293, 297, 299, 301, 303, 
307, 309, 315, 323, 387 

Getae, Caesar plans war with, 179 

Gla»iiators led by Spartacus, 115; 
Caesar's assassins seize Capitol 
with aid of, 175; g. school at 
Capua, 115 ; gladiatorial show of 
Caesar, 173; of Augustus, 257, 

Glaucia, see Servilins 

Glaucus, Plancus dances part of, 

Gracchi, as orators, 45 

Gracchus, see Sempronins 

Gradivus, see Mars 

Grain, distribution of by Augustiu, 

Grain-supply, 213, 249, 317, 353 

Granicus river, 27 

Gravisca, colony, 39 

Greece, 11, 21, 47 ; shaken by dis- 
turbances, 9 

Groek literature, 41, 45 

Greeks, 43, 69 ; short duration of 
period of perfection in each 
branch of Uterature of Gr., 

HANTaBAL, 39, 109; camp within 
three miles of Rome, 107 ; hia 
hatred of the Romaas, 85 

Helen, 5 

Heniochi, 135 

Heraclidae, 7 

Herculaneum, captnred in social 
war, 81 

Hercules, 5, 7 ; victor in the 
Olympic games, 19 

Hercynian forest, 278, 277 

Herius, see Asinius 

Hermione, daughter of MeneUaa, 8 

Hermnnduri, 271 

Hesiod, the poet, 17 

Hiberi, people on Caspian Sea, 

Uippocles, of Chalcis, 11 

Hippotes, descendant of Heicoles, 

Hirpini, 81, 197 

A. Hirtius, cos. (43 B.a), 347, dies 
in battle 183 ; honoured with 
public funenl, 185 ; advice to 
Caesar, 175 



Hlatorisns, famous Roman, 43 
Homer, sometiines gives places 

the names of his own day, 9 ; 

praise of H., his chronology, 13 
Q. Hortensius, orator, 127 ; his 

Annales, 81 ; dies before begin- 

ning of civil wars, 159 
Q. Hortensius, his son, falls at 

Philippi, 203 
C. Hostilius Mancinus, makes dis- 

graceful treaty with Numantines, 

49 ; surrendered to but not re- 

ceived by theni, ib. 

loARi AN Sea, islands of occupied by 

lonians, 11 
Hlyrians, conquered, 135 ; their 

king Qentius, 23 
Illyricum, 215, 277, 283, 295, 309, 

315, 317, 395 
Imperator, title of given by army, 

99,177; given to Junius Blaesus, 

315 ; Augustus saluted imp. 21 

times, 351 
Imperium, given to Octavianus, 

347; C!onsularimperium of Aug., 

India, envoys of visit Augustus, 

Insteius Cato, leader of Italians, 

Interamna, colony, 87 
lon, leader of lonian migration to 

Asia, 11 
lonia, settlement of, by Greeks, 11 
lonians, migration of, 11 
Iphitus, king oT Elis, institutes 

Olympic games, 17 
Isauricus, see Servilius 
Isocrates, 43 
Isthmus, 9 

Italica, Corfinium so called, 83 
Italian war (see also War), its 

causes, 79 ; leaders on Roman 

side, ib. ; on the Italian side, 81 ; 

its varying fortunes, 83 ; the 

settlement of, 83, 85 

Janus, temple of, closed three 
times, 133 ; by Augustus, 365 

Juba, loyal partisan of Pompeians, 
107 ; stirs up war in Africa, 169 

Judges, 360 chosen by Ponipey, 211 

Jugurtha, served in Nuniantine 


wars under Africanus, 69 ; twice 
defcated by Metellus, 71 : cap- 
lured and led in triumph, 73 

Jugurthine war, 71 

Julia, daughter of Augnstus, wife 
of Marcellus, then of Agrippa, 
247; after death of Agrippa 
married to Tiberius, 251 ; her 
disgraceful life, 259 ; punishment 
of her lovers, ib. ; her banish- 
ment, ib. 

Julia, daughter of Caesar, married 
to Pompey, 147 ; dies and also 
her son by Ponipey, 153 

Julia, Caesar's sister, grandmother 
of Octavian, 177 

Julia Augusta, 203, see also Livia 

Julian party, 171, 189, 197, 227 

Julii, family of, 139 

L. Julius Caesar, in whose consul- 
ship (90 B.c.) the Social war 
began, 79 

C. Julius Caesar, family and char- 
acter, 139: capture by and 
punishment of pirates, 141 ; 
flamen dialis, 143; acts befoie 
his consulate, 143, 145; consul- 
ship, 139, 145 ; flrst triumvirate, 
145 ; niarriage tie with Pompey, 
147 ; his lex agraria, ib. ; Gaul 
decreed to him for five years, 
continued for five niore, 147, 151 ; 
suspected of abetting banishment 
of Cicero, 149 ; acts in Gaul, 133, 
151,153; invades Britain twice, 
151, 153 ; ordered to disniiss 
arniy, 155; candidate for second 
consulship in absentia, 115; 
beginnings of civil war, 157 ; 
bribes Curio, 159; crosses Rubi- 
con, 161 ; takes Corflnium and 
follows Pompey to Brunilisium, 
ib. ; leturns to Rome, ib. ; defeats 
Porapey's generals iu Spain, 163 ; 
crosses to Greece, 163; opera- 
tions about Dyrrachium, ib. ; 
victory of Pharsalia, 165; clem- 
ency to vanquished, 167 ; war at 
Alexandria, 169; defeat of 
Phamaces, 171 ; of Pompeians 
in Africa, ib. ; in Spain, ib. ; 
makes Numidia a province, 135 ; 
his five triumphs, 173 ; assassina- 
tion, ib. ; causes of it, ib. ; his 


will, 177; hisclemency, 165, 171, 
173; Bs orator, 127; honoured by 
equestrian statue, 183 

C Julius Caesar, son of Agrippa, 
«dopted by Augustus, 251 ; as- 
sumes toga virilis, 257 ; made 
consul designate, 365 ; princeps 
iuventutis, 365; sent to Syria, 
pays respects to Tiberius, 259 ; 
couduct in his province, 261 ; 
meets king of Parthians, ifc. ; 
subdues Armenians, 391 ; trea- 
cherously wounded, 263; death, 

L. Julius Caesar, his brother, 
adopted by Augustus, 251 ; near- 
ing matnrity, 257 ; made consul 
dpsignateand princeps iuventutis 
365 ; dies at Massilia, 263 

L. Julius Caesar, uncle of Antony, 
proscribed by liim, 195 

C. Julins Caesar Strabo, orator, 67 
Julius Florus, stirs up sedition in 

Gaul, 325 
Jolns, see Antonius 
Jancus, proconsul of Asia, 143 
Junia, sister of Brutus, wife of 

Lepidus the triumvir, 235 
Junius Blae.sus, quells mutiny of 

iegions in Illyricum, 315 ; saluted 

imperator in Afi ica, 317 

D. Junius Brutus, wins cognomen 
of Gallaecus in Spain, 59 

D. Junios Brutus, honoured by 
Caesar, conspires agaiust him, 
173, 175, ISI, 187, 189; his 
gladiators seize Capitol, 175 ; 
Antony resolves to take from 
him Gaul which had been decreed 
to him, 181 ; freed from sieiip, 
183 ; voted a triumph, 185 ; 
betrayed by Plancus, 187, 180; 
slain by emissaries of Antony, 
189, 233 

M. Junios Brutus, pardoned by 
Caesar • after Pharsalia, 165 ; 
praetor, 175; leaderofconspiracy 
against Caesar, 173; occupies 
Capitol with conspirators, 175 ; 
opposes slaying of Antony, <6. ; 
with Cassius seizes provinces 
beyond the sea, 185 ; nianifestos 
of, ib. ; these acts approved by 
senate, ib. ; praised by Cicero, 

191 ; wrests legions from C. 
Antonius and Vatinius, 199 ; 
condemned by lex Pedia, ib. ; 
conquers Lycian.s, ib. ; captures 
camp of Octavian at Philippi, 
201 ; defeated, he dies by haud of 
Strato, 203, 233 ; his virtues, 
203 ; comparison with Cassius, 
ih. ; orator, 127 
C. Junius Silanus, cos. (17 b.c), 383 
Jnno Regina, temple of, 375, 403 
JupiterCapitoIinus, 329; Feretrius, 
375, 403; Libertas, ib.; Tonans,i6. 
Jury service, transferred from 
senate to knights by C. Gracchns, 
61, 75 ; transferre<i from knights 
to senate, 75, 119; divided be- 
tween them by lex Aurelia, 119 
M. Juventius Laterensis, 187 

Knights. seats in theatre, 119 ; see 
also Courts 

T. Labienus, trjb. pl., passes law 

granting special honours to 

Ponipey, 137; loseslife in Battle 

of Munda, 173 
Labienus, son of above, attacking 

Asia with Parthians, crushed by 

Ventidius, 215 
Lacedaemonians invade Attica, 7; 

found Magnesia in Asia, 11; 

flouri.shed under laws of Ly- 

curgus, 15 ; no Ij. in list of Gk. 

orators, 47 
Laconians, false claim to Alcman, 

Laelii, the two, friends of the two 

Scipios, 319 

C. Laelius, orator, 45 

D. Lselius, cos. (6 B.&), 371 
Laeiias, see Popilius 
Lamia, see Aelius 
Langobardi, crushed by Tiberins, 


Laodicea, stormed by Cassius, 199 

Lares, temple of. 375, 403 

Laiissa, founded by Aeolians, 18 

La.sthenes, leader of Cretans, 123 

Laterensis, see Juventius 

Laurentian marshes, 87 

Laws : of Ampius and Labienua 
concerning bonoan to Pompey, 
137; Aurelia, conceming law 



conrts, 119; of Cinna, concerning 
the recall of Marius, 93; of 
Clodius, re banishment of Cicero, 
147 ; Domitia, concerning priest- 
hoo<is,73; Gabinia,ll7 ; agrarian 
1. of Tib. Gracchus, 51 ; of 0. 
Gracchus, 59; Julia, on division 
of lands in Campania, 147 ; 
agrarian law of Licinius, 61; 
Manilian 1., 121 ; Pedia, concern- 
ing Caesar's assassins, 199, 347 ; 
Pompeia, extending Caesar^scora- 
mand, 151 ; Roscia theatralis, 
119 ; Sulpicia, 87 ; of Sulla, exil- 
ing Marius and hia partisans, 
87 ; Valeria concerning debts, 97 

Lebedus, founded by lonians, 11 

Legions, Martian and Fourth go 
over to Octavian from Antony, 
183; eagle of Fitth legion lost in 
disaster of Lollius, 253 

Lentulus, see Cornelius 

Lepidus, see Aemilius 

Lesbos, settled by sons of Orestes, 
9 ; by Aeolians, 13 

Leucas, stormed by Agrippa, 229 

Liber Pater, 225 

Libo, see Drusus 

Licinian law, 61 

Licinius, see Crassus 

A. Licinius Nerva Silianus, 295 

Limyra, city of Lycia, 263 

Lippe, river, 269 

Literatnre, epochs in, 41-45, 67, 
127, 129 

Livia, daughter of Drusus Claudi- 
anus, 203, 209, 247; married to 
Ti. Claudius Nero, 209 ; flees with 
husband and child to Sicily, ib. ; 
Nero gives her in marriage to 
Augustus, 217, 247; gives birth 
to Claudius Drusus in household 
of Augustus, 249 ; called Julia 
Augusta, 209 ; priestess of deitied 
Augustus, 209 ; her death, 327 ; 
her character, 209, 827 

M. Livius Drusus, trib. pl., his 
character, 75 ; his programme, ib. ; 
seeks to transfer courts back to 
senate, ib. ; meets opposition of 
senate, 77 ; seeks to give citizen- 
ship to Italians, ib. ; his death, 
ib. ; his dying words, ib. ; his 
death causes Social war 


L. Livius Drusus Claudianus, 
father of Livia, 209, 247 ; kills 
himself after Philippi, 203 

Livy, writer of history, 43, 129 

M. Lollius, disaster to his army in 
Germany, 253 

Luca, colony, 39 

Luceria, colony, 37 

Lucilia, mother of Pompey, 111 

Lucilius, poet, served in Numan- 
tine war, 69 

Sex. Lucilins, cast from Tarpeian 
Uock, 99 

Lucretius, poet, 129 

Q. Lucretius Ofella, 109 

Q. Lucretius, cos. (19b.c.), 353, 363 

Lucrinus, lake of, 217 

LucuUi, tlie two, 159 

L. Lucullns, deposel fromconduct 
of Mithridatic war by Manilian 
law, 121 ; disputes with Pompey, 
123 ; greed for money, ib. ; his 
luxurioiis living, ib. ; his triumph 
123 ; opposes acts of Pompey, 
139 ; dies before beginning of 
civil war, 159 

Lucullus, son of above, falls at 
Philippi, 203 

M. LucuIIus, brother of Lucius, de- 
feats Marians near Fidentia, 109 

Lupercal, 39, 375, 403 

Lupercalia, 175 

Lupia, see Lippe 

M. Lurius, commands right wing 
of Octavian's fleetat Actium, 229 

Lustrum, 357, 359 

Q. Lutatius Catulus, with Marius 
defeats Cinibri,75 ; his death, 95 

Q. Lutatius Catulus, son of above, 
opposes Gabinian Law, 117; his 
contests with Caesar, 145; de- 
feated by Caesar for oflice of 
pont. max., ib. ; dies before civil 
war, 159 

Luxury, beginning of public 1., 27, 
47 ; private luxury of Lucullus, 

Lycia, 263 

Lycians, conquered by Brutus, 199 

Lycureus, author of Spartan legis- 
lation and discipline, 15 

Lydia, 5 

Lydus, brother of Tyrrhenus, 5 

Lysippus, sculptor, 27 


ICackoonia, 23, 87, 65, 97, 177, 179, 
255, 261, 279 ; made a province 
by Aemilius Paulus, 133 ; seizeU 
by pseudo-Philippus, 27 ; over- 
run by Dalmatians and Paunon- 
ians, 279 ; beginnings of Hace- 
donian kingdom, 15 ; Augustus 
establishes military colonies 
there, 393 

Macedonians, sovereignty of, 15 

Macedonicos, leader of Perusians, 

C.Maecena8, prefectof city, cbecks 
plans of Lepidus forassassination 
of Octavian, 235; his character, ib. 

Uaelo, king of Sugambri, 397 

Hagius Decius, Sl 

Magius Minatius of Aeclanum, 
great - grandfather of Vell^-ius 
Paterculus, 81 ; special grant of 
citizenship to, H>. 

Magius Celer Velleianus, brother 
of Velleius the historian, aide of 
Kberius, 291, 309 ; recommended 
to praetorship by Augustns and 
Tiberius, 313 

Magna Mater, temple of, 375, 403 

Magnesia, founded by Lacedae- 
monians, 11 

Mancinus, see Hostilios 

M. Manilius, cos. (149 B.a), 33 

CL Manilins, tr. plebis, author of 
proposal to place Pompey in 
charge of Mithridatic war, 121 

Manliiis Acidinus, 67 

Cn. Manlius Maximus, cos. (105 
B.C.), defeated by Cimbri, 73 

A. Manlius Torquatus, coe. (244 
B.C.), 37 

T. Manlius Torquatus, conqaers 
Sardinia, 131 

On. Manlius Vnlso, cos., S9; con- 
qners Gallograecia, 135 

Mvble, first house of, bailt by 
Meteilus Macedonicus, 27 

Marcellus, see Claudius 

L. Marcius Censorinns, cos. (149 
B.C.), 33 ; his hoose, later that 
of Cicero, 79 

OL Marcias Onsorinus, death of, 
361; cos.(8B.aX367 

Q. Marcias Crispns, ez-praetor, 
hands over to Cassias his legions 
in Asia, 199 

Q. Marcius Ber, cos. (118 b.c.1 

Marcomanni, 273, 277, 397 

MarilA, city of Arabia, 391 

Marica, marsh of, 89 

C. Marius, ignobleorigin, 71 ; sen-ed 
in Xumantine war onder Afri- 
canus, 69 ; lieutenant of Metellus 
in Jugurthine war, 71 ; elected 
consul and takes charge of war, 
ib. ; gets possession of Jngurtha 
through Sulla, 73 ; elected consul 
a second time, ib.; leads Jugurtha 
in triumph, ib. ; given charge 
against Cimbri and Teutons ; 
cm.shes Teutons at Aqnae 
Sexiiae, 75 ; his victory at Campi 
Raudii, 75; in sixth consulship 
restrains Servilias Glancia and 
Satuminns Apuleias, 75 ; general 
in Italic war, 79 ; restores totter- 
ing power of Rome, 83; given 
coramand against Mithridates on 
motion of Sulpicius, 87 ; driven 
out of city by Sulla, ib. ; im- 
prisoned at Mintumae, 89; flees 
to Africa, ib. ; recalled by Cinna, 
93; vengeancA of Marius and 
Cinna, 95 ; orders death of M. 
Antonius, ii. ; dies at beginning 
of seventh consalship, 97; his 
monuments restored by Jolius 
Caesar, 145 

C. Marius, son of above, 87 ; consul 
wilh Carbo (82 B.C.), 105; his 
character, ib. ; defeated by SuUa 
at Sacriportns takes refuge in 
Praeneste, 107 ; cut off in effort 
at sortie, ib. 

Marius Egnatius, leader of Italiana, 

Maroboduas, leads Marcomanni 
into Hercynian forest, 273 ; his 
character, ib., 277 ; preparationa 
against Romans, 277 ; prepara- 
tion of Tiberius against him, 277 ; 
sends head of Varus to Augustus, 
303 ; induced by Tiberius through 
diplomacy to give np occnpied 
lands, 325 

Mars, father of Romulus, 19 ; author 
of Roman name, 325 ; temple of, 
dedicated by Angastus, 257, 375, 



Marsi, 79 

Marsian war, 91, 111 

Martian legion, see legion 

L. Marullus Epidius, 197 

Massilia, colony of Pliocaea, more 

powerful than mother city, 65 ; 

delays Caesar's victory, 161 ; 

Lucius Caesar dies there, 263 
Medes, 391 ; acquire sovereignty 

of Asia, 13, second great world 

power, 15 ; receive king from 

Augustus, 397, 399 
Media, 135, 223 

Medon, first archon at Athens, 7 
Medontidae, 7 
Megara, founded by Pelopon- 

nesians, 7 
Megasthenes, of Chalcis, 11 
Melanthus, father of Codrus, 7 
Mena, freedman of Pompey, in 

charge of fleet of Sex. Pompey, 

207 ; spurns Statius Murcus, 215 
Menander, writer of comedy, 43 
Menecrates, prefect of fleet of Sex. 

Pompey, 207, 215 
Menelaus, 5 
Meroe, 389 
Merula, see Cornelius 
M. Messala Corvinus, orator, 127 ; 

general in camp of Brutus and 

Cassius, 203 ; surrenders to Oc- 

tavian, ib.; battle of Actiumfalls 

In his consulship, 227; fatlier 

of Messalinus and Cotta, 2S3 
M. Messalinus, son of above, wins 

distinction in Pannonian war, 

281 ; leaves cognomen to his 

brotlier Cotta, 283 
Metapontum, founding of, 3 
Metellus, see Caecilius 
Miletus, founded by Ionian<!, 11 ; 

surpassed by Cyzieus and Byzan- 

tiuni, her colonies, 65 
Military colonies, 35, 37 
Milo, see Annius 
Miltiades, father of Cimon, 21 
Minatius, see Magius 
Minerva, temple of, 375, 403 
Minervium, see Scolacium 
Minturnae, colonists sent to, 37 ; 

Marius in prison of, 89 
Minuoian bridge, 379 
M. Minucius, triumphs over Scor- 

disci, 67 ; his portico, ib. 


Misenum, treaty with Sex. Pompey 
signed there, 213 

Mithridates, kingof Pontus, orders 
massacre of Roman citizens, 85 ; 
his character, ib. ; his generals 
defeated by SuUa in Greece, 87, 
89 ; submits to Sulla, 89 ; fre- 
quently defeated by Lucullus, 
121 ; reconstructs his army, 129; 
defeated by Poinpey, fieos into 
Armonia, ib. ; succunibs to 
treachery of his son, 135 

Morals, Augustus made overseer 
of, 355 

Mucianus, see Crassus 

P. Mucius Scaevola, cos. (133 b.c), 

P. Mucins Scaevola, more famous 
67 ; murdered by Damasippus, 

Mulvian bridge, 379 

L. Mummius, a novus homo, 33 ; 
consul , 29 ; given charge of war 
with Achaeans, ib. ; destroys 
Corinth, 33 ; gajns cognomen of 
Acliaicus, ib. ; cliaracter coU' 
trasted with that of Scipio, ib, 

Munatius, see Plancus 

Municipia, 369, 381 

Murcus, see Statius 

L. Murena, plot for as8assinati( 
of Augustus, 243, 247 

Mutilius, see Papius 

Mutina, 183, 207, 347 

Mutiny of arniy of Q. Pompeius, 
89; of Octavianus, 221 ; of legions 
in Germany and Pannonia, 315 

Mycenae, in Crete, 3 

Mylae, naval battle between A- 
grippa and Sex. Pompey, 217 

Myrina, founded by Aeolians, 13 

Myrmidons, state of, afterward» 
called Thessaly, 9 

Mytilene, 167 ; founded by Aeolians, 
13 ; perfidy of its people to 
Roinans, 85 ; liberty restored by 
Pompey, ib. 

Myus, founded by lonians, 11 

Xabata, town of Ethiopia, 389 
Naples, see Neapolis 
Narbo Martius, colony, 41, 65 
Naso, poet, 129 



Nnumachla, given by Caesar, 173 ; 
V Angnstus, 357, 383, 405 
■Drtuin, 279 
jlis, colony of Cumae, 11 ; 
alty of its citizens to Rome, 11 
olitans, establish atliletic con- 
-t in honour of Augustus, 311 
- colony, 35, 
•.unia, see Tarentum 
a, see Licinius 
•or, 3 

■nedes, bequeaths Bithynia 
Romans, 55 

;<, founder of Babylon, 15 

:, fonnded by Etrescans, 17; 

Social war, 83 ; besieged by 

- lla, 87, 91; Augustus dies 

here, 311 

C. Xorbanus, cos. (83 b.c.), defeated 

ijy Sulla near Cap\ia, 103 
Koricura, conquered by Tiberius, 

135 ; kingdom of, 277 
'Sovi homines, list of, who reached 

high distinction, 319, 321 
Numantia. war with, 49 ; destroyed 

by Scipio, 57 
Numidia, made a prcvince, 135 
Numidicus, see Caecilius 
Numonius Vala, lieutenant of 
Varus, abandons his troops, 303 

OcT\vi±, sister of Augustus, 215, 

247 ; marries Antony, 215 
^'^■tavia, portico of, 27, 375 
^ . Octa^-ius, praetor, captures 
:.a Perses, triumphs, 23 ; 
;ilds portico, 27 
Octa^ius, his grandson, put to 
nth by order of Cinna, 95 
Octavins, tribune of the people, 
oUeague of Ti. Gracchus, 51 
cta\-ius, father of Augustus, 177 
I )ctavianus, son of above and 
Atia, grandson of Caesar'8 sister 
Julia, 177 ; bom in consulship 
of Cicero, 127 ; reared by step- 
father, Philippus, 177 ; honoured 
by Caesar with pontificate, ib. ; 
sent to Apollonia to study, 179 ; 
adoptod by Caesar in his will, 
177 ; hastens to Rome after 
Caesar^s death, 179 ; his entry 
into city, ib. ; assumes name of 
Caesar in spite of protest of 

parents, ib. ; banghtlly treated, 
then plotted against by Antony, 
181 ; collects an army from 
Caesar's veterans, 181,345 ; Mar- 
tian and fourth legions go over 
to him, 183 ; commissioned with 
Hirtius and Fansa to carry on 
war against Antony, 183, 347 ; 
complinientary resolutions of 
senate, ib. ; slighted by senate 
after Antony'8 defeat, 183, 185 ; 
Cicero'8 witticism conceining 
him, 187 ; supported by anuy, 
183 ; Antony induces him to 
enter triumvirate, 191, 347, 355; 
A.'8 step-daughter betrothed to 
him, ib. ; cc nsul with Pedius at 
twenty, 191, 347 ; protests against 
pro^scription», ib. ; Hghts Bretns 
and Cassius at Philippi, 201, 347 ; 
saves Messala Corvinus, 203 ; 
retums to Italy, checks sedition 
of L. Antonius and Fulvia, 207 ; 
ends war in Campania begun 
by Ti. Claudius Nero, 209 ; allows 
Fulvia and Plancus to leave 
Italy, 211 ; makes peace with 
Antony at Brondisium, 213 ; and 
■with 8ex. Pompey at Misenum, 
ib. ; keeps soldiers employed in 
lUyricumanfi Dalmatia, 215 ; pre- 
pares war against Sex. Pompey, 
217 ; marries Livia, ib. ; vicissi- 
tudes of war with Pompey, 217 ; 
deprives Lepidus of his com- 
mand, 221 ; breaks up mutiny of 
army, ib. ; adds veterans to 
Campanian colony, ib. ; acts on 
return to city, 223; defeats 
Antony at Actium, 227-231 ; 
clemency to vanquished, 231, 
233 ; follows Ant. and Cleopatra 
to Alexandria, 233 ; makes Egypt 
a tributary proince, 135, 391 ; 
his triumphs, 237, 361 ; restores 
happiness and prosperity to 
world, ib. ; holds consulship 
eleveu times in succession, but 
declines dictatorship, 239, 353; 
closes temple of Janus, 133, 
366 ; receives the a^iomen of 
Augustus on motioD of Plancus, 
243, 399 ; completes conquest of 
Spain, 133, 136, 239, 241 ; recovers 



standards captured by Parthians, 
243 ; plots against him, ib. : sets 
out to settle affairs of East, 
245 ; sends Tiberius an<i Drusus 
agaiiist Vindelici and Eiaeti, 249 ; 
entrusts Drusus with German 
war, and after his death 
Tiberiua, 253 ; shares tribunician 
power with Tiberius, 255; as 
consul for the thirieenth time 
dedicates temple of Mars Ultor, 
with giadiatorial shows and a 
naval spectacle, 257, 375, 379, 
403 ; sends C. Caesar to Syria, 
250-263 ; adopts Tiberius aud 
M. Agrippa on same day, 265 ; 
sends Tiberius to Germany, 265 ; 
prepares army to put down 
uprising in Pannonia, 279 ; 
again sends Tiberius to Germany, 
297 ; requests that Tiberius be 
given powers equal to his own, 
307 ; dies at Nola, 311 ; leaves 
instructions for regulating the 
comitia, 313 ; deification, 313, 
317 ; temple erected to him, 
825 ; his use of Agrippa and 
Statllius Taurus as coUaborators, 
819. For other references to 
Augustus see Res Gestae, 345- 
405, pasHm 

Ofella, see Lucretius 

Olympic games, 17 

Olympieum, at Athens, begun by 
Antiochus Epiphanes, 25 

L. Opimius, destroys Fregellae, 61 ; 
as consul crushes C. Gracclius 
and Fulvius Flaccns, ib. ; puts 
to death the son of Flaccus, seiit 
as envoy, ib. ; condemned by 
public trial, 63 ; Opimian wine 
gets name from his consulship 

Ops, temple of, 181 

Orators, list of lloman, 45 

Orestes, slayer of Aegisthus and 
his mother, 3 ; his sons, 5 

Orodes, king of Parthians, 397; 
destroys Crassus with army, 153 ; 
takes Roraan standards, 243 

Osca, in Spain, 113 

Oscans, effect of upon neighbouring 
Cumans, 11 

Ostia, 249 

Otho, see Roscius 


Ovation of Tiberius 258; of 

Augustus, 349 
P. Ovidius Naso, 129 

Pacorus, son of Parthian king, 
perished in defeat by Ventidius, 

M. Pacuvius, writer of tragedy, 69 

Paestum, colony at, 37 

Palatine, 39, 375, 377; Rome 
founded there, 19; house of 
Driisus on P., afterwards house 
of Cicero, 79 

Palinurus, promontory, 217 

Panaetius, conipanion of Scipio, 33 

Panares, leader of Cretaus, 123 

Pannonia, becomes province, 135 ; 
subdued by Tiberius, 251, 255, 
267 ; located on right of Marco- 
manni, 275-277 ; rebels, 277 ; seeks 
peace, 289 

Pannonian war, 289, 297 

Pannonians, 251, 307 ; know- 
ledge of Roman discipline and 
Roinan tongue, 279 ; subdued by 
Tiberius, 395 

C. Pansa, 175 ; as consul deslgnate 
given command of war against 
Antony, 183 ; cos. (43 b.c), 347 ; 
dies of wound, ib. ; honoured 
with public fuiieral, 185 ; advice 
to Caesar, 175 

C. Papirius Carbo, tribuneof people, 
55 ; orator, 67 

O. Papirius Carbo, former praetor, 
slain by Damasippus, 105 

Cn. Papirius Carbo, defeated by 
Cimbri, 73 

Cn. Papirius Carbo, sole consul 
(84 B.c), after death of Cinna, 
101 ; consul for third time with 
C. Marius the younger, 105 

Papius Mutilus, leader of Italiaos, 

Parilia, birthday of Rome, 19 

Parmensis, see Cassius 

Paros, settled by lonians, 11 

Parthian war, planned by Crassus, 
151 ; by Julius Caesar, 179 

Parthians, 167, 223, 261, 301, 397; 
ambassadors come to Sulla, first 
instance, 101 ; kings still inde- 
pendent, 135; destroy army of 
Crassus, 153 ; defeated by Cassius, 


A. ; by Ventidins, 215 ; their king 

restoresstandards, 243, 393, sends 

children as hostiges, 24t> ; breaks 

away from Roman alliance, 257 ; 

conference wilh C. Caesar on 

isUnd in Euphrates, ib. ; P. king 

reveals treachery of Lollius, 2(U ; 

receive king from Augustus, 399 
L. Pasienus, cos. 4 ac. (possibly 

same as below), 371 
Pa.ssienu3, earns oriiaments of a 

triumph in Africa, 2i>5 
Patrae, captured by Agrippa, 229 
Patricians, Augustus increases 

number of, 357 
Paulus, see Aemilius 
Pax Augusta, 317, 365 
Peace of Brundisium, 213 ; of Mi- 

senum, 213 ; with Mithridates, 

99 ; with Tigranes, 131 
Pedian law, 347 
Q. Pedius, colleagne of Octavianus 

in consulship (43 b.c), 191 ; his 

law against assassins of Caesar, 

199, 347 
Pelasgians, migrate to Athens, 9 
Peloponnesians, found Megara, 7 
Peloponnesus, 5, 9 
Pelops, 10 ; his descendants driven 

out of Peloponnesus by the Hei-a- 

clidae, 5 
Penthilus. son of Orestes, 5 
Pergamum, in Crete, 3 
M. Perpenna, conquers Aristo- 

nicus, 55, 133 
M. Perpenna, murders Sertorius, 

Perses, king of Macedonia, 21 ; de- 

feated at P>-dna, 23 ; dies at Alba, 

Persians, worid-power of. 15 
Perusia, taken by Octavianus, 

Penistae, Dalmatian tribe, 293 
Pestilence, in Roman anny, 93 
M. Petreius, Pompey'3 lieutenant 

in Spain, 157, 163 
Phamaces, son of Mithridates, 135 ; 

king of Pontns, defeated by 

Caesar, 171 
Pharsalia, battle of, 165, 195 
Phidippus, 3 
Philemon, comic poet, 43 
Philip of Macedon, 27 

Philippi, battle of, 201, 231, 347 

Philippus. stepfather of Anguatus, 
177, 179 

Philo, see Publilius 

Philosophers, 43 

Phocaea, coloiiy of lonians, 11 ; 
surpassed by Massilia, her colony, 

Phraates, son of Orodes, 397 ; cap- 
tures Roman standards from 
Aiitonius, 243 

Pliraates, son of above, takes refuge 
with Augustus, 397 

Picente.s, 191 

Picenum, colonists sent to, 37 ; 
operations of Cn. Pompeius near, 
91 ; filled with retainers of 
Pompey'8 father, 111 

Pindar, poet of Thebes, 47 

Pinnes, leader of Pannonians, 279, 

Piraeus, fortifications of, 97 

Pirates, insolence and power of, 
117 ; conquered by Pompey, 121 ; 
Caesar captured by, 141 ; Augus- 
tus frees sea from, 385 

Pisaurum, colony, 39 

Pisidia, Angustus establishes mili- 
tary colonies in, 393 

Piso, sce Calpumiiis 

M. (Papius) Piso, divorces wife to 
please Sulla, 139 

Pius, .see Caecilius Metellus 

Placentia, colony, 39 

L. (Munatius) Plancus, his lack of 
loyalty, 187 ; treachery a disease 
with him, 227 ; consul designate 
with P. Brutus, 187 ; deserts him, 
189 ; has his brother placed on 
proscription list, 195 ; mockery 
of soldiers in iriuinph, ih. ; aids 
faction of Antony, 209 ; coin- 
panion of Fulvia iu flight, 211 ; 
flatterer of Cleopatra, 227 ; his 
disgraceful conduct at hercourt, 
ih. ; treated coldly by Antony, 
deserts to Caesar, ib. ; moves 
granting of cognomen of Augus- 
tus to Octavian, 243 ; his censor- 
ship, 251 

Plato, 43 

M. Plantius Silvanus, 283 

L. Plotius Plancus, 195 

PoUio, aee Asinias 



Polybius, historian, friend of 
Scipio, 33 

Pompeian party, 1S3, IST, 189, 207 

Poinpeii, be.sipged by Sulla, 81 

Ponipftii, faniily of, 93 

Q. Poinpeius, cos. (141 b.c.), flrst of 
faniily to liold consul.ship, 49 ; 
malces disgraceful treaty with 
Numantines, ib. ; escapes 
ment through iiifluence, ib. 

Q. Pompeius, sou of above, cos. 
(88 B.C.), 83, 91 ; his son, Sulla's 
son-in-law, 87 ; slain by mutinous 
army, 89 

Cn. Pompeius, father of Pompey 
the Great, 79, 93 ; general in 
Social war, 79, 83, 111 ;i stirs up 
sedition among soldiers, 89; 
neutral as between Cinna and 
Sulla, 91 ; meets Cinna in battle, 
93 ; his death, ib. ; patronus 
agri Piceni, 111 

Cn. Pompeius Magnus, son of 
above, 79, 91, 111 ; at age of 23 
raises army in Picenum, 111 ; 
his family and charaeter, 111, 
113, 123 ; fights Sertorius, 113 ; 
triumphs for victory in Spain, 
115 ; in first consulship restores 
power of tribunes, ib. ; given 
charge of war with pirates by 
Gabinian law, 117 ; and of Mithri- 
datic war by Manilian law, 121 ; 
contentions with Lucullns, 123 ; 
his witticism in regard to latter, 
ib. ; claims sliare in victory of 
Metellus Creticus, 123, 139; re- 
ceives surrender of Tigranes, 
king of Armenia, 129 ; wrests 
Syria from Mithridates, 131 ; 
malies Pontus a province, 133 ; 
victorious invasion of Media, 
Albania, Iberia, 135 ; his return 
to Italy, 137 ; his triumph last- 
ing two days, 135, 137; extra- 
ordinary honours decreed to 
him, 137 ; meets opposition from 
optimates, 139 ; enters flrst tri- 
umvirate, 145 ; marries Caesar'8 
daughter Julia, 147 ; suspected 
of share in banishment of Cicero, 
149 ; interests himself in his 
restoration, ib. ; consul second 
time with Crassus, 151 ; prolongs 


Cae.sar's command in Gaul, de- 
crees Syria to Ciassus, ib. ; death 
of wife and son, 153 ; consul third 
time, witliout a colleague, 155 ; 
restrains election abuses, ib ; 
condemns Milo, ib. ; administers 
Spain through lieutenants, 157; 
declines to dismiss his army, ib.; 
Italy prays for safety in illness, 
ii. ; given charge of war against 
Caesar, 159 ; crosses to Dyr- 
rachium, 161 ; his forces, land 
and naval, 163 ; battles witli 
Caesar, 163 sq. ; defeat at Pliar- 
salia, 165 ; flees to Egypt, 167 ; 
his deatli by treachery, 167 ; 
question of his age, 169 ; restored 
liberty to people of Mytilene, 
85 ; honoured with equestrian 
statue, 183 ; chose 360 judges, 
211 ; his public works restored 
by Tiberius, 325 

Cn. Pompeius, son of above, stirs 
up war in Spain, 173; wounded 
and .slain in flight, ib. 

Sex. Pompeius, son of Pompey the 
Great, 205 ; his character. 205, 
213, 219; shares his father's flight, 
167 ; flglits with Pollio in Spain, 
207 ; given charge of coasts after 
Miitina, ib. ; seizes Sicily after 
Pliilippi, 205, 207 ; infests sea 
with piracy, 207 ; enters into 
peace of Misenum, 213 ; puts to 
death Statius Marcus, ib. ; his 
forces in Sicily, 217 ; defeats 
Octavian, ib. ; defeated, flees to 
Antonius, 219 ; put to death by 
Titius on Antony'8 orders, ib., 

Sex. Pompeius, cos. (14 B.C.), 311, 

M. Pomponius, fldelity to 0. 
Gracchus, 61 

L. Pomponius, writer of Atellan 
farces, 69 

L. Poniponius Flaccus, consular, 
instrumental in bringing Rha.scu- 
polis to Rome, 323 

C. Pontidius, leader of Italians, 81 

PontiusTelesinus, Ipaderofllalians, 
81 ; as leadir of Samnites fights 
with Sulla at Colline Gate, 105, 
107 ; his head carried around 


Praenest«, 107 ; his brother meeta 
death with son of Marius, ib. 
Pontos, made a province, 133 
Popaedius Silo, leader of Italians, 

'. Popilius Laenas, cos., severity 
toward friends of Ti Gracchus, 
63 ; coDdemned at public trial, 

'. PopUius Laenas, trib. pl. (84 
B.a Xh urls Lncilina from Tarpeian 
rock, 99 

L Popilius Laenas, his groff diplo- 
macy, 25 
Porciaii family, 125 
, Porcius Cato, historian, 17, 43 ; 
oraXOT, 45; constantly nrges de- 
Btruction of Carthage, 33 ; dies 
three years before that event, 
ib. ; first of Porcian house, 125 ; 
m novus homo of Tusculum, 321 
C Porcius Cato, his grandson, 
eondemned for extortion in 
liacedonia, 65 

L Porcius Cato, grandson of 
Censor, cos. (118 b.c.), 41, 65 

Ifc Porcius Cato, his son, slain In 
Social war, 83 

M. Porcius Cato, great-grandson of 
the Censor, 125 ; his character, 
ib. ; inveighs against conspira- 
tors associated with Catiline, ib. ; 
■ent to Cyprus on motion of 
Clodius, makes it a province, and 
brings back large sum of money, 
133, 151 ; declares for acquittal 
of Milo, 155 ; opposes any dicta- 
tion from Caesar, 161 ; increases 
forces of Pompeians in Africa, 
but refuses supreme command, 
169; his son kiUed at Philippi, 

Port dnties, 61 

ForU Capena, 363 

Portico, of Octavia, 27 ; of Scipio 
Nasica, 49 ; of Cn. Hetellus, ib. ; 
of Cn. Octavias, in the circns, 

A. Posturaius Albinns, severity of 
his censorship, 25 

Sp. Postumius Albinus, cos. (334 
B.C.), 35 ; censor (332 B.C.), 37 

Postumus, see Agrippa and Vibius 

Potentia, colony, 39 

Praeneste, occnpied by son of 

Marius and besieged by SuUa, 

105-109 ; occupied by Fulvia, 209 
Praetor, Lentulus praetor second 

time, 125 ; six praetors, 83 ; 

Augustns adds two to the eight 

praetors, 237 
Priene, founded by lonians, 11 
Princeps senatus, Catulus, 143 ; 

Augustus, 355 
Proscription, invented by Snlla, 

109 ; resorted to by triumvirs, 

Provinces, catalogue of, 131-135; 

extension of by Augustus, 387 S. ; 

Augustus pays for lands in, 371 
Pseudo - Philippns, defeated bv 

Metellus, 27 
Ptolemaeus (Philometor), besieged 

by Antiochus, 25 
Ptolemaeus, son of Auletes, king 

of Eg^-pt, 169 ; under control of 

courtiers, ib. ; treachery towards 

Pompey and Caesar, 167, 169 
Ptolemaeus, king of Cyprus, 133, 

Publicola, commander of Antony'8 

fleet at Actium, 229 
Q. Publilius Philo, censor (332 B.C.), 

Punic wars, 31, 131 ; first, 37, 131, 

321 ; second, 85, 131, 241 
Puteoli, colony, 39 
Pydna, battle of, 23 
Pyrrhus, son of Achilles, 3 ; slain 

by Orestes, 5 
Pyrrhus, king of Epims, 37, 83 
Pythian oracle, 7 

QnADBiGA, erected in bonour of 

Augustns, 401 
Quadrigarius, see Clandius 
QuintiUus Vanis, foUower of Pom- 

pey, slain at battle of Munda, 

Sex. Quintilius Varus, foUower of 

Bmtus and Cassins, kUIs self 

after Philippi, 203 
P. Quintilins Varus, son of above, 

cos. (13 B.C.), 365 ; govemor of 

Syria and later of Germany, 297 ; 

his character, ib., 305 ; his ad- 

ministratioD, 297, 299 ; ignores 
i advice of Segestes, 301 ; d^aster 



to his army, 801 ff. ; takes own 
life, 303 ; body mangled by 
Germans, head sent to Maro- 
boduus, and by him to Augustus, 

Quintius Crispinns, lover of Julia, 

Quirinus, temple of, 375, 403 

Rabirics, poet, 129 

Raeti, conquered by Drusus and 

Tiberius, 249, 309 
Raetia, becomes a province, 135, 

Raudian Plains, scene of victory 

of Marius, 75 
Reconstruction by Augustus, 

237 ff. 
Regulus, first to lead army into 

Africa, 131 
Rhaetia, see Raetia 
Rhascupolis, king of Thrace, 323 
Rhine, 67, 271, 303, 305, 389 
Rhodes, taken by Cassius, 199 ; 

Tiberius spends seven years 

tliere, 257, 263 
Rhodiaus, 21, 85 

Rhoemetalces, king of Thrace, 283 
Roman literature, see Jyiterature 
Roman people, world power of, 15 
Rome, 15, 31, 53; founding of, 19 

capture by Gauls, 35 ; embellish 

meut by Augustus, 239, 375-381 

battles outside its walls, Si3, 107 
Romulus, son of Mars, fuunrts 

Rome, 19; establishes asylum, 

chooses senate, 21 
L. Roscius Otho, restores to 

knights their seats in theatre, 

Rostra, 29, 87, 175, 183 
Rubicon, 161 

Rufus, see Egnatius, Salvidienus 
P. Rupilius, cos., severity towards 

friends of Ti. Gracchus, 63 : 

condemned at public trial, 65 
P. Rutilius Lupus, cos. (90 e.c), 

79 ; slain in Social war, 83 
P. Rutulius Rufus, historian, 69 ; 

condemned for extortion, 77 

Sabaei, people of Arabia, 391 
Sabines, receive citizenship with- 
out suffrage, 37 ; receive full 


suffrage, ib. ; rape of Sabine 

maidens, 21 
Sacred way, 375 
Sacriportus, battle of, 105, 109 
Sacrovir, Gallic chieftain, stirs up 

rebellion in Gaul, 325 
Salainis in Cyprus, founded by 

Teucer, 3 
Salernum, colony, 39 
Salian Ilymn, Augustus included 

in, 361 
Sallues conquered, 39 
C. Sallustius, histoiian, 129 
Q. Salvidienus Rufus, friend of 

Octavian, 179 ; origin and rise, 

213; conspires against Octa. 

vian, ib. 
Samnites, receive partial citizen- 

ship, 35 ; their leader Telesinus, 

Samos, settled by lonians, 11 
Samotlirace, island of, 23 
Sardauapalus, loses empire and 

life, 13 
Sardinia, becomes province, 131 ; 

recovered by Augustus after 

servile war, 393 ; lakes oath of 

alle};iance to Augustus, 387 
Sarmatians, 397 
Saticula, colony, 37 
Saturn, temple of, 377 
Saturninus, see Apuleius and 

Scaevola, see Mucius 
Scaevius, see Aurelius 
Scipio, see Cornelius 
Scolacium Minervium, colony, 41 
Scordisci, defeated and triumphed 

over by Minucius, 67 ; con- 

quered by Tiberius, 135 
Scribonia, mother of Julia, her 

companion in exile, 259 
Scythians, 397 
Sefrestes, discloses to Varus the 

plans of Arminius, 301 
Sejauus, see Aelius 
Seleucia, 153 
Serairamis, 15 
Semnones, 271, 389 
C. Sempronius Blaesus, cos. (i!^ 

B.c), 39 
Ti. SemproninsGracchus, tribuiieof 

people, his family and character, 

51 ; sponsor of treaty with Nu- 


mantiiies, ib. ; his acts as tribane, 
t^. ; his aDtimely end, 53 ; as 
orator, 45, 67 

C. Sempronius Gracchus, brothei 
of preceding, triumvir for assign- 
ing lands, 61 ; his character, 59 ; 
his acts and laws, 59 ; continnes 
tribunate for second term, 61 ; 
hunted down by Opimius, ib. ; 
his death, ib. ; his legislation 
for planting of colonies outside 
of Italy, 65 ; conceming the law 
courts, ib. ; as orator, 45, 67 

Sempronius Gracclius, adaltery 
with Julia, 259 

TL Sempronius Longus, consul in 
flrstyearofSecond Pnnic war,241 

P. Sempronius Sophus, cos. (266 
ac), 37 

Senate, roll of, revised by Angustns, 
357 ; dignity restored bv Angus- 
tus, 237 ; by Tiberiu^, 3'l7 

Senate house, 401, 403 

Senators, aided financially by 
Tiberius, 325 

C. Sentius Satnminns, restored to 
rep. by Sex. Pompey, 215 ; sole 
consnl (19 b.c.) in absence of 
Angnstus, 245 ; consul second 
time (a.d. 4), 265 ; legatus in 
Germany, 269 ; his character, 
ib. : leads army against Maro- 
boduns, 277 

L. Sergius Catilina. begins con- 
spiracy and driven from city, 
125 ; falls in battle, 127 

Bertorian war, 115 

Q. Sertorius, released by SnUa, 
193 ; serious menace to power 
of Rome for flve years, 241 ; 
slain by Perpenna, 113 ; his 
judgement concerning Hetellas 
«nd Pompey, 113 

Bervilia, wife of M. Lepidns, 
swallows live coals, 237 

Bervilii, two Snllan leaders, 109 

Cn. Servilitts Caepio, cos. (140 b.c.), 

Q. Servilius Caepio, encompasses 
death of Viriathus by fraud, 49 

Cn. Servilius Caepio, severity of 
his censorship (125 B.C.), 69 

Q. Servilius Caepio, consul, d^ 
feated by CJimbri, 73 

Q. Servilios Caepio, cos. (106 B.C.), 

0. Servilius, praetor, slain by 
people of Asculum, 79 

C. Ser\-iliu3 Glaucia, slain by 
Marius, 75 

P. Servilius Vatia Isaaricos, cos. 
with J. Caesar (48 B.O.X 167; 
conqueror of Cilicia, 135 

Setia, colony, 35 

C.Sextius Calvinus, defeats Sallaes, 

Sicily, become.s province, 131; 
evenU there, 205, 207, 209, 213, 
215, 217, 221, 223 ; recovered by 
Angustas after servile war, 393 ; 
takes oath of allegiance to 
Augustus, 387 ; Aug. establishes 
colonies, 393 

Sigimer, father of Anninins, 299 

M. SiKinus, cos. (109 B.C.), defeated 
by Cimbri, 73 

M. Silanus, restored to republic 
by Sex. Pom]>ey, 215 

M. Silanas, cos. ('l7 b.c), 383 

Silianus, see Licinius 

P. Silius Nerva, son-in-law of 
Coponins, 227 ; legatus Augusti 
in Thrace, 261 ; his son A. 
Licinius Nerva Silianus, 295 

C. Silius, his son, shows enmity 
towards Tiberius, 327 

Silo, see Popaedius 

Silvanns, see Plautius 

Sinuessa, colonists sent to, 87 

Siscia, 287 

L. Sisenna, anthor of histories of 
civil wars, and wars of SuUa, 

Smyraa, founded by Aeolians, 13 

Sodalis Titius, Augiistas made, 357 

Sophocles, 43 

Sora, colony, 37 

C. Sosius, commander of Antony'8 
fleet at Actinm, 229; life saved 
through intervention of Amin- 
tius, 233 

Spain, 7, 31, 49, 55,' 57, 113, 115, 
145, 165, 171, 187, 205, 207, 215, 
263, 317, 365, 393; Augustna 
makes sill Spain tributary to 
Rome, 133, 241, 387 ; first entered 
by Scipios, 1S3, 241; trouble to 
Romans, 49, 133, 241; decreed 



to Pompey, 155; invaded by 
Caesar, itil; taltes oath of 
allegiaiice to Augustus, 387 

Sparta, under laws of Lycurgus, 

Spartacus, begins slave war, 115 

Spoletiuin, colony, 30 

Standards, restoration of by 
Parlhians, 243, 393, 395 ; re- 
oovered by Augustus froin Spain, 
Gaul, and Daltnatians, 393 

Statianus, legate of Antony, 223 

Ti. Statilius Sisenna, his house 
formerly that of Cicero, 79 

T. Statilius Taurus, couimands 
land armies of Octavianus at 
Actiuni, 229 ; services employed 
by Augustus, 319 

L. Statius Jlurcius, ex-praetor, 
hands over to Cassins his lcgioiis 
in Asia, 199 ; goes over witli liis 
fleet to Sex. Tdmpey, 205, 215 ; 
put to death by him in Sicily, 

Statues, transported to Rome from 
Corinth, 33; equestrian s. by 
Lysippus, 27 ; of Augustus, 183 

Strabo, see Julius Cacsar 

Strato Aegeates, Iriend of Brutus, 

Suessa Aurunca, colony, 37 

Suevi, 397 

Sugainbri, 397 

Sulla, see Conielius 

P. Sulpicius, his acts as trib. pl., 
87 ; his character, ib. ; causes 
assassination of Q. Pompeius, 
ib. ; driven out of oity by SuUa 
and slain, ib. ; his oratory, 67, 
87, 127 

P. Sulpicius, cos. (12 B.c), 363 

Sura, soe Aemilius 

Sutrium, colony, 35 

Syracuse, colony of )rinth, 65 ; 
captured by jMarcelhis, 131 

Syria, 25, 199, 259, 363, 393 ; made 
a province, 131, 133 ; decreed to 
Crassus, 151 ; defended by 
Cassius, 153 ; by Ventidius, 215 ; 
Quintilius Varus governor of, 

Tanais (river Don), 397 
Tarentum Neptunia, colony, 41 


Tarpeian rock, 99 

Tarracina, colony, 37 

Tauroinenium, city of Sieily, 219 

Taurus, see Statilius 

Tegea, in Crete, 3 

Telamon, father of Teucer, 3 

Telesinus, see Pontius 

Temenus, descendant of Hercules, 

Temples, built or rebuilt byj 
Augustus (Apollo, Di PenateSi 
Divine Julius, Jupiter Feretrio 
Libertas, and Tonans, Ju 
Regina, iLares, Wagna Mat 
Mars XJItor, Minerva, Quirinn 
Vesta, Youth), 375 ff., 403 ; 82 
restored l)v Augustus, 403; t. of 
ApoIIo, 379; of Castor, 377; of 
Julius, 379 • of Mars Ultor, 379 ; 
of Satum, 377 ; of Vesta, 379 ; 
teinple of Janus closed by Au;.; 

Tonos, settled by lonians, 11 

P. Terentius, writer of comedy, 43 

Tergeste, 279 

Teucer founder of Salamis, 8 

Teutoni, cross Rhine, 67 ; with 
Cimbri defeat several Roman 
arnnes, 73 ; crushed by Marius 
at Aquae Sextiae, 75 

Theatre, of Pompey, 157, 219, 825, 
377, 403 ; of Marcellus, 379, 403 ; 
shows in, 405; disturbances i 

Thebes, produoed no distinguish. 
orator, 47 ; rendered illustrious 
by Pindar, ib. 

Theodotus, responsible for death 
of Ponipev, 167; pays penali' 

Theophanes, friend of Pompey, f- 

Thesprotia, 3 

Tliftssalus, son of Hercules, 9 

Thessalus, of Thesprotia, tal^t-^ 
possession of region since call 
Thessaly, 9 

Tliessaly, 165 ; once called Str.: 
of Myrmidons, 9; named aft r 
Thessalus the Thesprotian, ib. 

Thrace, 255, 261, 283 

Thracians, conquered by L. Piso, 
255 ; assist Romans in Pannonian 
war, 283 

Thucydides, 129 


Thnrii, 197 

Tiber, 65, 151, 403 

Tibullus, poet, 129 

Tifata, iiiountain, 103 

Tigranes, king of Armenia, 391 ; 
conquered by Lucullus, 121 ; his 
son surrenders to Pompey, then 
T. himself, ib. ; flued with loss 
of territory, ib. 

Tiridates, liing of Parthians, 397 

Tisamenus, son of Orestes, 5 

U. Titius, restored to republic by 
Sex. Pompey, 215 

M. Titius, slays Sex. Pompey, on 
Antony's orders, 210; hated on 
this account, ib. ; goes over to 
Octavian, 227 

Torquatus, see Manlius 

Tragedy, writers of, 9 ; best of 
Greek w., 43 ; best of Roman, 

Treasury, 23, 135, 137, 173, 245, 309, 
373 ; military treasury estab- 
lished by Augustus, 373 

C. Treboniu», friend of Caesar, one 
of hls murderers, 173; his death, 
197, 235 

Tribuue, abrogates power of col- 
leagiie, 51 ; former tribune 
thrown from Tarpeian rock, 99 ; 
power of tribunes reduced by 
Sulla, restored to Pompey, 115 

Tribunician power of Augustus, 

Triumphs of Aemilius Paulus, 21, 
23 ; of Octavius and Anicins, 23 ; 
of Metellus Macedonicus, 29 ; of 
C. and M. Metellus on the same 
day, 67 ; of Metellus Numidicus, 
73 ; of 0. Marcius, ib. ; of Metel- 
lus Pius and Pompey over Spain, 
113; of Lucullus and Metellus 
Creticus, 123 ; Pompey's Asiatic 
tr., 137; the flve triumphs of 
Julius Caesar, 173 ; tr. of Augus- 
tus, 237, 351; of Tiberius, 253, 
253, 307 ; of Germanicus, 323 

Trinmvirate of Caesar, Pompey, 
and Crassns, 145 ; of Octavianus, 
Antony, and Lepidus, 191, 235, 

Trojan war, 13 

Troy, 5, 19 

Q. Tubero, cos. (11 B.a), 363 


M. TuUins Cicero, leading orator, 
45, 125, 127, 189, 193; a novus 
homo, 125, 321 ; as consul re- 
veals conspiracy of Catiline, 125 ; 
eulogized byCato, 127; Augustus 
bom in liis consulship, 127 ; 
banished by Lex Clodia, 149 ; 
ofl^ends Caesar, ib. ; restored by 
Pompey through Milo; his 
house on Palatine, 79 ; de- 
stroyed by Clodius, restored by 
senate, 149 ; strives to preserve 
harmony, 159 ; urges amnesty 
after Caesar's death, 177 ; raoves 
resolutions complimentary to 
Octavian, 183 ; attachment 
for Pompeian party, 187, 191 ; 
speeches against Antony, 189; 
proscription ends with death of 
C, ib. ; proscribed by Antony, 
193 ; eulogy of, ib. ; saviour of 
country, 149, 193 ; his influence 
in state, 321 

Tunnels, at Praeneste, 109 

Tuscan sea, 387 

Tusculum, 321 

Tyre, surpassed by Carthage, her 
colony, 65 

Tyrians, found Gades and Utica, 
7 ; and Carthage, 15 

Tyrrhenus, founder of Etruria, 6 

Utica, founded by Tyrians, 7 

Vala, see Numonins 

Valentia, colony, 39 

Valerius Antias, historian, 69 

L. Valerius Flaccus, cos. (100 B.C.), 

L. Valerius Flaccus, author of law 

for cancelling three-fourths of 

debt, 97 ; put to death by 

Fimbria, 99 
C. Val^nus, cos. (12 b.c), 363 
Varro (Atacinus), poet, 129 
Varro, slain at Philippi, 203 
Varus, see Quintilius 
P. Vatinius, deprived of his legions 

by Brutus, 199; hia character, 

Veientines, 19 
Velia, city of, 217 
Velia, hill in Rome, 377 
Velleianus, see Magios 

43 1 


C.i Velleius, grandfatter of his- 
torian, praefectus fabrum, 211 

C. Velleiiis, liistorian : his family 
connexions, 81, 199, 211, iiOV, 
201, 307, 313 ; tribunus militum, 
261 ; praefectus equitum, 267 ; 
.serves with Tibprins nine years, 
ib. ; quaestor designatus, 281 ; 
leads army to Tiberius, ib. ; his 
lieutenant in Pannonian war, ib., 
287 ; takes part in triumph of 
Tib., 307 ; recommended to 
praetorship by Aug. and Tib., 
313 ; contemplates more exten- 
sive history, 159, 251, 257, 265, 
291, 301 

Venetia, 211 

P. Ventidius, led in triumph'among 
Picentine captives, 191 ; praetor 
and consnl in same year(43 b.c), 
ib. ; triumplis over Parthians, 
191, 215 

Venus, ancestor of Julius Caesar, 

Venusia, colonists sent to, 37 

Vesta, 329, 375, 379 

Vestal Virgins, 363, 365 

Vesu\ius, Mount, 115 

T. Veturius Calvinus, cos. (134 b.o.), 

Vetus, see Antistius 

Via Flaminia, rebuilt by Augustus, 
379, 403 

Vibillius, centurion, punished for 
desertion, 217 

C. Vibius Postumus, earns oma- 
ments of a triumph, 295 

Victoriae ludi, 109 

Viennenses, uprising of, 307 

Vindelici, conquered" by Tiberius 
and Drusus, 135, 249, 267, 309 

M. Vinicius, consul sufiectus (19 
B.c), 251, 253, 265 ; wins oma- 
menta triumphalia, 265 

P. Vinieius, his son, cos. (a.d. 2), 
263 363 ; Velleius the liistorian 

sorves under him in Thrace 8S 

military tribune, 261 
Viriathus, guerilla ehief, 49, 241 
Virgil, poet, 129 
I Visiirgis, see Weser 

Vonoues, son of King Phraatf^s, 

Wars: campaign of Actium, 227- 
235, 387; African w. agaiust 
Pompeians, 169-173 ; Alexandrian 
war of Jul. Caesar, 169; of 
Octavian, 233-235 ; w. with 
Antiochus, 135; with Cimbri 
and Teutoni, 67, 73, 75 ; civil 
wars — between Warius and Sulla, 
85-97, 101-111 ; Caesar and Poiii- 
pey, 155-173; canipaign ot 
Pliilippi, 201, 231, 347; Antony 
and Octavian, 181, 227 ff.; Octa- 
vian and Sex. Pompey, 217 tf. ; 
Dalmatian aiid Panuonian war, 
291-297; Gallic war of Caesar, 
151, 153; Italian or Social war, 
79-83; Jugurthine w., 69-73; 
Mithridatic wars, 85-89, 121-135; 
war at Mutina, 183, 207, 347 ; at 
Nola, 83, 85; Numantine w., 
49, 57 ; Pannonian, 2S9, 297, 395 ; 
Parthian wars, 151, 153, 179, 215, 
225; Perusian, 207; war with 
pirates, 117-123 ; with Pharnaces, 
171 ; Punic war, see Punic ; 
with Pyrihus, 83 ; with Rhaetians 
aiid Vindelici, 249; with Ser- 
torius, 113 ; Spanish wars— of 
Scipios, 133, 241 ; of Caesar, with 
Pompeians, 161 ff"., 171 ; of 
Augustus, 133, 241, 365, 387, 393 ; 
witli Spartacus, 115; Thracian 
war, 255 ; with Viriathus, 49, 241 

Weser, river, crossed by Tiberius, 

Xerxes in toga, nickname given to 
Lucullus by Pomi)ey, 123 

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